Mineralogy, petrography and geochemistry of sediments used in pollutant sorption experiments


Authors: Koubová M, Zeman J, Müller P

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 78, issue 3; pages: 163 - 168; Accepted in revised form 5 May 2003;

Keywords: soil, lake bottom sediment, sandstone, clay minerals, smectite, illite, kaolinite, chlorite, carbonate cement,

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Sediments from the bottom of the Horní Bečva Reservoir (HBS 2, HBS 6, HBV 4) contain identical mineral phases and vary in clay contents (HBS 2 - 1 wt%, HBV 4 - 18.5 wt%). With the increasing clay amount, the contents of Fe-oxyhydroxides and organic matter also increase. Clay minerals in lake bottom sediments are represented mainly by kaolinite (K), chlorite (C) and mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) with expandability of ca. 40 % S [(K > C) = I/S]. Neogene argillaceous and silty sandstone from Staré Město (SMA) comprises the highest amount of clay fraction (31 wt%). Phyllosilicates, especially smectite and kaolinite (S = K), surround the rock-forming minerals. H (Hevlín) and Žd (Ždánice) Paleogene and Neogene silty sandstones contain carbonate cement (dolomite > calcite). The dominant clay mineral in both sandstones is I/S with expandability of ca. 95 % S. The H sample contains also a considerable amount of chlorite and discrete illite (S > C > Id). Žd sample comprises less kaolinite plus chlorite and discrete illite [S > (K > C) > Id]. The soil horizon from Lelekovice (Le 4) is typical in the presence of carbonates, weathered amphiboles and epidote minerals (derived from a metabasite source), in higher contents of clay fraction (15 wt%), organic matter and Fe-oxyhydroxides. The main clay mineral in sample Le 4 is mixed-layer illite/smectite with expandability around 65%S and kaolinite (I/S > K). The soil horizon from Červenohorské sedlo Saddle (SČS 5) is typical in the absence of feldspars, in the high content of muscovite and biotite (derived from mica schists) and in the highest amount of organic matter and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Clay minerals of this sample include mostly discrete illite; chlorite and kaolinite are less abundant (Id > C > K).