Dead or alive? Brachiopods and other shells as substrates for endo- and sclerobiont activity in the early Devonian (Lochkovian) of the Barrandian (Czechia)

 

Authors: Mergl M

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 96, issue 4; pages: 401 - 429; Received 22 June 2021; Accepted in revised form 12 August 2021; Online 26 September 2021

Keywords: bioerosion, encrusters, Brachiopoda, Aulopora, Allonema, Lochkovian,

full text (PDF, 12.59 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

Twelve encrusters and three endobiont trace fossils were distinguished on silicified brachiopod, coral and gastropod shells coming from the Kotýs Limestone (Lochkovian) of the Prague Basin, Bohemia. Encrusters preferred larger and costellate brachiopod shells with prominent convexity of valves. Locations and developments of coral encrustations produced by tabulate Aulopora sp., rugose Syringaxon sp., and an unnamed rugose coral indicate different strategies in selection of substrate. The auloporid preferred living host, articulated shells or intact valves, the rugose corals were less selective and colonised also dead and broken shells. Unlike encruster associations of middle and upper Devonian age in other areas (France, Poland, USA), in Bohemia, the encruster hosts were chiefly orthids (Parmorthina Havlíček, 1975; Isorthis Kozłowski, 1929; Dalejina Havlíček, 1953; Resserella Bancroft, 1928) and atrypids (Spinatrypa Stainbrook, 1951). Apart from corals, a microproblematicum Allonema Ulrich & Bassler, 1904, two pterobranchs, bryozoans, a hederellid, a craniid, a protorthid brachiopod, and a microconchid were observed on host shells together with small dendritic borings, cylindrical borings of Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932, and a dendritic structure of unclear origin.

References

Ager, D.V. 1961. The epifauna of a Devonian spiriferid. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 117, 1-10.View article

Ager, D.V. 1963. Principes of paleoecology. 371 pp. McGraw-Hill, N.Y.

Alexander, R.R. & Scharpf, C.D. 1990. Epizoans on Late Ordovician brachiopods from southeastern Indiana. Historical Biology 4, 179-202.View article

Allman, G.J. 1869. On Rhabdopleura, a new genus of Polyzoa. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 6, 438-440.View article

Amsden, T.W. 1983. Coelospira concava (Hall) from the Pinetop Chert (Early Devonian), Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma. Journal of Paleontology 57(6), 1244-1260.

Asgaard, U. 2008. Crania at your service: the Antikythyra shipwreck. Fossils and Strata 54, 227-282.

Bancroft, B.B. 1928. On the notational representation of the rib-system in Orthacea. Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Memoirs and Proceedings 72, 53-90.

Barclay, K.M., Schneider, C.L. & Leighton, L.R. 2013. Palaeocology of Devonian sclerobionts and their brachiopod hosts from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 61, 17-31.View article

Barclay, K.M., Schneider, C.L. & Leighton, L.R. 2015. Mapping sclerobiosis: a new method for interpreting the distribution, biological implications, and paleoenvironmental signficance of sclerobionts on biotic hosts. Palaeobiology 41(4), 592-609.View article

Barrande, J. 1847. Ueber die Brachiopoden der silurischen Schichten von Böhmen. I. Teil. 357-475 pp. Naturwissenschaftliche Abhandlungen 1, W. Haidinger. Wien.

Barrande, J. 1848. Ueber die Brachiopoden der silurischen Schichten von Böhmen. II. Teil. 155-256 pp. Naturwissenschaftliche Abhandlungen 2, W. Haidinger. Wien.

Barrande, J. 1879. Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme. Iére partie. Recherches paléontologiques. Vol. 5. Classe des Mollusques. Ordre des Brachiopodes. 226 pp. Prague & Paris.

Bassett, M. G. 1984. Life strategies of Silurian brachiopods. Special Papers in Palaeontology 32, 237-263.

Bassler, R.S. 1952. Taxonomic notes on genera of fossil and Recent Bryozoa. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 42(12), 381-385.

Berkowski, B. & Klug, C. 2012. Lucky rugose corals on crinoid stems: unusual examplex of subepidermal epizoans from the Devonian of Morocco. Lethaia 45, 24-33.View article

Bertling, M. 1992. Arachnostega n. ichnog. - burroving traces in internal moulds of boring bivalves (late Jurassic, Northern Germany. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 66, 177-185.View article

Bertling, M. 1995. Ropalonoria arachne (Fischer, 1866) eine Bryozoen-Bohrspur aus dem norddeutschen Malm. Münster Forschungen zur Geologie und Paläontologie 77, 357-362.

Biernat, G. 1959. Middle Devonian Orthoidea of the Holy Cross Mountains and their ontogeny. Palaeontologia Polonica 10, 1-78.

Bohatý, J., Ausich, W.I., Nardin, E., Nyhuis, C. & Schröder, S. 2012. Coral crinoid biocoenosis and resulting trace fossils from the Middle Devonian of the Eifel Synclines (Rheinish Massif, Germany). Journal of Paleontology 86(2), 282-301.View article

Bordeaux, Y.L. & Brett, C.E. 1990. Medium specific associations of epibionts on Middle Devonian brachiopods: implication for paleoecology. Historical Biology 4, 203-220.View article

Bose, R., Schneider, C.L., Leighton, L.R. & Polly, P.D. 2011. Influence of atrypid morphological shape on Devonian episkeletobiont assemblages from the lower Genshaw formation of the Traverse Group of Michigan. A geometric morphometric approach. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 310, 427-441.View article

Bouček, B. 1957. The dendroid graptolites of the Silurian of Bohemia. Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 23, 1-294.

Boucot, A.J. 1963. The Eospiriferidae. Palaeontology 5(4), 682-711.

Boucot, A.J. 1981. Principes of Benthic Marine Palaeoecology; with contributions on Bioturbation, Biodeposition, and Nutrients by R.S. Carney. 463 pp. Academic Press, New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, San Franciso.

Brett, C.E. & Cottrel, J.F. 1982. Substrate specificity in the Devonian tabulate coral Pleurodictyum. Lethaia 15, 247-262.View article

Brett, C.E., Smrecak, T., Hubbard, K.P. & Walker, S. 2012. Marine Sclerofacies: Encrusting and Endolitic Communitites on Shells Through Time and Space, 129-157. In Talent, J.A. (ed.) Earth and Life. International Year of Planet Earth. Springer Science + Business Media. B.V.View article

Brice, D. & Mistiaen, B. 1992. Épizoaires des Brachiopodes frasniens de Ferques (Boulonnais, Nord de la France). Géobios 14 (Supplement 1), 45-58.View article

Cameron, B. 1969. Paleozoic shell-boring annelids and their trace fossils. American Zoologist 9, 689-703.View article

Chapman, F. 1919. On some hydroid remains of Lower Palaeozoic age from Monegetta, near Lancefield. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, New Series 2(31), 388-393.

Chlupáč, I. 1983. Trilobite assemblages in the Devonian of the Barrandian area and their relations to palaeoenvironments. Geologica et Palaentologica 17, 43-73.

Chlupáč, I. 1998. Devonian, 101-133. In Chlupáč, I., Havlíček, V., Kříž, J., Kukal, Z. & Štorch, P. (eds) Palaeozoic of the Barrandian (Cambrian to Devonian). Czech Geological Survey, Prague.

Clarke, J.M. 1908. The beginnings of dependent life. New York State Museum Bulletin 121, 146-169.

Clarke, J.M. 1921. Organic dependence and disease, their origin and significance. New York State Museum Bulletin 221-222, 1-113.View article

Daley, A.C. 2008. Statistical analysis of mixed-motive shell borings in Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian brachiopods from northern and eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 45, 213-229.View article

Davidson, T. 1858-1863. A monograph of the British fossil Brachiopoda, Carboniferous, vol. 2, part 5. 280 pp. Palaeontographical Society Monograph, London.View article

Davidson, T. 1858. Palaeontological notes on the Brachiopoda. No.1. On the genera and subgenera of Brachiopoda that are provided with spiral appendages for the support of the oral arms, and species so constructed, which have been discovered in British Carboniferous strata. Geologist 1, 409-416, 457-472.View article

Davis, R.A., Mapes, R.H. & Klofak, S.M. 1999. Epizoa on Externally Shelled Cephalopods, 32-51. In Rozanov, A.Yu. &. Shevyrev, A.A. (eds) Fossil Cephalopods: Recent Advances in Their Study. Russian Academy of Sciences Paleontological Institute, Moscow.

Dzik, J. 1975. The origin and early phylogeny of cheilostomatous bryozoa. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 20, 395-423.

Emig, C.C. 1997. Ecology of inarticulated brachiopods, 473-495. In Williams, A., Brunton, C.H.C. & Carlson, S.J. et al. (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, part H, Brachiopoda, Revised, Volume 1. Geological Society of America Inc. and The University of Kansas, Boulder, Lawrence.View article

Furlong, C.M. & McRoberts, C.A. 2014. Commensal borings from the Middle Devonian of Central New York: Ecologic and taphonomic review of Clionoides, Clionolithes, and Canaliparva n. ichnogen. Journal of Paleontology 88, 130-144.View article

Galle, A. & Parsley, R.L. 2005. Epibiont relationschips on hyolithids demostrated by Ordovician trepostomes (Bryozoa) and Devonian tabulates (Anthozoa). Bulletin of Geosciences 80(2), 125-138.

Galle, A. & Prokop, R.J. 2000. Complex parasitism and symbiosis of crinoid, subepidermal parazite, and tabulate coral. Lower Devonian (Pragian) Barrandian. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey 75(4), 441-444.

Glaub, I., Golubic, S., Gektidis, M., Radtke, G. & Vogel, K. 2007. Microborings and microbial endoliths: Geological implication, 368-381. In Miller, W. III (ed.) Trace fossils concepts, problems, prospects. Elsevier, Amsterdam.View article

Głuchowski, E. 2005. Epibiont on upper Eifelian crinoid columnals from the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50(2), 315-328.

Goldfuss, G.A. 1829. Petrefacta Germaniae, tam ea, quae in museo universitas regiae borussicae Fridericae Wilhelmiae Rhenanae servantur quan alia quaecunque in museis Hoeningshusiano Muensteriano allisque extant, iconibus et descriptionibus illustrata. Abbildungen und Beschreibunges der Petrefacten Deutschald und der angränzenden Länder, unter Mitwirkung des Herrn Grafen Georg zu Münster. Teil. 1, lieferung 1. 76-164 pp. Arnz & Co., Düsseldorf.

González-Mora, S., Wyse Jackson, P.N., Torres-Martínez, M.A., Buitrón-Sánchez, B.E., Barragán, R. & Sour-Tovar, F. 2018. Hederella carbonaria Condra & Elias, 1944 from the Roadian (middle Permian) of Mexico. Bulletin of Geosciences 93(4), 457-461.View article

Grabau, A.W. 1899. The Geology of Eighteen mile Creek. Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 6, 97-390.

Gray, J.E. 1867. Notes of the Arrangement of Sponges, with the Descriptions of some New Genera. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867(2), 492-558.

Hall, J. 1860. Observations on Brachiopoda. New York State Cabinet of Natural History, 13th Annual Report. Albany, 65-75.

Hall, J. 1867. Notice of Volume IV of the Palaeontology of New York; with an enumeration of the species described, and observations on their relation to Carboniferous forms. New York State Cabinet of Natural History, 20th Annual Report. Albany, 145-168.

Hall, J. 1881. Bryozoans of the Upper Helderberg and Hamilton Groups. Transactions of the Albany Institute 10, 145-197.

Hall, J. 1882. Descriptions of the species of fossils found in the Niagara Group at Waldron, Indiana. Indiana Department of Geology and Natural History, 11th Annual Report, 217-345.

Hall, J. & Clarke, J.M. 1893. An Introduction to the Study of the Genera of Palaeozoic Brachiopoda. Palaeontology of New York, vol. 8, part 2. 317 pp. Charles van Benthuysen & Sons. Albany.

Harper, C.W., Jr & Boucot, A.J. 1978. The Stropheo¬dontacea, parts I-III. Palaeontographica, Abteilung A 161, 55-175.View article

Havlíček, V. 1953. O několika nových ramenonožcích českého a moravského středního devonu. Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 28, 4-9.

Havlíček, V. 1956. Ramenonožci vápenců bránických a hlubočepských z nejbližšího pražského okolí. Sborník Ústredního ústavu geologického 22, 535-665.

Havlíček, V. 1957. Další nové rody čeledi Spiriferidae v českém siluru a devonu. Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 32(6), 436-440.

Havlíček, V. 1961. Rhynchonelloidea des böhmischen älteren Palaäozoikums (Brachiopoda). Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 27, 1-211.

Havlíček, V. 1965. Superfamily Orthotetacea (Brachiopoda) in the Bohemiana nd Moravian Paleozoic. Věstník ústředního ústavu geologického 40, 291-294.

Havlíček, V. 1967. Brachiopods of the Suborder Strophomenidina in Czechoslovakia. Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 33, 1-235.

Havlíček, V. 1971. Non-costate and weakly costate Spiriferidina in the Silurian and Lower Devonian of Bohemia. Sborník geologických věd, Paleontologie 14, 7-34.

Havlíček, V. 1975. New genera and species of Orthida (Brachiopoda). Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 50, 231-235.

Havlíček, V. 1977. Brachiopods of the order Orthida in Czechoslovakia. Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 44, 1-327.

Havlíček, V. 1980. New Eospiriferinae (Brachiopoda) in Bohemia. Sborník geologických věd, Paleontologie 23, 7-48.

Havlíček, V. 1984. Lissatrypa (Brachiopoda; Silurian, Lower Devonian) in Bohemia. Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 59(4), 217-225.

Havlíček, V. 1987. Lower Devonian and Eifelian Atrypacea (Brachiopoda) in central Bohemia. Sborník geologických věd, Paleontologie 28, 61-115.

Havlíček, V. 1999. Lochkovian brachiopods of the Prague Basin (Lower Devonian, Czech Republic). Věstník Českého geologického ústavu 74(3), 299-322.

Havlíček, V. & Racheboeuf, P. 1979. Chonetacea (Brachiopodes) du Silurien et du Dévonien de Boheme (Tchécoslovaquie). Annales de Paléontologie, Invertebres 65(2), 69-113.

Havlíček, V. & Vaněk, J. 1998. Pragian brachiopods, trilobites, and principal biofacies in the Prague Basin (Lower Devonian, Bohemia). Sborník geologických věd, Paleontologie 34, 27-109.

Hoare, R.D. & Walden, R.L. 1983. Vermiforichnus (Polychaeta) boring in Paraspirifer bownockeri (Brachiopoda: Devonian). Ohio Journal of Science 83, 114-119.

Horný, R. 1965. Anticalyptraea bastli sp. n., sesilní kroužkovec z českého siluru (Annelida, Polychaeta). Časopis Národního Muzea, Oddíl přírodovědný 134, 76-79.

Hurst, J.M. 1974. Selective epizoan encrustation of some Silurian brachiopods from Gotland. Palaeontology 17, 423-429.

Jarochowska, E., Hierl, F., Vinn, O. & Munnecke, A. 2016. Reducing taxonomical noise in problematic fossils: revision of the incertae sedis genus Allonema based on shape analysis. Bulletin of Geosciences 91(1), 97-110.View article

John, J.M. St. & Wilson, M.A. 1998. The enigmatic encruster Chaunograptus from the Richmond stage of the Cincinnation Series /Upper Ordovician) of southwestern Ohio and southeastern Indiana. GSA Abstracts with program, North-Central Section, 1027.

Johnson, J. G. & Talent, J.A. 1967. Muriferella, a new genus of Lower Devonian septate dalmanellid. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 80, 43-50.

Kershaw, S. 1987. Stromatoporoid-coral intergrowths in a Silurian biostrome. Lethaia 20, 371-380.View article

Kesling, R.V., Hoare, R.D. & Sparks, D.K. 1980. Epizoans of the Middle Devonian brachiopod Paraspirifer bownockeri: their relationships to one another and their host. Journal of Paleontology 54, 1141-1154.

Kiepura, M. 1965. Devonian bryozoans of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 10, 11-48.

Kiepura, M. 1973. Devonian bryozoans of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland: Part II. Cyclostomata and Cystoporata. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 18, 323-400.

Kiepura, M. 2003. Typ Bryozoa, 172-188. In Malinowska, L. (ed.) Budowa Geologiczna Polski, vol. 3, part 1b. Atlas skamieniałości przewodnich i charakterystycznych. Dewon, Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warszawa.

King, W. 1850. A Monograph of the Permian Fossils of England. Palaeontographical Society Monograph 3, 1-258.View article

Kozłowski, R. 1929. Les brachiopodes gothlandiens de la Podolie polonaise. Palaeontologica Polonica 1, 1-254.

Kozłowski, R. 1946. Howellella, a new name for Crispella Kozlowski, 1929. Journal of Paleontology 20, 295.

Lebold, J.G. 2000. Quantitative analysis of epizoans on Silurian stromatoporoids within the Brassfield Formation. Journal of Paleontology 54, 1141-1154.

Lisitsyn, D.V. 1998. The first Permian find of the genus Hederella (Bryozoa). Paleontological Journal 32(6), 589-591.

Mägdefrau, M.G. 1932. Über einige Bohrgänge aus dem Unteren Muschelkalk von Jena. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 4, 150-160.View article

Maletz, J. & Beli, E. 2018. Part V, Second Revision, Chapter 15: Subclass Graptolithina and incertae sedis Family Rhabdopleuridae: Introduction and Systematic Descriptions. Treatise Online 101, 1-14.View article

Maletz, J. & Steiner, M. 2015. Graptolite (Hemichordata, Pterobranchia) preservation and identification in the Cambrian Series 3. Palaeontology 58(6), 1073-1107.View article

Marek, L. & Galle, A. 1976. The tabulate coral Hyostragulum, an epizoan with bearing on hyolith ecology and systematics. Lethaia 9, 51-64.View article

McIntosh, G.C. 1980. Dependent commensal associan between Devonian crinoids and two species of tabulate corals. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs 12(7), 481.

Mergl, M. 1989. Trimerellid brachiopods in the Silurian (Wenlock/Lodlow) in the Prague Basin (Central Bohemia). Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 64(5), 267-275.

Mergl, M. 2003. Silicified brachiopods of the Kotýs Limestone (Lochkovian) in the Bubovice area (Barrandian, Bohemia). Sborník Národního muzea, Serie B, Přírodní vědy 59(3-4), 99-150.

Mergl, M. 2010. Silicification of fossils in the Silurian and Devonian of the Barrandian, Czech Republic. Journal of National Museum (Prague), Nature History Series 179(13), 139-145.

Mergl, M. 2020. Dendritic microborings in brachiopod shells from the Silurian of the Barrandian area, Czech Republic. Bulletin of Geosciences 95(3), 319-332.View article

Merriam, C.W. 1974. Lower and Lower Middle Devonian Rugose Corals of the Central Great Basin. Geological Survey Professional Paper 805, 1-83.View article

Mistiaen, B., Brice, D., Zapalski, M.K. & Loones, C. 2012. Brachiopods and their auloporid epibionts in the Devonian of Boulonnais (France): Comparison with other associations globally, 159-189. In Talent, J.A. (ed.) Earth and Life. International Year of Planet Earth. Springer Science + Business Media. B.V.View article

Obut, A.M. 1964. Order Hemichordata. 279-357. In Orlov, Y.A. (ed.) Osnovy Palaeontologii. Nedra, Moscow.

Opalinski, P.R. & Harland, T.L. 1980. Macroborings of Middle Ordovician age from southern Norway. Journal of Paleontology 54, 1352-1355.

Pickerill, R.K. 1976. Vermiforichnus borings from the Ordovician of Central Wales. Geological Magazine 113, 159-164.View article

Pitrat, C.W. & Rogers, F.S. 1978. Spinocyrtia and its epibionts in the Traverse Group (Devonian) of Michigan. Journal of Paleontology 52, 1315-1324.

Prantl, F. 1938. Revise českých paleozoických Reptariideí (Mechovky). Sborník Národního

Rakociński, M. 2011. Sclerobionts on upper Famennian cephalopods from the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironmets 91(1), 63-73.View article

Ramírez-Guerrero, G.M. & Cameron, C., F. B. 2021. Systematics of pterobranchs from the Cambrian Period Burges Shales of Canada and the early evolution of graptolites. Bulletin of Geosciences 96(1), 1-18.View article

Richards, R.P. 1972. Autecology of Richmondian brachiopods (Late Ordovician of Indiana and Ohio). Journal of Paleontology 46, 386-405.

Roemer, F. 1876. Lethaea palaeozoica oder Beschreibung und abbildung der für die einzelnen Abtheilungen de palaeozoischen Formation bezeichnendsten Verteinerungen, Atlas. 68 pls. Schweizerbarts’che Verlag, Stuttgart.

Röhlich, P. & Chlupáč, I. 1952. Svrchní ordovik v bývalé Reiserově cihelně u Řeporyj. Sborník Ústředního ústavu geologického, oddíl geologický 19, 1-36.

Ruedemann, R. 1947. Graptolites of North America. Geological Society of America Memoir 19, 1-652.View article

Rzhonsnitskaia, M.A. 1964. O devonskikh atripidakh Kuznetskogo Basseina, paleontologiya i stratigra?ya [On Devonian atrypids of the Kuznetsk Basin, paleontology and stratigraphy]. Trudy Vsesoiuznogo Nauchno-issledovatelskogo Geologitcheskogo Instituta (VSEGEI) 93, 91-112.

Savage, N.M. 1974. The brachiopods of the Lower Devonian, Maradana Shale, New South Wales. Palaeontographica, Abteilung A 146, 1-51.

Schmidt, O. 1862. Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. i-viii, 88 pp. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

Schönberg, C.H.L. & Shields, G. 2008. Micro-computed tomography for studies on Entobia: transparent substrate versus modern technology, 147-164. In Wisshak, M. & Tapanila, L. (eds) Current Developments in Bioerosion, Springer, Heidelberg.View article

Schuchert, C. & Cooper, G.A. 1931. Synopsis of the brachiopod genera of the suborders Orthoidea and Pentameroidea, with notes on the Telotremata. American Journal of Science (Series 5) 22, 241-255.View article

Seilacher, A. 1978. Paleoecology of primary and secondary soft bottom dwellers. Geological Society of America, Abstract with Programs 10(7), 489.

Slavík, L. 2011. Lanea carlsi conodont apparatus reconstruction and its significance for subdivision of the Lochkovian. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 56(2), 313-327.View article

Slavík, L., Carls, P., Hladil, J. & Koptíková, L. 2012. Subdivision of the Lochkovian Stage 2 based on conodont faunas from the stratotype area (Prague Synform, Czech Republic). Geological Journal 47, 616-631.View article

Smith, R.E. 1980. Lower Devonian (Lochkovian) biostratigraphy and brachiopod faunas of the Canadian Arctic islands. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Canada 308, 1-155.View article

Smrecak, T.A. & Brett, C.E. 2014. Establishing patterns in sclerobiont distribution in a late Ordovician (Cincinnatian) depth gradient: toward a sclerobiofacies model. Palaios 29, 74-85.View article

Šnajdr, M. 1983. Epifauna on the exuviae of Bohemian Devonian trilobites. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 28, 181-186.

Solle, G. 1952. Neue Untergattungen und Arten der Bryozoen-Gattung Hederella und eine Hernodia im rheinishen Unterdevon. Notizblatt des Hessischen Landesamtes für Bodenforschung zu Wiesbaden 6(3), 35-55.

Solle, G. 1968. Hederelloidea (Cyclostomata) und einige ctenostome Bryozoen aus dem rheinischen Devon. Abhandlungen des Hessischen Landesamtes für Bodenforschung 54, 1- 40.

Sparks, D.K., Hoare, R.D. & Kesling, R.V. 1980. Epizoans on the brachiopod Paraspirifer bownockeri (Stewart) from the Middle Devonian of Ohio. Papers on Paleontology 23, 1-105.

Spjeldnaes, N. 1984. Epifauna as a tool in autecological analysis of Silurian brachiopods. Special Papers in Palaeontology 32, 225-235.

Stainbrook, M.A. 1951. Substitution for the preoccupied brachiopod name Hystricina. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 41(6), 196.

Struve, W. 1966. Einige Atrypinae aus dem Silurium und Devon. Senckenbergiana Lethaea 4, 123-163.

Suess, E. 1851. Ueber ein neues Brachiopoden-Geschlecht Merista. Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt 2(4), 150.

Tapanila, L. 2008. The medium is the message: imaging a complex microboring (Pyrodendrina cupra igen. n., isp. n.) from the early Paleozoic of Anticosti Island, Canada, 123-145. In Wisshak, M. & Tapanila, L. (eds) Current Developments in Bioerosion. Springer, Heidelberg.View article

Tapanila, L. & Ekdale, A.A. 2007. Early history of symbiosis in living substrates: Trace-fossil evidence from the marine record, 345-355. In Miller, W. III (ed.) Trace fossils concepts, problems, prospects. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam.View article

Taylor, P.D. & Wilson, M.A. 2002. A new terminology for marine organisms inhabiting hard substrates. Palaios 17, 522-525.View article

Taylor, P.D. & Wilson, M.A.2003. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews 62, 1-103.View article

Taylor, P.D. & Wilson, M.A. 2008. Morphology and affinities of hederelloid “bryozoans”, 301-309. In Hageman, S.J., Key, M.M. & Winston, J.E. (eds) Bryozoan Studies 2007. proceeding of the 14th international bryozoology conference, Boone, North Carolina, July1-8. Virginia Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 15.

Thayer, C.W. 1974. Substrate specificity of Devonian epizoa. Journal of Paleontology 48, 881-894.

Thayer, C.W. 1975. Morphologic adaptations of benthic invertebrates to soft substrata. Journal of Marine Research 33, 117-189.

Turek, V. 1987. Hydrodynamic conditions and the benthic community of upper Wenlockian calcareous shales in the western part of the Barrandian (Kosov quarry). Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 28(3), 245-260.

Twenhofel, W.H. 1914. The Anticosti Island faunas. Canada Geological Survey Museum Bulletin, Geological Series 19(3), 1-39.View article

Ulrich, E.O. 1879. Description of new genera and species of fossils from the Lower Silurian about Cincinnati. The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 2(1), 8-30.

Ulrich, E.O. & Bassler, R.S. 1904. A revision of the Paleozoic Bryozoa. Part I. On genera and species of Ctenostomata. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 45, 256-294.

Vacek, F. & Žák, J. 2019. A lifetime of the Variscan orogenietic plateau from uplift to collapse as recorded by the Prague Basin, Bohemian Massif. Geological Magazine 156(3), 485-509.View article

Vinn, O. 2004. The earliest known Trypanites borings in the shells of articulate brachiopods from the Arenig (Ordovician) of Baltica. Proceedings of Estonian Academy of Sciences Geology 53(4), 257-266.

Vinn, O. 2005. The distribution of worm borings in brachiopod shells from the Caradoc Oil Shale of Estonia. Carnets de Géologie, 2005/03, 1-11.View article

Vinn, O. 2017. Symbiosis between Devonian corals and other invertebrates. Palaios 32(6), 382-387.View article

Vinn, O. & Isakar, M. 2007. The tentaculitid affinities of Anticalyptraea from the Silurian of Baltoscandia. Palaeontology 50(6), 1385-1390.View article

Vinn, O. & Motus, M.-A. 2014. Endobiotic rugosan symbionts in stromatoporoids from the Sheinwoodian (Silurian) of Baltica: PLoS ONE 9(2), e90197.View article

Vinn, O. & Mutvei, H. 2009. Calcareous tubeworms of the Phanerozoic. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 58, 286-296.Vinn, O. & Taylor, P.D. 2007. Microconchid tubeworms from the Jurassic of England and France. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 52, 391-399.View article

Vinn, O. & Taylor, P.D. 2007. Microconchid tubeworms from the Jurassic of England and France. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 52(2), 391-399.

Vinn, O. & Toom, U. 2016. Rugosan epibionts on vertical stems from the Ludlow and Pridoli of Saaremaa, Estonia. Palaios 31, 35-40.View article

Vinn, O. & Wilson, M.A. 2010. Early large borings from a hardground of Floian-Dapingian age (Early and Middle Ordovician) in northeastern Estonia (Baltica). Carnets de Géologie, CG2010_ L04.View article

Vinn, O. & Wilson, M.A. 2012. Epi- and endobionts on the late Silurian (early Pridoli) stromatoporoids from Saaremaa Island, Estonia. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 82, 195-200.

Vinn, O. Wilson, M.A., Zatoń, M. & Toom, U. 2014. The trace fossil Arachnostega in the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica). Palaeontologia Electronica 17.3.41A, 1-9.View article

Vinn, O., Wilson, M.A., Toom, U. & Motus, M.-A. 2015. Earliest known rugosan-stromatoporoid symbiosis from the Llandovery of Estonia (Baltica). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 431, 1-5.View article

Vinn, O., Toom, U. & Isakar, M. 2017. The earliest cornulitid on the internal surface of the illaenid pygidium from the Middle Ordovician of Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 66(4), 193-197.View article

Vinn, O., Wilson, M.A., Isakar, M. & Toom, U. 2021. Symbiotic worms in the inner aragonitic layer of Leptodesma (Bivalvia) from the Pridoli (Upper Silurian) of Saaremaa Island, Estonia. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 95, 231-236.View article

Vosmaer, G.C.J. 1880. The Sponges of the Leyden Museum. 1. The family of the Desmacinidae. Notes from the Leyden Museum 2, 99-164.

Watkins, R. 1981. Epizoan ecology of the type Ludlow Series (Upper Silurian), England. Journal of Paleontology 55, 29-32.

Whiteaves, J.F. 1891. The Fossils of the Devonian Rocks of the Mackenzie River Basin. Contributions to Canadian Paleontology 1, 197-253.View article

Williams, A. 1950. New stropheodontid brachiopods. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 40, 277-282.

Wilson, M.A. & Taylor, P.D. 2001. “Pseudobryozoans” and the problem of encruster diversity in the Paleozoic. Paleobios 21, 134-135.

Wilson, M.A. & Taylor, P.D. 2014. The morphology and affinities of Allonema and Ascodictyon, two abundant Palaeozoic encrusters commonly misattributed to the ctenostome bryozoans. Studi Trentini de Scienze Naturali 94, 259-266.

Wisshak, M. 2017. Taming an ichnotaxonomical Pandora’s box: revision of dendritic and rosetted microborings (ichnofamily: Dendrinidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 390, 1-99.View article

Wisshak, M. & Tapanila, L. (eds) 2008. Current Developments in Bioerosion. 499 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.View article

Wisshak, M., Titschack, J., Kahl, W.-A. & Girod, P. 2017. Classical and new bioerosion trace fossils in Cretaceous belemnite guards characterised via micro-CT. Fossil Record 20, 173-199.View article

Wyse Jackson, P.N., Key, M.M., Jr & Coakley, S.P. 2014. Epiozoan trepostome bryozoans on nautiloids from the Upper Ordovician (Katian) of the Cincinnati Arch Region, U.S.A.: an assessment of growth, form and water flow dynamics. Journal of Paleontology 88(3), 475-487.View article

Zapalski, M.K. 2005. Palaeoecology of Auloporida: an example from the Devonian of the Holy Cross Mts., Poland. Geobios 38, 677-683.View article

Zatoń, M. & Vinn, O. 2011. Microconchids and the rise of modern encrusting communities. Lethaia 44, 5-7.View article

Zatoń, M., Vinn, O. & Tomescu, M. 2012. Invasion of freshwater and variable marginal marine habitats by microconchid tubeworms - an evolutionary perspective. Geobios 45, 603-610.View article

Zatoń, M., Wrzolek, T. & Ebbestad, H.O.R. 2020. Patterns of sclerobiont colonization on the rugose coral Schlotheimophyllum patellatum (Schlotheim, 1820) from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. Lethaia 4, 486-499.View article

Zhan, R. & Vinn, O. 2007. Cornulitid epibionts on brachiopod shells from the Late Ordovician (middle Ashgill) of East China. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 56(2), 101-108.