Description and classification of Late Triassic Neritimorpha (Gastropoda, Mollusca) from the St Cassian Formation, Italian Alps

 

Authors: Bandel K

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 82, issue 3; pages: 215 - 274; Received 27 April 2007; Accepted in revised form 30 July 2007;

Keywords: Gastropoda, Neritimorpha, Triassic, Tethys, Italy, Jordan, new taxa (fossil, living),

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Abstract

Neritopsis represents the only surviving genus of an ancient group of the Neritimorpha that has no internal dissolution of its shell walls. While the two known living species have lecithotrophic early development without larval shell, Neritopsis aqabaensis n. sp. from the Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan, has a planktotrophic veliger. These living species of the genus differ in their protoconch shape as well as teleoconch morphology and ornament from the Triassic species that can be considered related to Neritopsis. Neritopsidae with the modern Neritopsinae is distinguished from the Triassic Cassianopsinae n. subfam. based on the genus Cassianopsis n. gen. with three species by features of their protoconch as well as the different characters of the operculum. Zardiniopsis n. gen. differs from these by higher shell shape and a smaller more complexly ornamented protoconch. Fossariopsis has a more angular shell shape. Colubrellopsinae n. subfam. with Colubrellopsis n. gen. resembles Cassianopsis n. gen. in respect to protoconch and features of the aperture of the teleoconch, but the former has rounded whorls and an ornament of axial ribs. Among the Fedaiellidae n. fam. with smooth shells two species of Fedaiella are redefined. The characters of the inner lip of their aperture connect them with the Neritopsidae, whereas the operculum in the Fedaiellidae with concentric structure on the outside distinguishes them from neritopsids.
In distinction to the groups of the Neritopsoidea members of the Dephinulopsidae have a smooth inner lip of the aperture. Here Delphinulopsinae and Platychilininae n. subfam. differ from each other in the shape and ornament of their teleoconch. Schwardtopsis n. gen. resembles a juvenile Delphinulopsis grown to a larger size. The large concave callus of the inner lip and almost open coiling defines Delphinulopsis. Rows of nodes, low initial shell and rapid growth in shell diameter to an almost limpet shape characterises Platychilina, and lamellar growth increments on an almost limpet-like shell with flat initial part is present in Marmolatella. The Palaeonaricidae n. fam. contains two species of Palaeonarica, which have a Nerita-like shell with simple aperture.
The Naticopsidae of the Carboniferous and Permian has its continuation in the Ampezzonaticopsinae n. subfam. of the Triassic, being connected to each other by the sinuous ornament of ribs on their larval shells. The genera are distinguished by teleoconch shape and differences in the ornament of their larval shell. Ampezzonaticopsis n. gen. has whorls well separated by deep sutures, Cortinaticopsis n. gen. has a simple aperture and a callus covering the umbilicus. The Hologyrinae n. subfam. with Hologyra have a ridge in the columellar furrow and an operculum that resembles that attributed to Carboniferous Naticopsis. Their protoconch has a characteristic chevron ornament on its larval whorls.


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