Complex parasitism and symbiosis of crinoid, subepidermal parasite, and tabulate coral. Lower Devonian (Pragian), Barrandian, Czech Republic


Authors: Galle A, Prokop RJ

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 75, issue 4; pages: 441 - 444;

Keywords: Crinoids, tabulate corals, paleoecology, parasitism, mutalism, symbiosis, Lower Devonian, Pragian, Barrandian, Czech Republic,

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The tabulate coral Favosites sp.(similar to his relatives from reefs but living in the different enviroment i.e., quiet sedimentation of micritic limestones) and a subepidermal parasitic organism grew together on the crinoid column. The relation of crinoid to subepidermal parasite (SEP) organism was parasitic, the relationship of crinoid to Favosites sp. was either one of neutralism or amensalism, and the relation of the SEP and coral if they grew contemporally was probably a neutral association, or nonobligate commensalism, or protocooperation, as one or both animals benefited without obligate relationships. The relation probably cannot be classified as mutualistic as SEPs occur usually without presence of Favosites sp., although the tabulate is unknown to occur without presence of the SEPs.