Late Cretaceous environments and communities as recorded at Chrtníky (Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic)

 

Authors: Žítt J, Vodrážka R, Hradecká L, Svobodová M, Zágoršek K

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 81, issue 1; pages: 43 - 79; Received 3 October 2005; Accepted in revised form 12 January 2006;

Keywords: Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Upper Cenomanian-Lower Turonian, taphonomy, palaeoecology, sedimentary environment,

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Abstract

Five sedimentation episodes ranging from Upper Cenomanian to Lower Turonian (Korycany Member of the Peruc-Korycany Formation and Bílá Hora Formation) are documented from new outcrops at the Chrtníky quarry, Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (BCB). The first episode belongs to the lower Metoicoceras geslinianum Zone and is recorded only as phosphatic intraclasts in younger beds. The second and third episodes (upper M. geslinianum Zone) are represented by coarse conglomerates separated by an interval of condensed sedimentation, phosphogenesis, and erosion of incompletely lithified deposits. The third sedimentation episode is cut by erosion. Probably after a stratigraphic gap, a fourth episode followed and included further shaping of the underlying erosion surface (formation of a hardground s. lat.), stromatolite growth and phosphogenesis (second interval of condensed sedimentation), corrosion and redeposition of diabase clasts, calcareous mud deposition and firmground formation, and, finally, deposition of dark claystone and burrowing. This succession seems to be of Early Turonian age, Whiteinella archaeocretacea (?) Zone. Basal portions of the fifth sedimentation episode (Lower Turonian, Helvetoglobotruncana helvetica Zone) started after the erosion event and included marly deposits rich in macrofauna, whereas the overlying strata yield an impoverished fauna predominated by sponges. In the topmost part of the succession, fully oxic conditions with abundant macrofauna are documented. The biostratigraphic conclusions are based on macrofauna and micropalaeontology (palynomorphs and foraminifera), and on correlations with other shallow-water successions (Předboj, Velim, Pecínov). Finds of enormously abundant remains of the crinoid Cyathidium aff. depressum (Sieverts) are unique. Common bryozoan and microfossil associations document a deepening of the basin during the fifth sedimentation episode. An identical development is documented by gradual changes in ecologic types of sponges (Pachytilodia bohemica rarr;Chonella-Verruculina-Siphonia rarr;Laocoetis-Guettardiscyphia-Diplodictyon assemblages). The taphonomy of macrofauna supports previous views of the geological and sedimentological developments in the area. Nontronite, which causes the greenish colour of clay laminae mainly in stromatolites, was identified for the first time in the BCB.

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