Early Middle Frasnian platform reef strata in the Moravian Karst interpreted as recording the atmospheric dust changes: the key to understanding perturbations in the punctata conodont zone


Authors: Hladil J, Koptíková L, Galle A, Sedláček V, Pruner P, Schnabl P, Langrová A, Bábek O, Frána J, Hladíková J, Otava J, Geršl M

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 84, issue 1; pages: 75 - 106; Received 24 November 2008; Accepted in revised form 20 January 2009; Online 9 February 2009

Keywords: mineral dust, platform reef, sedimentation of particulates, sedimentary rhythms, stromatactis, climate conditions, magnetic susceptibility, gamma-ray spectrometry, geochemistry, mid-punctata Zone perturbations, Alamo impact event, Upper Devonian, Brunovistulian terrane, Moravia, Czech Republic,

full text (PDF, 4.02 MB)

Export to RIS



Development of new stratigraphic techniques has led to better understanding of the compositional variability and quantity of dust-related impurity components in pure marine limestones, with a considerable impact on stratigraphic resolution and explanation of causality. The early Middle Frasnian (E-MF, punctata Zone) stratigraphic interval was selected for this study in order to assess the contribution of atmospheric dust and to distinguish between the robust climatically driven anomalies and the potential distant effect of the Alamo impact. The location of the study in the Moravian Karst area has two advantages: there are no mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediments, only the pure limestone of a platform reef complex, and the authors have access to voluminous survey and drilling reports. The methodology employed for undertaking the most recent research was based on succession and combination of the following steps: biostratigraphy and facies analysis, magnetic susceptibility (MS), gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and finally, separation and assessment of rare non-carbonate particles. The natural atmospheric dust burden, deposition, and embedding in pure carbonate traps were, most likely, threefold higher during the Frasnian in the Upper Devonian in comparison with Quaternary platform reef counterparts. Variation of 10-100 ka averages is medium in terms of the Frasnian ranges of MS-GRS values, and the base and top of the E-MF interval are manifested by robust elevations of these values. Forced anomalies in MS, GRS and geochemical signals that defy the normal sequence of rhythms were found: two anomalies disturb the broad middle part of the E-MF interval and one is superimposed on the upper part of the punctata-hassi zones strata. The most significant disturbance was found near the mid-punctata Zone level. In spite of the relatively low magnitude, it shows features that are usually related to major environmental crises which occured in the Devonian, such as the Choteč, Kačák or Kellwasser events. These include a large depression in MS and dust-particle concentration values coupled with a period of sea level lowstand and calm atmospheric conditions (stage A), and an abrupt shift to high MS that has a comb-like pattern that gradually fades upward, developed together with a forced flooding surface, increased detritism, and stormy conditions (stage B). It is a reverse of the normal cyclicity in pure limestone when the high impurity corresponds to lowstands. A very small amount of particulate material of an exotic nature was found at the A-B stage interface and assessed: it contained iron-rich silicate microspherules and drops, devitrified glasses, tiny mineral/rock clasts of hyperbasite compositions, as well as pellets and clumps of glasses and phlogopites. The silt-sized particles show ablated and striated surfaces, flow deformation of devitrified glasses, and layered onion-like structures. Iron-rich lamellae with meshwork crystal patterns occur among decrepitated crystalline mineral phases. This material is tentatively attributed to some vigorous ejection of deep Earth layers, or speculatively, to some previously undescribed olivine-phyric to basaltic and Ni-, Cr-depleted siderolite material of meteoritic origin.


Adey, W.H. 1978. Coral reef morphogenesis: a multidimensional model. Science 202, 831-837.View article

Andersen, K.K. & Ditlevsen, P.D. 1998. Glacial/interglacial variations of meridional transport and washout of dust: A one-dimensional model. Journal of Geophysical Research 103, 8955-8962.View article

Bábek, O. 1996. Thinning and fining-upward megasequences in Middle Devonian carbonate slope deposits, Moravia, Czech Republic. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 202, 409-432.

Bábek, O., Přikryl, T. & Hladil, J. 2007. Progressive drowning of carbonate platform in the Moravo-Silesian Basin (Czech Republic) before the Frasnian/Famennian event: facies, compositional variations and gamma-ray spectrometry. Facies 53, 293-316.View article

Bábek, O., Tomek, Č.,Melichar, R., Kalvoda, J. & Otava, J. 2006. Structure of unmetamorphosed Variscan tectonic units of the southern Moravo-Silesian zone, Bohemian Massif: a review. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 239, 37-75.

Bate, G.L., Huizenga, J.R. & Potratz, H.A. 1959. Thorium in stone meteorites by neutron activation analysis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 16, 88-100.View article

Bosák, P., Mylroie, J.E., Hladil, J., Carew, J.L. & Slavík, L. 2002. Blow Hole Cave: An unroofed cave on San Salvador Island, the Bahamas, and its importance for detection of paleokarst caves on fossil carbonate platforms. Acta Carsologica 31(3), 51-74.

Boulvain, F. 2001. Facies architecture and diagenesis of Belgian late Frasnian carbonate mounds. Sedimentary Geology 145, 269- 294.View article

Boulvain, F. 2007. Frasnian carbonate mounds from Belgium: sedimentology and palaeoceanography. In Álvaro, J.J., Aretz, M., Boulvain, F.,Munnecke, A., Vachard, D. & Vennin, E. (eds) Palaeozoic reefs and bioaccumulations: climatic and evolutionary controls. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 275, 125-142.

Boulvain, F. & Coen-Aubert, M. 2006. A fourth level of Frasnian carbonate mounds along the south side of the Dinant Synclinorium (Belgium). Bulletin de l’Institut royal des sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 76, 31-51.

Boulvain, F., da Silva, A.C., Mabille, C., Poulain, G., Hladil, J., Geršl, M., Koptíková, L. & Schnabl, P. 2008a. Magnetic susceptibility correlation of km-thick Eifelian- Frasnian sections (Belgium-Czech Republic). In Kunkel, C., Hahn, S., ten Veen, J., Rameil, N. & Immenhauser, A. (eds) 26th Regional Meeting of the International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS) held jointly with the SEPM-CES SEDIMENT 2008 Meeting. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften 58, p. 57.

Boulvain, F., Mabille, C., Poulain, G. & da Silva, A.C. 2008b. Towards a palaeogeographical and sequential framework for the Givetian of Belgium. Geologica Belgica (in press).

Boulvain, F. & Wood, R. 2007. Devonian. In Vennin, E., Aretz, M., Boulvain, F. & Munnecke, A. (eds) Facies from Palaeozoic reefs and bioaccumulations. Mémoires du Museum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris 195, 171-223.

Budd, A.F. & Johnson, K.G. 1999. Origination preceding extinction during late Cenozoic turnover of Caribbean reefs. Paleobiology 25, 188-200.View article

Buggisch, W. & Joachimski, M.M. 2006. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Devonian of Central and Western Europe. In Buggisch,W. (ed.) Evolution of the System Earth in the Late Palaeozoic: Clues from Sedimentary Geochemistry. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 240, 68-88.View article

Burchette, T. 1981. European Devonian reefs: a review of current concepts and models. Society of Economic Paleontologists & Mineralogists Special Publication 30, 85-142.View article

Čejchan, P. & Hladil, J. 1996. Searching for extinction/recovery gradients: the Frasnian-Famennian interval, Mokrá Section, Moravia, central Europe. In Hart, M.B. (ed.) Biotic recovery from mass extinction events. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 102, 135-161.View article

Cháb, J., Fišera, M., Fediuková, E., Novotný, P., Opletal, M. & Skácelová, D. 1984. Problems of the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the eastern part of the Hrubý Jeseník Mts. (Altvatergebirge), northern Moravia, Czechoslovakia. Sborník geologických věd, Geologie 39, 27-72. [in Czech]

Cocks, L.R.M.&Torsvik, T.H. 2005. Baltica from the late Precambrian to mid Palaeozoic: the gain and loss of a terranes’s identity. Earth Science Reviews 72, 39-66.View article

Copper, P. 2002. Silurian and Devonian reefs: 80 million years of global greenhouse between two ice ages. In Kiessling, W., Flügel, E. & Golonka, J. (eds) Phanerozoic Reef Patterns. Society of Economic Paleontologists & Mineralogists Special Publication 72, 181-238.View article

Crabbe, M.J.C., Wilson, M.E.J. & Smith, D.J. 2006. Quaternary corals from reefs in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, SE Sulawesi, Indonesia, show similar growth rates to modern corals from the same area. Journal of Quaternary Science 21, 803-809.View article

Crick, R.E., Ellwood, B.B., Hladil, J., El Hassani, A., Feist, R.&Hladil, J. 1997. Magnetosusceptibility event and cyclostratigraphy (MSEC) of the Eifelian-Givetian GSSP and associated boundary sequences in north Africa and Europe. Episodes 20(3), 167-175.

Darnley, A.G. 1991. The development of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry: case study in technological innovation and acceptance. Nuclear Geophysics 5(4), 377-402.

da Silva, A.C. & Boulvain, F. 2006. Upper Devonian carbonate platform correlations and sea level variations recorded in magnetic susceptibility. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 240, 373-388.View article

da Silva, A.C., Potma, K., Weissenberg, J.A.W., Whalen, M.T.,Humblet, M.,Mabille, C.&Boulvain, F. 2008. Magnetic susceptibility evolution and sedimentary environments on carbonate platform sediments and atolls, comparison of the Frasnian from Belgium and from Alberta, Canada. Sedimentary Geology (in press).View article

Duce, R.A. & Tindale, N.W. 1991. Atmospheric transport of iron and its deposition in the ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 36, 1715-1726.View article

Dudek, A. 1980. The crystalline basement block of the outer Carpathians in Moravia - Brunovistulicum. Rozpravy Československé akademie věd, Řada matematicko-přírodních věd 90(8), 1-88.

Dvořák, J. 1990. Paleofacial and paleoclimatic aspects of the Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentation in the Rhenohercynicum and Moravia. Věstník Českého geologického ústavu 65, 65-74.

Dvořák, J. & Friáková, O. 1978. Paleozoic stratigraphy in neighbourhoods of Hranice n. M. Výzkumné práce Ústředního ústavu geologického 18, 5-50. [in Czech]

Dvořák, Z., Kos, P., Otava, J. & Šimíček, O. 2005. Svážná studna cave. Základní organizace České speleologické společnosti 6-14 Suchý Žleb, http://suchy-zleb.cz/jeskyne/svazna.php. [in Czech]

Eakin, C.M. 1996. Where have all the carbonates gone: a model comparison of calcium carbonate budgets before and after the 1982-1983 El Nino at Uva Island in the eastern Pacific. Coral Reefs 15, 109-119.

Eckhoff, N.D., Hill, T.R. & Kimel, W.R. 1968. Trace element determinations by neutron activation analysis: theory and development. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 71(2), 101-135.View article

Ellwood, B.B., Crick, R.E., El Hassani, A., Benoist, S.L.& Young, R.H. 2000. Magnetosusceptibility event and cyclostratigraphy method applied to marine rocks: detrital input versus carbonate productivity. Geology 28, 1135-1138.View article

Fan, H., Song, B. & Li, Q. 2006. Thermal behavior of goethite during transformation to hematite. Materials Chemistry and Physics 98, 148-153.View article

Fischbuch, N.R. 1968. Stratigraphy, Devonian Swan Hills reef complexes of central Alberta. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 16, 446-556.

Franců, E., Franců, J., Kalvoda, J., Poelchau, H.S. & Otava, J. 2002. Burial and uplift history of the Palaeozoic Flysch in the Variscan foreland basin (SE Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic). In bertotti, G., Schulmann, K. & Cloetingh, S. (eds) Continental collision and the tectono-sedimentary evolution of forelands. European Geophysical Society, Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series 1, 259-278.

Galle, A. 1985. Biostratigraphy and rugose corals of Moravian Devonian, Czechoslovakia. Newsletters on Stratigraphy 14(1), 48-68.View article

Galle, A., Friáková, O., Hladil, J., Kalvoda, J., Krejčí, Z. & Zukalová, V. 1988. Biostratigraphy of Middle and Upper Devonian carbonates of Moravia, Czechoslovakia. In Mc-Millan, N.J., Embry, A.F. & Glass, D.J. (eds) Devonian of the World, III. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 14(3), 633-645.

Galle, A. 1985. Biostratigraphy and rugose corals of Moravian Devonian (Czechoslovakia). Newsletter on Stratigraphy 14, 48-68.View article

Galle, A., Hladil, J. & Isaacson, P.E. 1995. Middle Devonian biogeography of closing south Laurussia-north Gondwana Variscides: examples from the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic), with emphasis on Horní Benešov. Palaios 10, 221-239.View article

Geldsetzer, H.H., Goodfellow, W.D. & McLaren, D.J. 1993. The Frasnian-Famennian extinction event in a stable cratonic shelf setting: Trout River, Northwest Territories, Canada. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 104, 81-95.View article

George, A.D., Playford, P., Powell, C.M. & Tornatora, P.M. 1997. Lithofacies and sequence development on an Upper Devonian mixed carbonate-siliciclastic fore-reef slope, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Sedimentology 44, 843-867.View article

Geršl,M.&Hladil, J. 2004. Gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility correlation across a Frasnian carbonate platform and the search for punctata equivalents in stromatoporoid-coral limestone facies of Moravia. Geological Quarterly 48(3), 283-292.

Han, G., Préat, A., Chamley, H.,Deconinck, J.F.&Mansy, J.L. 2000. Palaeozoic clay mineral sedimentation and diagenesis in the Dinant and Avesnes Basins (Belgium, France): relationships with Variscan tectonism. Sedimentary Geology 136, 217-238.View article

Hanžl, P. & Melichar, R. 1997. The Brno massif: a section through the active continental margin or a composed terrane? Krystalinikum 23, 33-58.

Harrison, S.P., Kohfeld, K.E., Roelandt, C.&Claquin, T. 2001. The role of dust in climate changes today, at the last glacial maximum and in the future. Earth-Science Reviews 54, 43-80.View article

Havlena, V. 1976. Late Paleozoic paleogeography of Czechoslovakia and the Plzeň basin. Folia Musei Rerum Naturalium Bohemiae Occidentalis, Geologica 7, 1-31. [in Czech]

Hladil, J. 1983. The biofacies section of Devonian limestones in the central part of the Moravian Karst. Sborník geologických věd, Geologie 38, 71-94.

Hladil, J. 1986. Trends in the development and cyclic patterns of Middle and Upper Devonian buildups. Facies 15, 1-34.View article

Hladil, J. 1988. Structure and microfacies of the Middle and Upper Devonian carbonate buildups in Moravia, Czechoslovakia. In Mc-Millan, N.J., Embry, A.F. & Glass, D.J. (eds) Devonian of the World, II. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 14(2), 607-618.

Hladil, J. 1994. Moravian Middle and Late Devonian buildups; evolution in time and space with respect to Laurussian shelf. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 172, 111-125.

Hladil, J. 2001. Changes of carbonate coral skeletons in deep burial and slight metamorphic conditions: eastern part of the Variscan Orogen in Europe. In Ezaki, Y.,Mori, K., Sugiyama, T. & Sorauf, J.E. (eds) Proceeding of the 8th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Sendai, 1999. Bulletin of the Tohoku University Museum 1, 173-186.

Hladil, J. 2002. Geophysical records of dispersed weathering products on the Frasnian carbonate platform and early Famennian ramps in Moravia, Czech Republic: proxies for eustasy and palaeoclimate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 181, 213-250.View article

Hladil, J. 2007. The Devonian MS-GRS reference section Moravian Karst: Upper Eifelian to uppermost Frasnian. Updated. http://home.gli.cas.cz/hladil/www/moravia-ms-grs-2005.htm

Hladil, J. & Bek, J. 1999. Distances between the Early/Middle Devonian Gondwana and Laurussia; faunal and spore dispersals as compared with paleomagnetic data on paleolatitudes. Exploration Geophysics, Remote Sensing and Environment 5, 2(1998), 29-33.

Hladil, J., Geršl, M., Hladíková, J. & Frána, J. 2004. Environmental disturbances in early Middle Frasnian (punctata Zone): Alamo Comet was likely accompanied by other bolides. Academy of Sciences CR, Institute of Geology, Annual Report 2003, 46-47, http://web.gli.cas.cz/annual/AnnRep2003.pdf.

Hladil, J., Geršl, M., Strnad, L., Frána, J., Langrová, A. &Spišiak, J. 2006a. Stratigraphic variation of complex impurities in platform limestones and possible significance of atmospheric dust: a study with emphasis on gamma-ray spectrometry and magnetic susceptibility outcrop logging (Eifelian-Frasnian, Moravia, Czech Republic). International Journal of Earth Sciences 95, 703-723.View article

Hladil, J.&Hladíková, J. 2000. Isotopic compositions of carbon and oxygen in platform/reef carbonates of the Moravian Karst. In Oschmann, W., Steininger, F.F. & Fürsich, F.T. (eds) Biomarkers and Stable Isotopes in Palaeontology, European Palaeontological Association Workshop 2000, Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt am Main 1, 51-53.

Hladil, J. & Kalvoda, J. 1993. Extinction and recovery successions on the Devonian marine shoals: the Eifelian-Givetian and Frasnian-Famennian events in Moravia and Bohemia. Věstník Českého geologického ústavu 68(4), 13-23.

Hladil, J., Koptíková, L., Lisá, L., Čejchan, P., Růžička, M., Kulaviak, L., Adamovič, J., Janečka, J., Večeř, M., Drahoš, J. & Havlica, J. 2008a. Stromatactis and stromatactum pattern formation in sediment: constraints from fluid mechanics and rheology and implications for environments, sedimentary architecture and cyclostratigraphy. In Kim, A.I., Salimova, F.A. & Meshchankina, N.A. (eds) International Conference Global Alignments of Lower Devonian Carbonate and Clastic Sequences, Kitab State Geological Reserve, Contributions, 36-40.

Hladil, J., Koptíková, L., Růžička, M. & Kulaviak, L. 2007. Experimental effects of surfactants on the production of stromatactis-shaped cavities in artificial carbonate sediments. Bulletin of Geosciences 82(1), 37-50.View article

Hladil, J.,Melichar, R., Otava, J., Galle, A., Krs, M.,Man, O., Pruner, P., Čejchan, P.&Orel, P. 1999. The Devonian in the easternmost Variscides, Moravia; a holistic analysis directed towards comprehension of the original context. Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt in Wien 54, 27-47.

Hladil, J., Pruner, P., Venhodová, D., Hladilová, T. & Man, O. 2002. Toward an exact age of Middle Devonian Čelechovice corals: past problems in biostratigraphy and present solutions complemented by new magnetosusceptibility measurements. Coral Research Bulletin 7, 65-71.

Hladil, J., Růžička, M. & Koptíková, L. 2006b. Stromatactis cavities in sediments and the role of coarse-grained accessories. Bulletin of Geosciences 81(2), 123-146.View article

Hladil, J., Slavík, L., Koptíková, L., Schnabl, P., Vacek, F., Bábek, O. & Geršl, M. 2008b. Relationships between magnetic susceptibility of limestones and sea level change (‘direct relationship and major crises on the Earth’). In Bjorlykke A. & X-CD Technologies (eds) 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo, Abstract CD-ROM, p. 1343596.

Hladil, J., Strnad, L., Šálek, M., Jankovská, V., Šimandl, P., Schwarz, J., Smolík, J., Lisá, L., Koptíková, L., Rohovec, J., Böhmová, V., Langrová, A., Kociánová, M., Melichar, R. & Adamovič, J. 2008c. An anomalous atmospheric dust deposition event over Central Europe, 24 March 2007, and fingerprinting of the SE Ukrainian source. Bulletin of Geosciences 83(2), 175-206.View article

Hladíková, J., Hladil, J.&Zusková, J. 1997. Discrimination between facies and global controls in isotope composition of carbonates: carbon and oxygen isotopes at the Devonian reef margin in Moravia (HV-105 Křtiny borehole). Journal of the Czech Geological Society 42, 1-16.

Janoušek, V., Hladil, J., Frýda, J. & Slavík, L. 2000. Strontium chemostratigraphy as an indicator of age and duration of reef sedimentation - a case study from Koněprusy reef of Pragian age, Devonian, central Bohemia. Journal of Conference Abstracts 5(2), 552.

John, E.H., Cliff, R.&Wignall, P.B. 2008. A positive trend in seawater 87Sr/86Sr values over the Early-Middle Frasnian boundary (Late Devonian) recorded in well-preserved conodont elements from the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. In Racki, G., Joachimski, M.M.&Morrow, J.R. (eds) A major perturbation of the global carbon budget in the Early-Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (Special Issue) 269, 166-175.View article

Johnson, J.G., Klapper, G. & Sandberg, C.A. 1985. Devonian eustatic fluctuations in Euramerica. Geological Society of America Bulletin 96, 567-587.View article

Kalvoda, J. 2001. Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous foraminiferal paleobiogeography and Perigondwana terranes at the Baltica-Gondwana interface. Geologica Carpathica 52(4), 205-215.

Kalvoda, J., Bábek, O., Fatka, O., Leichmann, J., Melichar, R., Nehyba, S. & Špaček, P. 2008. Brunovistulian terrane (Bohemian Massif, Central Europe) from late Proterozoic to late Paleozoic: a review. International Journal of Earth Sciences 97, 497-518.View article

Kalvoda, J.,Melichar, R., Bábek, O. & Leichmann, J. 2002. Late Proterozoic-Paleozoic tectonostratigraphic development and paleogeography of Brunovistulian terrane and comparison with other terranes at the SE margin of Baltica-Laurussia. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 47, 81-102.

Kalvoda, J., Leichmann, J., Bábek, O. & Melichar, R. 2003. Brunovistulian terrane (central Europe) and Istanbul Zone (NW Turkey): Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic tectonostratigraphic development and paleogeography. Geologica Carpathica 54, 139-152.

Kiessling, W., Flügel, E. & Golonka, J. 1999. Paleoreef maps: evaluation of a comprehensive database on Phanerozoic reefs. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin 83, 1552-1587. Knoll, G.F. 1989. Radiation detection and measurement. 754 pp. Wiley & Sons, New York.

Kuncíř, J., Benada, J., Řanda, Z. & Vobecký, M. 1970. Multielement standard for routine instrumental activation analysis of trace elements in rocks and tektites. Journal of Radioanalytical Chemistry 5, 369-378.View article

Leipunskaya, D.I., Gauer, Z.E. & Flerov, G.N. 1960. Neutron activation analysis of samples of rock and ore concentrates. Atomic Energy 6(3), 198-202.View article

Luo, C.,Mahowald, N.M.&del Corral, J. 2003. Sensitivity study of meteorological parameters on mineral aerosol mobilization, transport, and distribution. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, 4447.View article

Ma, X.-P.,Wang, C.-Y., Racki, G. & Racka, M. 2008. Facies and geochemistry across the Early-Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian) on South China carbonate shelf: Comparison with the Polish reference succession. In Racki, G., Joachimski, M.M. & Morrow, J.R. (eds) A major perturbation of the global carbon budget in the Early-Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (Special Issue) 269, 130-151.View article

Mabille, C. & Boulvain, F. 2008. Les monts de Baileux section: detailed sedimentology and magnetic susceptibility of Hanonet, Trois-Fontaines and Terres d’Haurs formations (Eifelian/Givetian boundary and Lower Givetian, SW Belgium). Geologica Belgica 11, 93-121.

Mahowald, N., Kohfeld, K.E., Hansson, M., Balkanski, Y., Harrison, S.P., Prentice, I.C., Rodhe, H. & Schulz, M. 1999. Dust effect of climate change on dust storm activity in Australia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Geomorphology 17, 263-271.

McCarty, D.K. & Reynolds, R.C. 2001. Three-dimensional crystal structures of illite-smectite minerals in Paleozoic K-bentonites from the Appalachian basin. Clays and Clay Minerals 49, 24-35.View article

Mikuláš, R. 1994. Sponge borings in stromatoporoids and tabulate corals from the Devonian of Moravia (Czech Republic). Věstník Českého geologického ústavu 69, 69-73.

Morrow, J.R., Racki, G. & Malkowski, K. 2003. Timing of Frasnian (early Late Devonian) carbon isotopic and Alamo impact events, Southern Nevada. Annual Meeting, Geological Society of America, Seattle, Washington, Abstracts with Programs 35(6), 209.

Morrow, J.R. & Sandberg, C.A. 2003. Late Devonian sequence and event stratigraphy across the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) boundary, Utah and Nevada, 351-419. In Harries, P.J. (ed.) High-resolution approaches in stratigraphic paleontology. Kluwer, Dordecht.View article

Morrow, J.R., Sandberg, C.A. & Harris, A.G. 2005. Late Devonian Alamo Impact, southern Nevada, USA: Evidence of size, marine site, and widespread effects, Chap. 15. In Kenkmann, T., Hörz, F., & Deutsch, A. (eds) Large Meteorite Impacts III. Geological Society of America Special Paper 384, 259-280.View article

Morrow, J.R. (ed.), Sandberg, C.A.,Warme, J.E., Murphy, M.A. & Over, D.J. 2007. Devonian shelf-to-slope facies and events, Central Great Basin, Nevada and Utah, U.S.A. Subcommission of Devonian Stratigraphy SDS 2007 field trip Guidebook, 93 pp. Eureka, Nevada.

Morrow, J.R., Schindler, E.&Walliser, O.H. 1995. Phanerozoic development of selected global environmental features, 53-61. InWalliser, O.H. (ed.) Global events and event stratigraphy in the Phanerozoic. Springer Verlag Berlin.

Moxham, R.M., Foote, R.S. & Bunker, C.M. 1965. Gamma ray spectrometer studies of hydrothermally altered rocks. Economic Geology 60, 653-671.View article

Narkiewicz,M. 2007. Development and inversion of Devonian and Carboniferous basins in the eastern part of the Variscan foreland (Poland). Geological Quarterly 51, 231-256.

Nawrocki, J., Polechońska, O. & Werner, T. 2008. Magnetic susceptibility and selected geochemical-mineralogical data as proxies for Early to Middle Frasnian (Late Devonian) carbonate depositional settings in the Holy Cross Mountains, southern Poland. In Racki, G., Joachimski, M.M. & Morrow, J.R. (eds)Amajor perturbation of the global carbon budget in the Early-Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (Special Issue) 269, 176-188.View article

Nawrocki, J., Zylinska, A., Bula, Z., Grabowski, J., Krzywiec, P. & Poprawa, P. 2004. Early Cambrian location and affinities of the Brunovistulian terrane (Central Europe) in the light of palaeomagnetic data. Journal of the Geological Society of London 161, 513-522.View article

Otava, J. & Kahle, V. 2003. Svážná studna cave in the Lažánecký žleb valley: genesis and hydrographic situation. Speleoforum, Czech Speleological Society 22, 5-7. [in Czech]

Perry, C.T., Spencer, T. & Kench, P.S. 2008. Carbonate budgets and reef production states: a geomorphic perspective on the ecological phase-shift concept. Coral Reefs 27, 853-866.View article

Pinto, J.A. & Warme, J.E. 2008. Alamo Event, Nevada: Crater stratigraphy and impact breccia realms. In Evans, K.R., Horton, J.W., Jr., King, D.T., Jr. & Morrow, J.R. (eds) The sedimentary record of meteorite impact events. Geological Society of America Special Paper 437, 99-137.

Pisarzowska, A., Sobstel, M. & Racki, G. 2006. Conodont- based event stratigraphy of the Early-Middle Frasnian transition on the South Polish carbonate shelf. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 51, 609-646.

Préat, A. & Kasimi, R. 1995. Sédimentation de rampe mixte silico-carbonatée des couches de transition eifeliennesgivetiennes franco-belges. Premiere partie: microfacies et modele sédimentaire. Bulletin des Centres de Recherche Exploration- Production Elf Aquitaine 19, 329-375.

Racki, G. 1993. Evolution of the bank to reef complex in the Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains. Acta Paleontologica Polonica 37, 87-182.

Racki, G. 2005. Toward understanding Late Devonian global events: few answers, many questions. In Over, J., Morrow, J. & Wignall, P.B. (eds) Understanding Late Devonian and Permian-Triassic biotic and climatic events: towards an integrated approach. Developments in Paleontology and Stratigraphy 20, 5-36.View article

Racki, G., Joachimski, M.M.&Morrow, J.R. 2008. A major perturbation of the global carbon budget in the Early-Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian). Preface. In Racki, G., Joachimski, M.M. & Morrow, J.R. (eds) A major perturbation of the global carbon budget in the Early-Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (Special Issue) 269, 127-129.View article

Řanda, Z., Frána, J., Mizera, J., Kučera, J., Novák, J.K., Ulrych, J., Belov, A.G.&Maslov, O.D. 2007. Instrumental neutron and photon activation analysis in the geochemical study of phonolitic and trachytic rocks. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research 31, 275-283.View article

Řanda, Z. & Kreisinger, F. 1983. Tables of nuclear constants for gamma-activation analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical Chemistry 77, 279-495.View article

Reisinger, J. & Hubmann, B. 1998. Outcrop gamma-ray logging of Devonian shallow marine deposits: examples from the Graz Paleozoic, Austria. Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association XVI, Congress Abstracts, Vienna, 515.

Ruffell, A. & Worden, R. 2000. Palaeoclimate analysis using spectral ?-ray data from the Aptian (Cretaceous) of southern England and southern France. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 155, 265-283.View article

Skinner, B.J., Erd, R.C. & Grimaldi, F.S. 1964. Greigite, the thio-spinel of iron; a new mineral. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of America 49(5-6), 543-555.

Stampfli, G.M. & Borel, G. 2004. The TRANSMED transects in time and space, 53-80. In Cavazza, W., Roure, F., Spakman, W., Stampfli, G.M. & Ziegler, P.A. (eds) The TRANSMED Atlas: The Mediterranean Region from Crust to Mantle. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Stier, P., Feichter, J., Roeckner, E., Kloster, S. & Esch, M. 2006. The evolution of the global aerosol system in a transient climate simulation from 1860 to 2100. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6, 3059-3076.View article

Strnad, L., Ettler, V., Mihaljevič, M. & Hladil, J. 2008. Trace elements in landfill calcite: a comparison of solution & laser ablation ICP-MS and calibration to different standard material (SRM NIST glass and USGS MACS carbonate). In Baulus-Lázaro, B. (ed.) Comunicaciones de la XXVIII Reunión de la Sociedad Espanola de Mineralogía. La revista Macla 9, 235-236.

Tapanila, L. 2006. Macroborings and bioclaustrations in a late Devonian reef above the Alamo impact breccia, Nevada, USA. Ichnos 13, 129-134.View article

Tegen, I., Werner, M. Harrison, S. & Kohfeld, K. 2004. Relative importance of climate and land use in determining present and future global soil dust emission. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L05105.View article

van Buchem, F.S.P., Eberli, G.P.,Whalen, M.T.,Mountjoy, E.W.&Homewood, P.W. 1996. The basinal geochemical signature and platform margin geometries in the Upper Devonian mixed carbonate-siliciclastic system of western Canada. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 167, 685-699.

Vierek, A. 2007. Transitional reef-to-basin facies of Lower Frasnian limestones determined by microfacies analysis (Wietrznia, Holy Cross Mts, Poland). Facies 53, 141-155.View article

Warme, J.E. & Sandberg, C.A. 1995. The catastrophic Alamo Breccia of southern Nevada: Record of a Late Devonian extraterrestrial impact: Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 188, 31-57.

Warme, J.E. & Sandberg, C.A. 1996. Alamo megabreccia: Record of a Late Devonian impact in southern Nevada. GSA Today 6(1), 1-7.

Whalen, M.T., Eberli, G.P., van Buchem, F.S.P. & Mountjoy, E.W. 2000. Facies models and architecture of Upper Devonian carbonate platforms (Miette an Ancient wall), Alberta, Canada. In Homewood, P.W. & Eberli, G.P. (eds) Genetic Stratigraphy on the Exploration and the Production Scales. Case Studies from the Pennsylvanian of the Paradox Basin and the Upper Devonian of Alberta. Bulletin des Centres de Recherches et d’Exploration-Production, Elf-Aquitaine, Mémoire 24, 139-178.

Whalen, M.T. & Day, J.E. 2005. Magnetic susceptibility, biostratigraphy, and sequence stratigraphy: insights into Devonian carbonate platform development and basin infilling, western Alberta. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Annual Convention Abstracts 14, A151.

Winchester, J.A., Pharaoh, T.C. & Verniers, J. 2002. Palaeozoic amalgamation of Central Europe: an introduction and synthesis of new results from recent geological and geophysical investigations. In Winchester, J.A., Pharaoh, T.C. & Verniers, J. (eds) Palaeozoic amalgamation of Central Europe. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 201, 1-18.View article

Wrzolek, T. 1992. Rugose corals from the Devonian Kowala Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 37, 217-254.

Yans, J., Corfield, R.M., Racki, G. & Préat, A. 2007. Evidence for perturbation of the carbon cycle in the Middle Frasnian punctata Zone (Late Devonian). Geological Magazine 144, 263-270.View article

Zapletal, K. 1931. Position of the Moravosilesian land in Variscides and Alpides. Sborník Přírodovědecké společnosti v Moravské Ostravě 6, 257-292. [in Czech]

Zender, C.S., Miller, R.L. & Tegen, I. 2004. Quantifying mineral dust mass budgets: Terminology, constraints, and current estimates. Eos 85(48), 509-512.View article

Zukalová, V. 1980. Stromatoporoids in the Devonian carbonate complex in Moravia (Czechoslovakia). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 25, 671-679.