Late Ordovician (Sandbian) bryozoans and their depositional environment, Furuberget Formation, Mjosa District, Oslo Region, Norway


Authors: Ernst A, Nakrem HA

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 87, issue 1; pages: 21 - 44; Received 9 September 2011; Accepted in revised form 23 November 2011; Online 14 December 2011

Keywords: Late Ordovician, Bryozoa, Norway, taxonomy, palaeobiogeography,

full text (PDF, 8.06 MB)

Export to RIS



A stenolaemate bryozoan fauna from the Late Ordovician (Sandbian) Furuberget Formation of the Mjosa district, southern Norway contains 10 species. One species belongs to the Order Cyclostomata: Corynotrypa delicatula (James, 1878). Five species belong to the Order Trepostomata: Parvohallopora ramosa (d’Orbigny, 1850), Mesotrypa orientalis Bassler, 1911, Mesotrypa egena Bassler, 1911, Dekayia sugarensis Ross, 1969, and Eridotrypa aedilis (Eichwald, 1855). Four species belong to the Suborder Ptilodictyina of the Order Cryptostomata: Graptodictya perelegans (Ulrich, 1878), Oanduellina leuchtenbergi Pushkin, 1977, Phaenopora similis Nekhoroshev, 1961, and Ptilodictya capillaris Lavrentjeva (in Gorjunova&Lavrentjeva, 1993). The bryozoan faunal association is similar to that found in time-equivalent Baltoscandian and Laurentian units elsewhere. Their known biostratigraphic range is generally Late Ordovician (Sandbian–Katian).


Anstey, R.L. & Perry, T.G. 1970. Biometric procedures in taxonomic studies of Paleozoic bryozoans. Journal of Paleontology 44, 383-398.

Anstey, R.L., Pachut, J.F. & Tuckey, E. 2003. Patterns of bryozoan endemism through the Ordovician-Silurian transition. Paleobiology 29, 305-328. View article

Astrova, G.G. 1965. Morphology, history of development and sytematics of the Ordovician and Silurian Bryozoa. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 106, 1-432. [in Russian]

Astrova, G.G. & Morozova, I.P. 1956. About systematics of the order Cryptostomata. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 110(4), 661-664. [in Russian]

Bassler, R.S. 1911. The Early Paleozoic Bryozoa of the Baltic Provinces. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 77, 1-382.

Bassler, R.S. 1953. Bryozoa, Vol. Part G, 1-253. In Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Bergström, S.M., Schmitz, B., Young, S.A. & Bruton, D.L. 2011. Lower Katian (Upper Ordovician) δ13C chemostratigraphy, global correlation and sea-level changes in Baltoscandia. GFF 133, 1-17.View article

Borg, F. 1926. Studies on Recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zoologiska Bidrag fran Uppsala 10, 181-507.

Brood, K. 1973. Palaeozoic Cyclostomata (a preliminary report), 247-256. In Larwood, G.P. (ed.) Living and fossil Bryozoa. Academic Press, London.

Busk, G. 1852. An account of the Polyzoa, and sertularian Zoophytes, collected in the Voyage of the Rattlesnake on the Coasts of Australia and the Loisiade Archipelago, 343-402. In MacGillivray, J. (ed.) Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, ... during the years 1846-1850, Volume 1. T.W. Boone, London.

Conti, S. 1990. Upper Ordovician Bryozoa from Sardinia. Palaeontographica italica 77, 85-165.

Cumings, E.R. 1908. Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Cincinnati Series of Indiana. Bulletin of Indiana Geological Survey 32, 605-1188.

Dybowski,W. 1877. Die Chaetetiden der ostbaltischen Silur-Formation. Russische Kaiserliche Mineralogische Gesellschaft zu St. Petersburg, Verhandlungen, Series 2(14), 1-134.

Dzik, J. 1981. Evolutionary relationships of the Early Palaeozoic “Cyclostomatous” Bryozoa. Palaeontology 24, 827-861.

Ehrenberg, C.G. 1831. Symbolae Physicae, seu Icones et descptiones Corporum Naturalium novorum aut minus cognitorum, quae ex itineribus per Libyam, Aegiptum, Nubiam, Dongalaam, Syriam, Arabiam et Habessiniam, studia annis 1820-25, redirent. Pars Zoologica, 4, Animalia Evertebrata exclusis Insectis. 10 pls. Berolini.

Eichwald, E. 1855. Beitrag zur geographischen Verbreitung der fossilen Tiere Russlands. Alte Periode. Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes de Moscou 28, 433-466.

Eichwald, E. 1860. Lethaea Rossica, ou Paléontologie de la Russie. I. Ancienne Periode. 682 pp. 4 to Atlas of 59 pls. [Bryozoa, pp. 355-419, 434-435, 450-452, 475-494, pls xxlii-xxviii, xxx, xxxiii.] Schweizerbart, Stuttgart.

Ernst, A. & Key, M. 2007. Upper Ordovician Bryozoa from the Montagne de Noire, southern France. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 5(4), 359-428. View article

Ernst, A. & Nakrem, H.A. (in press). Bryozoans from the Ordovician Mjosa Formation, Oslo Region. Norwegian Journal of Geology.

Goldfuss, G.A. 1829. Petrefacta Germaniae, Abbildung und Beschreibung der Petrefacten Deutschlands und angrenzender Länder. Band 1, Lieferung 2, 77-164. Arnz and Co., Düsseldorf.

Gorjunova, R.V. & Lavrentjeva, V.D. 1993. Morphology and systematics of the cryptostome bryozoans. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk 257, 1-152. [in Russian]

Hageman, S.J. 1993. Effects of nonnormality on studies of the morphological variation of a rhabdomesine bryozoan, Streblotrypa (Streblascopora) prisca (Gabb & Horn). The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions 4, 1-13.

Hall, J. 1847. Organic remains of the lower division of the New-York system (equivalent of the Silurian Rocks of Europe). Natural History of New York, Part 6, Palaeontology of New York 1, 338 pp.

Hall, J. 1851. New genera of fossil corals. American Journal of Sciences and Art 2, 398-401.

Hall, J. 1852. Organic remains of the lower middle division of the New York system. Natural History of New York. Part 6. Palaeontology of New York 2, 40-52, 144-173.

James, U.P. 1878. Descriptions of newly discovered species of fossils from the Lower Silurian Formation - Cincinnati Group. The Paleontologist 1, 1-8.

Jiménez-Sánchez, A. 2009. The upper Katian (Ordovician) bryozoans from the Eastern Iberian Chain (NE Spain). Bulletin of Geosciences 84(4), 687-738. View article

Jiménez-Sánchez, A. & Villas, E. 2010. The bryozoan dispersion into the Mediterranean margin of Gondwana during the pre-glacial Late Ordovician. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 294, 220-231. View article

Kácha, P. & Šarič, R. 2009. Host preferences in Late Ordovician (Sandbian) epibenthic bryozoans: example from the Zahořany Formation of Prague Basin. Bulletin of Geosciences 84(1), 169-178. View article

Karklins, O.L. 1983. Systematic descriptions for the Suborder Ptilodictyina, 489-529. In Robison, R.A. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part G (1). Bryozoa (revised). Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Boulder.

Karklins, O.L. 1984. Trepostome and cystoporate bryozoans from the Lexington Limestone and the Clays Ferry Formation (Middle and Upper Ordovician) of Kentucky, I1-I102. In Pojeta, J. Jr. (ed.) Contributions to the Ordovician paleontology of Kentucky and nearby states. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1066-I.

Lavrentjeva, V.D. 1990. A new genus of cryptostomate bryozoans. Paleontological Journal 24, 130-133.

Lonsdale, W. 1839. Corals, 675-694. In Murchison, R.I. (ed.) The Silurian System. Part 2. Organic remains. John Murray, London.

Männil, R.M. 1958. New bryozoans of the order Cryptostomata from the Ordovician of Estonia. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised, Tehniliste ja füüsikalis-matemaatiliste teaduste seeria 7, 330-347. [in Russian].

Miller, S.A. 1889. North American Geology and Paleontology for the use of amateurs, students, and scientists. 664 pp. Western Methodist Book concern, Cinncinnati.

Miller, S.A. & Dyer, C.B. 1878. Contributions to paleontology. Cincinnati. Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 2, 1-11.

Milne-Edwards, H. & Haime, J. 1851. Monographie des polypiers fossiles des terrains paléozoiques, précédé d’un tableau général de la classification des Polypes. Archives du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 5, 1-504.

Modzalevskaya, E.A. 1953. Trepostomata of the Ordovician of East Baltic and their stratigraphic significance. Trudy Vsesojuznogo Nauchnoissledovatelskogo Geologo-Razvedochnogo Instituta (VNIGRI) 78, 91-167. [in Russian].

Nekhoroshev, V.P. 1956. Class Bryozoa. In Materialy po paleontologii, novye semeistva i rody. Materialy VSEGEI, New Series 7, 42-49. [in Russian]

Nekhoroshev, V.P. 1961. Ordovician and Silurian bryozoans of Siberian Plate. Trudy VSEGEI, New Series 41, 1-246. [in Russian]

Nicholson, H.A. 1874. Descriptions of species of Chaetetes from Lower Silurian rocks of North America. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London 30, 499-515. View article

Nicholson, H.A. 1879. On the structure and affinities of the “Tabulate Corals” of the Paleozoic period, with critical descriptions of illustrative species. 342 pp. William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh.

Nicholson, H.A. 1881. On the structure and affinities of the genus Monticulipora and its subgenera with critical descriptions of illustrative species. 240 pp. William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh.

Nickles, J.M. & Bassler, R.S. 1900. A synopsis of American fossil Bryozoa, including bibliography and synonymy. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 173, 1-663.

Orbigny, A.D. d’ 1850. Prodrome de paléontologie stratigraphique universelle des animaux mollusques rayonnés, faisant suite ou cours élémentaire de paléontologie et géologie stratigraphique. Volume 1. 394 pp. Victor Masson, Paris.

Owen, A., Bruton, D.L., Bockelie, J.F. & Bockelie, T.G. 1990. The Ordovician successions of the Oslo Region, Norway. Norges Geologiske Undersokelse Special Publication 4, 1-54.

Phillips, J.R.P. 1960. Restudy of types of seven Ordovician bifoliate Bryozoa. Palaeontology 3, 1-25.

Pushkin, V.I. 1977. New genus of the Ordovician Bryozoan. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 4, 67-72. [in Russian]

Ross, J.R.P. 1969. Champlainian (Ordovician) Ectoprocta (Bryozoa), New York state, part II. Journal of Paleontology 43, 257-284.

Ross, J.R.P. 1985. Biogeography of Ordovician ectoproct (bryozoan) faunas, 265-272. In Nielsen, C. & Larwood, G.P. (eds) Bryozoa: Ordovician to Recent. Olsen and Olsen, Fredensborg, Denmark.

Singh, R.J. 1979. Trepostomatous bryozoan fauna from the Bellevue Limestone, Upper Ordovician in the tri-state area of Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky. Bulletins of American Paleontology 76, 161-288.

Spjeldnaes, N. 1984. Upper Ordovician bryozoans from Ojl Myr, Gotland, Sweden. Bulletin of the Geological Institutions of the University of Uppsala, New Series 10, 1-66.

Taylor, P.D. & Sendino, C. 2010. Latitudinal distribution of bryozoan-rich sediments in the Ordovician. Bulletin of Geosciences 85(4), 565-572. View article

Taylor, P.D.&Wilson, M.A. 1994. Corynotrypa from the Ordovician of North America: colony growth in a primitive stenolaemate bryozoan. Journal of Paleontology 68, 241-257.

Toots, H. 1952. Bryozoen des estnischen Kuckersits. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologischen Staatsinstitut in Hamburg 21, 113-137.

Tuckey, M.E. 1990. Biogeography of Ordovician bryozoans. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 77, 91-126. View article

Ulrich, E.O. 1878. Descriptions of some new species of fossils from the Cincinnati Group. The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 1, 92-100.

Ulrich, E.O. 1882. American Palaeozoic Bryozoa. The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 5, 121-175, 233-257.

Ulrich, E.O. 1886. Descriptions of new Silurian and Devonian fossils. Bryozoa. Contributions to American Palaeontology 1, 3-35.

Ulrich, E.O. 1890. Palaeozoic Bryozoa. Palaeontology of Illinois. Geological Survey of Illinois 8 Part II, Section VI, 283-688.

Ulrich, E.O. 1893. On Lower Silurian Bryozoa of Minnesota. The Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, final report 3, 96-332.

Ulrich, E.O. & Bassler, R.S. 1904. A revision of the Palaeozoic Bryozoa. Part II. On genera and species of Trepostomata. Bulletin of the US Geological Survey 173, 15-55.

Vinassa de Regny, P. 1921. Sulla classificazione die trepostomidi. Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali Atti 59, 212-231.

Vine, G.R. 1884. Fourth report of the Committee consisting of Dr. H.R. Sorby and Mr. G.R. Vine, appointed for the purpose of reporting on fossil Polyzoa. In Report of the Fifty-third meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science London (Southport, 1883), 161-209. John Murray, London.

Zittel, K.A. 1880. Handbuch der Palaeontologie. Abteilung 5. Palaeozoologie 1. 765 pp. Oldenbourg, München.