Skeletal remains with otoliths in situ of the Miocene croaker Trewasciaena cf. kokeni (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) from the Pannonian of the Vienna Basin


Authors: Přikryl T, Brzobohatý R, Carnevale G

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 96, issue 1; pages: 19 - 28; Received 13 August 2020; Accepted in revised form 2 November 2020; Online 16 November 2020

Keywords: Sciaenidae, Pannonian, Miocene, articulated skeleton, otoliths in situ, Vienna Basin,

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Two articulated skeletons of juvenile sciaenids referred to Trewasciaena cf. kokeni based on their saccular otoliths preserved in situ are described herein. The specimens provide the only available skeletal evidence of the genus Trewasciaena in the record and are characterized by moderately cavernous frontals, poorly developed supraoccipital crest, premaxilla bearing a large articular process with rounded dorsal margin, dentary and anguloarticular firmly articulated, lower jaw joint located in level of anterior half of orbit, jaw teeth small and probably arranged in single row, preopercle crescent shaped with small and regularly spaced spines along the posterior border of its vertical arm, vertebral column apparently containing 24 vertebrae, seven pairs of ribs, caudal skeleton with five autogenous hypurals, slender parhypural, two uroneurals and three epurals, haemal spines of the second and third preural vertebrae autogenous, neural spine of second preural vertebra reduced, elongated dorsal fin with ten or eleven spines and 23 soft rays, short-based anal fin with two spines and probably four soft rays, second anal spine much longer than the first one, pectoral fin probably composed of eight short rays, body densely covered by scales. Despite the potential relevance of these specimens for our understanding of the relationships of Trewasciaena within the Sciaenidae, the concurrent effect of their incompleteness, inadequate preservation and juvenile nature prevented any conclusive statement about the phylogenetic position of genus, which remains this extinct elusive.