Revision of the Pragian Rutoceratoidea Hyatt, 1884 (Nautiloidea, Oncocerida) from the Prague Basin


Authors: Manda Š, Turek V

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 84, issue 1; pages: 127 - 148; Received 12 December 2008; Accepted in revised form 13 February 2009; Online 10 March 2009

Keywords: Nautiloidea, Oncocerida, Rutoceratoidea, Pragian, new taxa, shell morphology,

full text (PDF, 3.61 MB)

Export to RIS



Superfamily Rutoceratoidea Hyatt, 1884 (Pragian to Frasnian, Devonian) includes nautiloid cephalopods having exogastric cyrtoceracone or coiled shells with periodic walls or raised growth lines (megastriae) forming ridges, sometimes modified in various ways into collars, frills, or different outgrowths. High disparity and intraspecific variability of the shell form and sculpture of the rutoceratoids are conspicuous among Early Palaeozoic nautiloids. Consequently, rutoceratoids are divided according to different patterns of growth structures into three families. Parauloceratidae fam. nov. (Pragian to Emsian) contains taxa with cyrtoceracone shells and simple recurrent ribs with ventral sinus. Family Hercoceratidae Hyatt, 1884 (Pragian to Givetian) comprises forms with periodically raised ridges with three lobes forming ventrolateral outgrowths during shell growth such as wings, nodes or spines. Family Rutoceratidae Hyatt, 1884 (Pragian to Frasnian) encompases taxa having growth ridges with ventral lobe transforming into undulated frills or distinct periodic collars (megastriae). All of these families had already appeared during early radiation of rutoceratoids in the Pragian. The early radiation of rutoceratoids is, however, adequately recorded only from the Prague Basin. Rutoceratoids become widespread within faunas of Old World and Eastern American realms later during the Emsian and especially Middle Devonian. Three new genera are erected: Parauloceras gen. nov., Otomaroceras gen. nov. and Pseudorutoceras gen. nov. The Pragian Gyroceras annulatum Barrande, 1865 is assigned to the genus Aphyctoceras Zhuravleva, 1974. Rutoceratoids are thus represented by six genera and eight species in the Pragian Stage of the Prague Basin. In addition, variability of shell coiling among rutoceratoids and its significance for their systematics are discussed.


Agassiz, L. 1847. An introduction to the study of Natural history, in a series of lectures delivered in the hall of the College of Physicians and Surgeons. 58 pp. Greeley & McElrath, New York.

Arkell, W.J., Kummel, B. & Wright, C.W. 1957. Mesozoic Ammonoidea, 80-437. In Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part L. Mollusca 4. Geological Society of America&The University of Kansas Press, New York& Lawrence.

Barrande, J. 1848. Eine weitere Sendung von Cephalopoden aus den silurischen Schichten von Böhmen. Berichte über Mittheilungen von Freunden der Naturwissenschaften in Wien 4, 208-211.

Barrande, J. 1865-1877. Systeme silurien du Centre de la Boheme, Iere partie: Recherches Paléontologiques, vol. II, Classe de Mollusques, Ordre des Céphalopodes, 1865, ser. 6, pl. 1-107; 1866, ser. 7, pl. 108-244; 1867, ser. 1, 712 pp.; 1868, ser. 8, pl. 245-350; 1870, ser. 2, 266 pp., ser. 9, pl. 351-460; 1874, ser. 3, 804 pp.; 1877, ser. 4, 742 pp., ser. 5, 743 pp., Supplement 1, 297 pp., Supplement 2, pl. 461-544. Prague & Paris.

Bouček, B. 1931. O některých nových bohatých nalezištích zkamenělin ve starším paleozoiku středních Čech. Věda přírodní 12, 136-144.

Budil, P. & Kolář, P. 2004. Kainops chlupaci sp. n. from the Lower Devonian (Zlichovian Stage) from the Barrandian area (Czech Republic). Journal of the Czech Geological Society 49(3-4), 141-145.

Carls, P., Slavík, L.&Venezuela-Ríos, J.I. 2008. Comments on the GSSP for the basal Emsian stage boundary: the need for redefinition. Bulletin of Geosciences 83(4), 383-390.View article

Chen, J., Liu, G. & Chen, T. 1981. Silurian nautiloid faunas of central and southwestern China. Memoirs Nanjing Institute for Geology and Paleontology Academica Sinica 13, 1-104.

Chirat, R. & Rioult, M. 1998. Occurrence of early post-hatching Jurassic Nautilida in Normandy, France: palaeobiologic palaeoecologic and palaeobiogeographic implications. Lethaia 31, 137-148.View article

Chlupáč, I. 1955. Stratigrafická studie o nejstarších devonských vrstvách Barrandienu. Sborník Ústředního ústavu geologického, Oddíl geologický 21, 91-224.

Chlupáč, I. 1957. Faciální vývoj a biostratigrafie středočeského spodního devonu. Sborník Ústředního ústavu geologického, Oddíl geologický 24, 369-485.

Chlupáč, I. Ed. 1986. Barrandian-Moravian Karst 1986. A field trip guidebook. 62 pp. Czech Geological Survey, Praha.

Chlupáč, I. 1982. The Bohemian Lower Devonian Stages. Courier Forschung Institut Senckenberg 55, 345-400.

Chlupáč, I. 1983. Stratigraphical position of Barrande’s paleontological localities in the Devonian of Central Bohemia. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 28(3), 261-275.

Chlupáč, I. 1998. Devonian, 101-133. In Havlíček, V., Kříž, J., Kukal, Z. & Štorch, P. 1998. Palaeozoic of the Barrandian (Cambrian to Devonian). 183 pp. Český geologický ústav, Praha.

Chlupáč, I. & Kolář, P. 2001. First homanolotid trilobites from the Devonian of Bohemia and their significance. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey 76(3), 179-186.

Chlupáč, I. & Kukal, Z. 1988. Possible global events and the stratigraphy of the Barrandian Palaeozoic (Cambrian-Devonian). Sborník geologických věd, Geologie 43, 83-146.

Chlupáč, I. & Šnajdr, M. 1990. A remarkable Pragian trilobite assemblage from the Barrandian. Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 64(3), 129-142. Dzik, J. 1984. Phylogeny of the Nautiloidea. Paleontologia Polonica 45, 1-255.

Dzik, J. & Korn, D. 1992. Devonian ancestors of Nautilus. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 66(1-2), 81-98.

Fagerstrom, J.A. 1961. The fauna of the Middle Devonian Formosa reef limestone of southwestern Ontario. Journal of Paleontology 35(1), 1-48.

Flower, R.H. 1936. Cherry Valley cephalopods. Bulletin of American Paleontology 22(76), 1-96.

Flower, R.H. 1945. Classification of Devonian Nautiloids. American Midland Naturalist 33(3), 675-724.View article

Flower, R.H. 1947. Cayugoceras, an Upper Silurian cephalopod. American Midland Naturalist 37, 250-255.View article

Flower, R.H. 1949. New genera of Devonian nautiloids. Journal of Paleontology 23(1), 74-80.

Flower, R.H. 1952. The ontogeny of Centroceras with remarks on the phylogeny of the Centroceratidae. Journal of Paleontology 26, 519-528.

Flower, R.H. 1955. Saltations in nautiloid coiling. Evolution 9, 244-260.View article

Flower, R.H. 1964. Nautiloid shell morphology. Memoir New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources 12, 1-234.

Flower, R.H. 1988. Progress and Changing Concepts in Cephalopod and Particularly Nautiloid Phylogeny and Distribution, 17-24. In Wiedmann, J. & Kullmann, J. (eds) Cephalopods Present and Past. 766 pp. E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart.

Flower, R.H. in Flower, R.H. & Kummel, B. 1950. A classification of the Nautiloidea. Journal of Paleontology 24(5), 604-616.

Flower, R.H. & Teichert, C. 1957. The cephalopod order Discosorida. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Mollusca 6, 1-144.

Foerste, A.F. 1926. Actinosiphonate, Trochoceroid and other cephalopods. Bulletin of the Scientific Laboratories of Denison University 21, 285-384.

Foerste, A.F. 1930a. Port Byron and other Silurian cephalopods. Bulletin of the Scientific Laboratories of Denison University 23, 1-110.

Foerste, A.F. 1930b. The color patterns of fossil cephalopods and brachiopods, with notes on gastropods and pelecypods. Contribution from the Museum of Paleontology University of Michigan 3(6), 109-150.

Gnoli, M. 1982. Lower Devonian orthocone cephalopods from the Iglesiente and Sulcis regions (Southwestern Sardinia). Bolletino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 21, 73-98.

Grabau, W.A. 1910. Description of Monroe Fossils. Michigan Geological Survey Publication 2, 196-200. Hall, J. 1879. Natural history of New York, Paleontology, vol. 5, part 2, containing descriptions of the Gastropoda, Pteropoda, Cephalopoda, Crustacea and Corals of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton portage and Chemung groups. 362 pp. New York Geological Survey, New York.

Havlíček, V.&Vaněk, J. 1998. Pragian brachiopods, trilobites, and principal biofacies in the Prague Basin (Lower Devonian, Bohemia). Sborník geologických věd, Paleontologie 34, 27-109.

Havlíček, V., Vaněk, J. & Fatka, O. 1994. Perunica microcontinent in the Ordovician (its position within the Mediterranean Province, series division, benthic and pelagic associations). Sborník geologických věd, Geologie 46, 23-56.

Horný, R. 1965. Corbuloceras gen. n., nový onkoceridní hlavonožec (Cephalopoda, Oncocerida) z českého siluru. Časopis Národního muzea, Oddíl přírodovědný 134(3), 132-137.

Horný, R.J. 1995. Společenstvo gastropodů z loděnických vápenců (spodní devon, prag) na Branžovech u Loděnice. Časopis Národního muzea 164(1-4), 3-10.

House, M.R. 2002. Strength, timing, setting and cause of mid- Palaeozoic extinctions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 181(1-3), 5-25.View article

Hyatt, A. 1883-1884. Genera of fossil cephalopods. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 22, 273-338.

Hyatt, A. 1894. Phylogeny of an Acquired characteristic. Proceedings American Philosophical Society 32, 349-647.View article

Hyatt, A. 1900. Cephalopoda, 502-592. In Zittel, K.A. & Eastmann, C.R. (eds) Textbook of Palaeontology, vol. 1. MacMillan, Boston.

Janoušek, V., Hladil, J., Frýda, J., Slavík, L. & Šmíd, J. 2001. Strontium chemostratigraphy of carbonate sediments - pilot study of Silurian and Devonian brachiopods from the Prague Basin. Geolines 13, 68-69.

Katzer, F. 1895. Beiträge zur Palaeotologie des älteren Palaeozoicums in Mittelböhmen. Verlag der könig. Böhmischen Gessellschaft der Wissenschaften 14, 1-17.

Kříž, J. 1998. Recurrent Silurian-Lowest Devonian Cephalopod Limestones of Gondwanan Europe and Perunica. New York State Museum Bulletin 491, 183-198.

Kříž, J., Jaeger, H., Paris, F. & Schönlaub, H.P. 1986. Přídolí - the fourth subdivision of the Silurian. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 129, 291-360.

Kobluk, D.R. & Mapes, R.H. 1989. The fossil record, function and possible origins of shell color patterns in Paleozoic marine invertebrates. Palaios 4, 63-85.View article

Kodym, O., Bouček, B. & Šulc, J. 1931. Průvodce ku geologické exkursi do okolí Berouna, Koněprus a Budňan. Knihovna Státního geologického ústavu 15, 1-83.

Kröger, B. 2004. Large size sublethal injuries in Middle Ordovician orthocerids. GFF 126, 311-316.View article

Kröger, B. 2008. Nautiloids before and during the origin of ammonoids in a Siluro-Devonian section in the Tafilalt, Anti- Atlas, Morocco. Special Papers in Paleontology 79, 1-112.

Kukal, Z. & Jager, O. 1988. Siliciclastic signal of the Variscan orogenesis; Devonian Srbsko Formation of Central Bohemia. Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 63(2), 65-80.

Kummel, B. 1964. Nautiloidea - Nautilida, 383-457. In Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part K, Mollusca 3, Cephalopoda. 519 pp. Geological Society of America& The University of Kansas Press, Boulder & Lawrence.

Manda, Š. 2001. Some new or little known cephalopods from the Lower Devonian Pragian carbonate shelf (Prague Basin, Bohemia) with remarks on Lochkovian and Pragian cephalopod evolution. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 46(3-4), 269-286.

Manda, Š. 2007. Late Silurian events and cephalopod extinctions in the Prague Basin, 132-133. In Seventh International Symposium Cephalopods Present and Past. Palaeontological Society of Japan, Sapporo.

Manda, Š. 2008. Palaecology and palaeogeographic relations of the Silurian phragmoceratids (Nautiloidea, Cephalopoda) of the Prague Basin (Bohemia). Bulletin of Geosciences 83(1), 39-62.View article

Manda, Š. & Turek, V. In press. Minute Silurian oncocerids with unusual colour patterns (Nautiloidea). Acta Paleontologica Polonica.

Miller, A.K. 1932. New names for Devonian cephalopod homonym. American Journal of Science 24, 330-331.View article

Novák, O. 1886. Zur Kenntnis der Fauna der Etage F - f1 in der Palaeozoischen Schichtengroupe Böhmens. Sitzungsberichte der Keiserlichen Böhmischen Gesellelschaft der Wissenschaften 1886, 1-23.

Phillips, J. 1841. Figures and descriptions of the Palaeozoic fossils of Cornwall, Devon, and west Somerset. 231 pp. Geological Survey of Great Britani and Ireland, London.

Raup, D.M. 1966. Geometric analysis of shell coiling: general problems. Journal of Paleontology 40, 1178-1190.

Röhlich, P. 2007. Structure of the Prague Basin: The deformation diversity and its causes (the Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences 82(2), 175-182.View article

Ruedemann, R. 1925. Some Silurian (Ontarian) faunas of New York. Bulletin of the New York State Museum 265, 5-133.

Ruzhentsev, V.E., Zhuravleva, F.A., Balashov, Z.G., Bogoslovsky, B.I. & Librovich, L.S. 1962. Osnovy Paleontologii, Moluski, Golovonogie. 438 pp. Nauka, Moscow.

Růžička, R. 1941. Faunistické seznamy z Barrandienu ze souvrství gα (část II.) a ze dvou lokalit gγ. Věstník Královské české společnosti nauk, 1-16.

Shimansky, V.N. 1957. Sistematika i fylogenia otrjada Nautilida. Bulleten Moskovskogo obshchestva ispytatelei prirody, Otdel geologicheskii 32, 105-120.

Signor, P.W. & Brett, C.E. 1984. The mid-Paleozoic precursor to the Mesozoic marine revolution. Paleobiology 10, 229.View article

Stridsberg, S. 1985. Silurian oncocerid cephalopods from Gotland. Fossils and Strata 18, 1-65.

Stridsberg, S. 1988. A Silurian cephalopod genus with a reinforced frilled shell. Palaeontology 31(3), 651-663.

Sweet, W.C. 1964. Nautiloidea-Oncocerida, 277-319. In Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part K, Mollusca 3, Cephalopoda. 519 pp. Geological Society of America&The University of Kansas Press, Boulder&Lawrence.

Teichert, C. 1939. Nautiloid Cephalopods from the Devonian of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of West Australia 25, 103-121.

Teichert, C. 1964. Morphology of hard parts, 313-353. In Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part K, Mollusca. Geological Society of America, Lawrence.

Turek, V. 1975. Genus Kosovoceras gen. n. in the Silurian of Central Bohemia. Sborník geologických věd, Paleontologie 17, 7-42.

Turek, V. 1976. Magdoceras gen. n. and Inclytoceras gen. n. from the Silurian of central Bohemia (Nautiloidea, Barrandeocerida). Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 21(2), 137-145.

Turek, V. 1990. Color patterns on Silurian and Devonian cephalopods of Central Bohemia, 81. Abstracts 3rd Symposium of cephalopods: Present and past. Lyon.

Turek, V. 2007. Systematic position and variability of the Devonian nautiloids Hercoceras and Ptenoceras from the Prague Basin (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences 82(1), 1-10.View article

Turek, V. In press. Colour patterns in Lower Devonian cephalopods from the Barrandian Area: Taphony and taxonomy. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 53.

Westermann, G.E.G. 1998. Life Habits of Nautiloids, 263-298. In Savazzi, E. (ed.) Functional Morphology of the Invertebrate Skeleton. John Wiley, London.

Whidborne, G.F. 1890. A monograph of the Devonian Fauna of the South of England. Palaeontographical Society, Volume for 1890, 47-154.

Yolkin, E.A., Kim, A.I.,Weddige, K., Talent, J.A. & House, M.R. 1997. Definition of the Pragian/Emsian Stage boundary. Episodes 20, 235-240.

Zhuravleva, F.A. 1972. Devonskie nautiloidei. Otriad Discosorida. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 134, 1-320.

Zhuravleva, F.A. 1974. Devonskie nautiloidei. Otriady Oncoceratida, Tarphyceratida, Nautilida. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 142, 5-142.

Zhuravleva, F.A. 1978. Devonskie nautiloidei. Nadotriad Orthoceratoidea. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 178, 1-224.

Zhuravleva, F.A. 1996. Devonskie nautilidy severnych raionov Rossii. Paleontologicheskij Zhurnal 1996(2), 16-24.

Zittel, K.A. 1900. Textbook of Palaeontology, vol. 1. 706 pp. Macmillan, New York.