Brachiopod Gyrosoria Cooper, 1973 – a comparative palaeoecological, stratigraphical and taxonomical study

 

Authors: Sklenář J, Simon E

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 84, issue 3; pages: 437 - 464; Received 6 October 2008; Accepted in revised form 21 January 2009; Online 7 September 2009

Keywords: Brachiopoda, Cancellothyridoidea, Upper Cretaceous, environmental adaptation, palaeoecology, shell structure, biostratigraphy,

full text (PDF, 5.37 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

Cooper (1973) erected Gyrosoria as a monospecific genus for Terebratulites gracilis von Schlotheim, 1813. G. gracilis from white-chalk facies was studied in detail by Steinich (1965) and its morphological adaptation to the environment was discussed by Surlyk (1972). However, populations of G. gracilis, adapted to a high energy environment remained unnoticed and therefore special attention is paid to them in this paper. "Terebratulina" lata Etheridge, 1881, placed here in the genus Gyrosoria, has often been mentioned within the literature and has been used as a zone fossil for more than a century. However, its morphology and its relation to other reported cancellothyridid species has not been studied in detail since its erection. This paper presents an emended diagnosis of the genus, officially assigns the revised lata species to it and presents a detailed morphological study of the genus. The variability of G. lata, studied here, and compared to that of both, the low- and high-energy-environment forms of G. gracilis, points out a clear evolutionary lineage within the genus. Spicular skeletons have been investigated in some Upper Turonian G. lata shells. Particular attention is given to the shell infrastructure. Moreover this paper shows that the palaeogeographical area of G. lata can now be enlarged but a wider application of this species in biostratigraphy should be refused due to the extension of its stratigraphical range.

References

Ager, D.V. 1965. Serial grinding techniques, 212-224. In Kummel, B. & Raup, D. (eds) Handbook of paleontological techniques. xiii + 852 pp. Freeman and Co., San Francisco & London.

Barrois, C. 1876. Recherches sur le terrain Crétacé Supérieur de l’Angleterre et de l’Irlande. 232 pp. Societe Geologique du Nord, Lille.

Bosquet, J. 1860. Versteeningen uit het Limburgsche Krijt, 361-418. In Staring, W.C.H. (ed.) De Bodem van Nederland. De zamenstelling en het ontstaan der gronden in Nederland ten behoeve van het algemeen beschreven, Tweede deel. A.C. Kruseman, Haarlem.

Buch, L. von 1835. Uber Terebrateln. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 21, 21-144.

Christensen, W.K. 1999. Upper Campanian and Lower Maastrichtian belemnites from the Mons Basin, Belgium. Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 69, 97-131.

Christensen, W.K. & Schmidt, F. 1987. The belemnites from the Vaals Formation from the CPL quarry at Hallembaye in Belgium. Taxonomy, biometry and biostratigraphy. Geologisches Jahrbuch A 94, 3-37.

Cooper, G.A. 1973. Fossil and Recent Cancellothyridacea (Brachiopoda). Tohoku University Science Report, 2nd Ser. (Geol.), Special Volume 6 (Hatai Memorial Volume), 371-390.

Croft, W.N. 1950. A parallel grinding instrument for the investigation of fossils by serial sections. Journal of Paleontology 24(6), 693-698.

Čech, S. 1995. Korelace turonskych sedimentů vychodočeske křidy. Zprávy o geologických výzkumech v roce 1994, 23-24.

Čech, S.,Klein, V.,Křiž, J.&Valečka, J. 1980. Revision of the Upper Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 55, 227-296.

Davidson, T. 1852-1855. A monograph of the British Fossil Brachiopoda. Part 2. 117 pp. The Palaeontographical Society, London.

Dhondt, A.V. & Jagt, J.W.M. 1987. Bivalvia uit de kalksteen van Vijlen in Hallembaye (Belgie). Grondboor en Hamer 41(3/4), 78-90.

Etheridge, R. 1881. Brachiopoda, 147-148. In Penning, W.H. & Jukes-Browne, B.A. The geology of the neighbourhood of Cambridge. 184 pp. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, London.

Felder, P.J., Felder, W.M. & Bromley, R.G. 1980. The type area of the Maastrichtian Stage, 79-88. In Birkelund, T. & Bromley, R.G. (eds) Upper Cretaceous and Danian of NW Europe, Guide to Excursion 069 A. 26e Congres Géologique International. Paris.

Frič, A. 1889. Studien im Gebiete der Bohmischen Kreideformation; Palaeontologische Untersuchungen der einzelnen Schichten; IV. Die Teplitzer Schichten. Archiv der naturwissenschaftiche Landesdurchforschung von Böhmen 7(2), 1-120.

Gaspard, D. 1997. Distribution and recognition of phases in Aptian-Turonian (Cretaceous) brachiopod development in NW Europe. Geologica Carpathica 48(3), 145-161.

Geinitz, H.B. 1873. Das Elbthalgebirge in Sachsen. 2. Der mittlere und obere Quader, II. Brachiopoden und Pelecypoden, 23-72. Theodor Fischer, Cassel.

Hagenow, F. von 1842. Monographie der Rugen’schen Kreide- Versteinerungen, III. Abtheilung: Mollusken. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefactenkunde 5, 528-575.

The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature (eds) 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition. 306 pp. The Natural History Museum, London.

Jagt, J.W.M., Deckers, M., Dhondt, A.V., Dortangs, R.V., Felder, P.J., Felder, W.M., Keutgen, N., Kuypers, M., Michels, G., Reynders, J., Simon, E., Van Der Ham, R., Van Knippenberg, P. & Van Neer, R. 1995. Preliminary report of field work at Altembroeck (NE Belgium, Early Maastrichtian). Ministere des Affaires économiques - Administration des mines - Service géologique de Belgique - Professional Paper 1995/1(276), 1-20.

Jagt, J.W.M. & Michels, G.P.H. 1990. Additional note on the echinoid genus Cyclaster from the Late Maastrichtian of northeastern Belgium. Geologie en Mijnbouw 69, 179-185.

Johansen, M.B. 1987. Brachiopods from the Maastrichtian- Danian boundary sequence at Nye Klov, Jylland, Denmark. Fossils and Strata 20, 1-57.

Johansen, M.B. 1988. Brachiopod extinctions in the Upper Cretaceous to lowermost Tertiary Chalk of Northwest Europe. Revista Espanola de Paleontologia, n° extraordinario, 41-56.

Johansen, M.B. 1989a. Adaptive radiation, survival and extinction of Brachiopods in the Northwest European Upper Cretaceous - Lower Paleocene Chalk. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 74, 147-204.View article

Johansen, M.B. 1989b. Background extinction and mass extinction of the brachiopods from the chalk of Northwest Europe. Palaios 5(4), 243-250.View article

Johansen,M.B. & Surlyk, F. 1990. Brachiopods and the stratigraphy of the Upper Campanian and Lower Maastrichtian Chalk of Norfolk, England. Palaeontology 33(4), 823-872.

Katz, J.I. 1974. Tip Brachiopoda - brachiopody, 240-275. In Blank, M.J., Krymgolc, G.J., Naidin, D.P. & Savchinskaya, O.V. (eds) Atlas verchnemelovoi fauny Donbassa. Nedra.

Keutgen, N. 1996. Biostratigraphie, Paläoökologie und Invertebratenfauna des Untermaastricht von Aachen (Westdeutschland) und angrenzenden Gebieten (Südostniederlande, Nordostbelgien). iv + 123 pp. Shaker Verlag, Aachen.

Keutgen, N. 1997. Belemnella (Belemnella) cf. praearkhangelskii Naidin, 1964 from the Vijlen Member at Altembroeck (NE Belgium, Early Maastrichtian). Geologie en Mijnbouw 75, 341-347.

Keutgen, N., Jagt, J.W.M., Felder, P.J. & Jagt-Yazykova, E.A. In press. Stratigraphy of the upper Vijlen Member (Gulpen Formation; Maastrichtian) in northeast Belgium, the southeast Netherlands and the Aachen area (Germany), with special reference to belemnitellid cephalopods. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences.

Keutgen, N. & Van der Tuuk, L.A. 1991. Belemnites from the Lower Maastrichtian of Limburg, Aachen and Liege. Mededelingen van de Rijks geologische dienst 44(4), 1-29.

Krutsky, N., Vaně, M., Hola, A. & Hercogova, J. 1975. Turon a coniak v dolnim Poohři. Sborník geologických věd, Geologie 27, 99-137.

Lee, D.E., Mackinnon, D.I., Smirnova, T. N., Baker, P.G., Yu-gan, J. & Dong-li, S. 2006. Terebratulida, 1965-2255. In Kaesler, R.L. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda 5 (revised). Geological Society of America & The University of Kansas Press, Boulder & Lawrence.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae, 10th ed. Vol. 1. 824 pp. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.

Macak, F. 1963. Koprolitova vrstvička a košticke plošky v křidě oharecke oblasti. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 8(4), 380-382.

Mantell, G.A. 1822. Fossils of the South Downs or illustrations of the Geology of Sussex. 327 pp. London.

Mortimore, R.N. 1986. Stratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous White Chalk of Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 97(2), 97-139.

Naidin, D.P. 1964. Upper Cretaceous Belemnitella and Belemnella from Russian Platform and some adjacent regions. Byulleten Moskovskogo obshchestva ispytatelei prirody, Otdel geologicheskii 39, 85-87.

Nechrikova, N.I. 1982. Brachiopoda. In Atlas of the Upper Cretaceous faunas from the Peri-Caspian Depression. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo instituta 187, 26-49.

Nekvasilova, O. 1978. Cancellothyridacea (Brachiopoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Štramberk (Czechoslovakia). Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 23(2), 171-182.

Nilsson, S. 1827. Petrificata suecana. 39 pp. Lund.

Orbigny, A. d’ 1845. Mollusques, Systeme cretace 2(3), 489-498. In Murchison, R.I., Verneuil, E. de & Keyserling, A. de (eds) Géologie de la Russie d’Europe et des montagnes de l’Oural, Paléontologie. Bertrand, Paris.

Orbigny, A. d’ 1847. Paléontologie française. Description des mollusques et rayonnés fossiles. Terrains crétacés. 4 - Brachiopodes. 390 pp. Victor Masson, Paris.

Orbigny, A. d’ 1849. Paléontologie française. Terrains crétacés. 4 - Brachiopodes. Atlas. Pls. 490-599. Victor Masson, Paris.

Orbigny, A. d’ 1852. Prodrome de Paleontologie stratigraphique universelle des animaux mollusques et rayonnés, Vol. 3, Table alphabétique et synonymique. 189 pp. Victor Masson, Paris.

Owen, E. 2002. Brachiopods, 77-98. In Smith, B. & Batten, J. (eds) Fossils of the Chalk, Second edition, revised and enlarged. The Palaeontological Association, London.

Pettitt, N.E. 1950. A monograph on the Rhynchonellidae of the British Chalk, Part I. 26 pp. Palaeontographical Society, London.

Posselt, J.H. 1894. Brachiopoderne i den danske Kridtformation. Danmarks geologiske Undersogelser 2(4), 1-59.

Quenstedt, F.A. 1868-1871. Petrefactenkunde Deutschlands. Zweiter Band, Brachiopoden. 748 pp., 25 pls. Fues’s Verlag, Leipzig.

Reuss, A. E. 1846. Die Versteinerungen der Böhmischen Kreideformation. Zweite Abtheilung. 148 pp. Stuttgart.

Richardson, J. 1997. Ecology of articulated brachiopods, 441-472. In Kaesler, R.L. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda 2 (revised). Geological Society of America & The University of Kansas Press, Boulder & Lawrence.

Robaszynski, F., Dhondt, A.V. & Jagt, W.M. 2001. Cretaceous lithostratigraphic units (Belgium). Geologica Belgica 4, 121-134.

Roemer, F.A. 1841. Die Versteinerungen des norddeutschen Kreidegebirges. 145 pp. Hahn’schen Hofbuchhandlung, Hannover.

Rowe, M. 1901. The Zones of the White Chalk of the English Coast, II: Dorset. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 17, 1-76.

Sahni, M.R. 1925. Morphology and zonal distribution of some Chalk Terebratulids. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History 15(9), 353-385.

Sandy, M.R. 1986. Brachiopod systematics and the transverse serial sectioning method: some recommendations for this technique and clarification of a taxonomic problem assisted by this method, 209-218. In Racheboeuf, P.R. & Emig, C. (eds) Les Brachiopodes fossiles et actuels. Biostratigraphie du Paléozoique 4. Universite de Bretagne occidentale, Brest.

Schloenbach, U. 1866. Beitrage zur Palaontologie der Jura- und Kreide-Formation im nordwestlichen Deutschland. Palaeontographica 13, 265-332.

Schloenbach, U. 1868. Kleine palaontologische Mittheilungen, 2. Folge (III. Die Brachiopoden der bohmischen Kreide). Jahrbuch der kaiserlich-königlichen geologischen Reichsanstalt 18(1), 139-166.

Schlotheim, E.F. von 1813. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Versteinerungen in geognostischer Hinsicht. Leonhard’s Taschenbuch für die gesammte Mineralogie 7(1), 3-134.

Schumann, D. 1973. Mesodermale Endoskelette terebratulider Brachiopoden. I. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 47, 77-103.

Simon, E. 1993. Possible presence of Cretirhynchia undulata (Pusch, 1837) in de Vijlen Chalk (Upper Maastrichtian) from Hallembaye (Belgium). Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 63, 73-98.

Simon, E. 2005. New Lower Maastrichtian brachiopods (Gulpen Formation, Vijlen Member) from southern Limburg (The Netherlands). Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 75, 127-165.

Simon, E. & Owen, E.F. 2001. A first step in the revision of the genus Cretirhynchia Pettitt, 1950. Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 71, 53-118.

Smirnova, T.N. 1966. K sistematike rannemelovych terebratulid podsemeistva Cancellothyrinae. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 3, 31-41.

Smirnova, T.N. 1972. Rannemelovye brachiopody Kryma i severnogo Kavkaza. 143 pp. Nauka, Moscow.

Sowerby, J. & Sowerby, J. de C. 1829. The mineral conchology of Great Britain; or coloured figures and descriptions of those remains of testaceous animals or shells, which have been preserved at various times and depths in the earth, 6. 249 pp. London.

Steinich, G. 1963. Fossile Spicula der Brachiopoden der Rugener Schreibkreide. Geologie 12(5), 604-610.

Steinich, G. 1965. Die artikulaten Brachiopoden der Rugener Schreibkreide (Unter - Maastricht). Paläontologische Abhandlungen, Abteilung A, Paläozoologie 2, 1-220.

Sternberg, R.M. & Belding, H.F. 1942. Dry-peel technique. Journal of Paleontology 16, 135-136.

Surlyk, F. 1972. Morphological adaptations and population structures of the Danish Chalk brachiopods (Maastrichtian, Upper Cretaceous). Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Biologiske Skrifter 19(2), 1-57.

Surlyk, G. 1980. Upper Cretaceous and Danian outcrops in Scania and East Denmark, 21-48. In Birkelund, T. & Bromley, R.G. (eds) Upper Cretaceous and Danian of NW Europe, Guide to Excursion 069 A. 26e Congres Géologique International. Paris.

Surlyk, F. 1982. Brachiopods from the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary sequence, Kronsmoor (NW Germany). Geologisches Jahrbuch A 61, 259-277.

Surlyk, F. 1984. The Maastrichtian Stage in NW Europe, and its brachiopod zonation. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 33, 217-223.

Surlyk, F. & Johansen, M.B. 1984. End-Cretaceous brachiopod extinctions in the chalk of Denmark. Science 223, 1174-1177.View article

Tarkowski, R. 1991. Stratygrafia, makroskamieniałości i paleogeografia utworow gornej kredy niecki opolskiej. Zieszyty naukowe Akademii Górnicko-Hutnieczkej, Geologia 51, 1-156.

Tarkowski, R. 1996. Inoceramid biostratigraphy in the Turonian of the Opole Trough (southwestern Poland). Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg 77, 489-501.

Titova, M.V. 1959. Brachiopoda, 221-244. In Moskvin, M.M. (ed.) Atlas verchnemelovoy fauny severnogo Kavkaza i Kryma. Gostoptechizdat, Moscow.

Titova, M.V. 1977. Pozdnemelovye Cancellothyrididae (Brachiopoda) Turkmenii. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 4, 73-85.

Titova, M.V. 1992. Upper Cretaceous brachiopods from southern USSR, 137-171. In Zonova, T.D. et al. (eds) Atlas rukovodiashchikh Grupp Fauny Mezozoia Iuga i Vostoka SSSR. Moscow. [in Russian]

Vaně, M. 1964. Lenešicka cihelna, 133-134. In Krutsky, N. (ed.) Sborník k XV. sjezdu Československé společnosti pro mineralogii a geologii s exkurzním průvodcem. 264 pp. Československa společnost pro mineralogii a geologii, Teplice.

Vodražka, R. 2009. A new method for the extraction of macrofossils from calcareous rocks using sulphuric acid. Palaeontology 52(1), 187-192.View article

Wiese, F., Čech, S., Ekrt, B., Košťak, M., Mazuch, M. & Voigt, S. 2004. The Upper Turonian of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Czech Republic) exemplified by the Upohlavy working quarry: integrated stratigraphy and palaeoceanography of gateway to the Tethys. Cretaceous Research 25, 329-352.View article

Williams, A., Carlson, S.J. & Brunton, C.H.C. 2000. Brachiopod classification, 1-27. In Kaesler, R.L. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda 2 (revised). Geological Society of America & The University of Kansas Press, Boulder & Lawrence.

Williams, A., Carlson, S.J., Brunton, C.H.C., Holmer, L.E. & Popov, L. 1996. A supra-ordinal classification of the Brachiopoda. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B351(4), 1171-1193.View article

Williams, A., James, M.A., Emig, C.C., Mackay, S. & Rhodes, M.C. 1997. Anatomy, 7-188. In Kaesler, R.L. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda 1 (revised). Geological Society of America & The University of Kansas Press, Boulder & Lawrence.

Zahalka, Č. 1918. Východočeský útvar křídový. 80 pp. Roudnice nad Labem. Žitt, J. & Vodražka, R. 2008. New data on Late Turonian crinoids from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic. Bulletin of Geosciences 83(3), 311-326.View article