The Kačák event (late Eifelian, Middle Devonian) on the Belgian shelf and its effects on rugose coral palaeobiodiversity


Authors: Jamart V, Denayer J

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 95, issue 3; pages: 279 - 311; Received 8 February 2020; Accepted in revised form 1 June 2020; Online 9 August 2020

Keywords: biocrisis, extinctions, palaeobiogeography, stratigraphy, cosmopolitanism, invasive taxa,

full text (PDF, 15.81 MB)

Export to RIS



The Devonian is a period that recorded many biocrises. One of them, known as the Kačák event ranges through the Polygnathus ensensis Zone immediately before the Eifelian-Givetian boundary (Middle Devonian). This crisis has been identified in many localities worldwide, mostly in bathyal settings. The event, divided into two phases (otomari event and Kačák event s.s.), is typically marked by a turnover among pelagic faunas, especially conodonts, dacryoconarids and ammonoids. This turnover result from a transgression associated with anoxia that generally corresponds to the deposition of black shale in deep-water settings. In Belgium, the Kačák event s.s. corresponds to a time window equivalent to the deposition of the Lomme and Hanonet formations. New stratigraphic and palaeontological (rugose corals) data show that the Kačák event had a moderate to weak impact on the Belgian carbonate shelf ecosystem. The Old World Realm faunal assemblages show no significant variation in diversity across the Kačák event. Nevertheless, the remarkable and unexpected occurrence of some rugose corals typical of the East American Realm (siphonphrentids and heliophyllids) in the lower part of the Hanonet Formation helps identify the event as the latter is also marked by a short phase of cosmopolitanism of benthic fauna. This is a proposed criterion useful to recognize the Kačák event where the typical pelagic guides are missing.


Abbasi, M.A., Ashouri, A. & Khasksar, K. 2014a. Solitary rugose corals from the Givetian of the Khoshyeilagh Formation (Eastern Albroz Mountains, NE Iran). Palaeobiodiversity 7, 1-21.

Abbasi, M.A., Khaksar, K. & Ashouri, A. 2014b. Some rugose corals from the Devonian (Givetian and Frasnian) of Northeastern Iran. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 271(2), 123-139.View article

Barchy, L. & Marion, J.-M. 1999. Carte géologique de Wallonie, Chimay - Couvin 57/7-8. 1:25.000. Ministere de la Région wallonne, Direction générale des ressources naturelles et de l?environnement, Namur.

Becker, R.T. & House, M.R. 1994. International Devonian goniatite zonation, Emsian to Givetian, with new records from Morocco. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 169, 79-135.

Becker, T., El Hassani, A. & Tahiri, A. 2013. International Field Symposium on “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana”. 150 pp. Institut Scientifique, Rabat.

Billings, E. 1859. On the fossil corals of the Devonian rocks of Canada West. Canadian Journal of Industry, Science and Art 4, 97-140.

Birenheide, R. 1962. Die Typen der Sammlung Wedekind aus den Familien Cyathophyllidae und Stringophyllidae (Rugosa). Senckenbergiana lethaea 43(2), 101-123.

Birenheide, R. 1963. Cyathophyllum-und Dohmophyllum-Arten (Rugosa) aus dem Mitteldevon der Eifel. Senckenbergiana lethaea 44(5), 363-458.

Birenheide, R. 1964. Die “Cystimorpha” aus dem Eifeler Devon. Abhandlungen der senckenbergishen naturforschenden Gesellschaft 507, 1-120.

Birenheide, R. 1972. Ptenophyllidae (Rugosa) aus dem W-deutschen Mitteldevon. Senckenbergiana lethaea 53(5), 405-437.

Birenheide, R. 1978. Rugose Korallen des Devon. Leitfossilien. 265 pp. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, Stuttgart.

Birenheide, R. 1979. Xystriphyllum- und Sociophyllum-Arten (Rugosa) aus dem Eifelium der Eifel. Seckenbergiana lethaea 60(1-3), 189-221.

Birenheide, R. 1987. Erster Nachweis der rugosen Korallengattug Moravophyllum aus dem Ober-Eifelium der Eifel. Senckenbergiana lethaea 67(5-6), 459-466.

Birenheide, R. & Gabrielli, P. 1993. Stratigraphie und Korallen des unteren Mittel-Devon im NE-Teil der Rohrer Mulde in der Eifel. Senckenbergiana lethaea 70, 1-28.

Boucot, A.J., Xu, C. & Scotese, R. 1997. Correlation between geologically marked climatic changes and extinctions. Geobios 20, 61-65.View article

Boulvain, F., Coen-Aubert, M., Da Silva, A.C., Kershaw, S., Tourneur, F., Denayer, J., Mottequin, B. & Poty, E. 2011. Givetian and Frasnian of Southern Belgium. Kölner Forum für Geologie und Paläontologie 20, 5-49.

Budil, P. 1995. Demonstrations of the Kačák event (Middle Devonian, uppermost Eifelian) at some Barrandian localities. Věstník Českého geologického ústavu 70(4), 1-23.

Bultynck, P. 1970. Révision stratigraphique et paléontologique (brachiopodes et conodontes) de la coupe type du Couvinien. Mémoires de l?institut géologique de l?université de Louvain 26, 1-152.

Bultynck, P. 2006. Couvinian. Geologica Belgica 9(1-2), 147-150.

Bultynck, P. & Dejonghe, L. 2001. Devonian litostratigraphic units (Belgium). Geologica Belgica 4(1-2), 39-69.View article

Bultynck, P. & Hollevoet, C. 1999. The Eifelian-Givetian boundary and Struve?s Middle Devonian Great Gap in the Couvin area (Ardenne, southern Belgium). Senckenbergiana lethaea 79(1), 3-11.View article

Bultynck, P., Coen-Aubert, M., Dejonghe, L., Godefroid, J., Hance, L., Lacroix, D., Préat, A., Stainier, P., Steemans, P., Streel, M. & Tourneur, F. 1991. Les formations du Dévonien moyen de la Belgique. Mémoires pour servir a l’explication des cartes géologiques et minieres de la Belgique 30, 1-106.

Bulvanker, E.Z. 1958. Devonskie chetyrekhluchevye korally okrain Kuznetskogo basseyna. 212 pp. Vsesoyuznyy Nauchno-Issledovatel’skiy Geologicheskiy Institut (VSEGEI), Leningrad. [in Russian]

Bulvanker, E.Z., Gorianov, V.B., Ivanovski, A.B., Spasskiy, N.Ya. & Shchukina, V.Ya. 1968. Novye predstaviteli chetyrekhluchevykh korallovykh polipov SSSR, 14-45. In Markovskiy, B.P. (ed.) Novye vidy drevnikh rasteniy i bespozvonochnykh SSSR 2(2). Nedra, Moskva. [in Russian]

Casier, J.-G. & Préat, A. 1990. Sédimentologie et Ostracodes de la limite Eifelien-Givetien a Resteigne (bord sud du Bassin de Dinant, Belgique). Bulletin de l?institut royal des sciences naturelles de Belgique 60, 75-105.

Casier, J.-G., Préat, A. & Kasimi, R. 1992. Ostracodes et Sédimentologie du sommet de l?Eifelien et de la base du Givetien, a Couvin (bord sud du Bassin de Dinant, Belgique). Bulletin de l?institut royal des sciences naturelles de Belgique 62, 75-108.

Casier, J.-G., Maillet, S., Kasimi, R. & Préat, A. 2016. Late Eifelian and Early Givetian ostracod assemblages from Wellin, Hotton and On-Jemelle (Ardenne, Dinant Synclinorium, Belgium). Paleoenvironmental implications. Revue de micropaleontologie 58, 287-308.View article

Chapman, E.J. 1893. On the corals and coralliform types of Palaeozoic strata. Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 10(4), 39-48.View article

Charlesworth, J. 1914. Korallen und Stromatoporoiden. Das Devon der Ostalpen, die Fauna des devonischen Riffkalkes IV. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologische Gesellschaft 66, 347-407.

Chlupáč, I. & Kukal, Z. 1986. Reflection of possible global Devonian events in the Barrandian area, C.S.S.R, 169-179. In Walliser, O.H. (ed.) Global Bio-Events. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, vol. 8. Springer, Berlin.View article

Chlupáč, I. & Kukal, Z. 1988. Possible global events and the stratigraphy of the Palaeozoic of the Barrandian (Cambrian-Middle Devonian), Czechoslovakia. Sborník geologických věd, Geologie 43, 83-146.

Chlupáč, I., Galle, A., Hladil, J. & Kalvoda, J. 2000. Series and stage boundaries in the Devonian of the Czech Republic. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 225, 159-172.

Coen-Aubert, M. 1988. Représentant des genres Sociophyllum Birenheide, 1962 et Beugniesastrea n. gen. a la base du Calcaire de Givet de Pondrôme et Resteigne (bord sud du Bassin de Dinant, Belgique). Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 58, 5-31.

Coen-Aubert, M. 1989. Description de quelques Rugueux coloniaux du Couvinien supérieur de Wellin (bord sud du Bassin de Dinant, Belgique). Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 59, 15-35.

Coen-Aubert, M. 1990. Deuxieme note sur les Rugueux coloniaux de l?Eifelien supérieur et de la base du Givetien a Wellin (bord sud du Bassin de Dinant, Belgique). Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 60, 5-28.

Coen-Aubert, M. 1992. Rugueux coloniaux mésodévoniens du Fondry des Chiens a Nismes (Ardenne, Belgique). Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 62, 5-21.

Coen-Aubert, M. 1996. Siphonophrentides et Cyathophyllides pres de la limite Eifelien-Givetien a Resteigne (Ardenne, Belgique). Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 66, 19-36.

Coen-Aubert, M. 1997. Rugueux solitaires pres de la limite Eifelien-Givetien a Pondrôme (Belgique). Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 67, 5-24.

Coen-Aubert, M. 1998. Thamnophyllides et Acanthophyllides pres de la limite Eifelien-Givetien a Wellin et Pondrôme (Belgique). Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 68, 5-24.

Coen-Aubert, M. 2000. Stratigraphy and additional rugose corals from the Givetian Mont d?Haurs Formation in the Ardennes. Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 70, 5-23.

Coen-Aubert, M. 2008. Fasciculate Dysphyllids (Rugosa) from the Early Givetian Trois-Fontaines Formation in Belgium. Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 78, 31-50.

Coen-Aubert, M. 2011. Reassignment to the Middle Devonian of some rugose corals investigated by LeMaître (1934) in the Chalonnes Formation from the Southeastern Armorican Massif (France). Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 81, 27-53.

Coen-Aubert, M. & Lütte, B.-P. 1990. Massive rugose corals from the Middle Devonian of the North Eifel Hills (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, West Germany). Geologica et Palaeontologica 24, 17-39.

Coen-Aubert, M. & Wrzołek, T. 1991. Redescription of the rugose coral Macgeea (Rozkowskaella) sandaliformis (Rożkowska, 1980) from the Upper Frasnian of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 61, 5-19.

Coen-Aubert, M., Mamet, B., Préat, A. & Tourneur, F. 1991. Sédimentologie, paléoécologie et paléontologie des calcaires crinoidiques au voisinage de la limite Couvinien - Givetien a Wellin (bord sud du Synclinorium de Dinant, Belgique). Mémoires pour servir a l?Explication des Cartes Géologiques et Minieres de la Belgique 31, 1-61.

Crônier, C. & Van Viersen, A. 2007. Trilobite palaeobiodiversity during the Devonian in the Ardennes Massif. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 178(6), 473-483.View article

Dana, J.D. 1846a. Genera of fossil corals of the family Cyathophyllidae. The American Journal of Science and Arts 1(2), 178-189.

Dana, J.D. 1846b. Zoophytes. United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1838-1842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. 7. 740 pp. Lea and Blanchard, Philadelphia.

Denayer, J. 2019. Revised stratigraphy of the Eifelian (Middle Devonian) of southern Belgium: sequence stratigraphy, global events, reef development and basin structuration. Geologica Belgica 22(3-4), 149-173.View article

DeSantis, M.K. 2010. Anatomy of Middle Devonian Faunal Turnover in Eastern North America: Implications for Global Bioevents at the Eifelian-Givetian Stage Boundary. 409 pp. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cincinnati, U.S.A.

DeSantis, M.K. & Brett, C.E. 2011. Late Eifelian (Middle Devonian) biocrises: timing and signature of the pre-Kačák Bakoven and Stony Hollow events in eastern North America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304(1-2), 113-135.View article

Dubatolov, V.N. & Spasskiy, N.Ya. 1964. Stratigraficheskiy i geograficheskiy obzor devonskikh korallov SSSR. 152 pp. Nauka, Moscow. [in Russian]

Ehrenberg, C.G. 1834. Beiträge zur physiologischen Kenntniss der Corallenthiere im allgemeinen, und besonders des Rothen Meeres, nebst einem Versuche zur physiologischen Systematik derselben. Abhandlungen der Preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Physikalisch-Mathematisch Klasse, 1832, 225-380.

Ellwood, B.B., Algeo, T.J., El Hassani, A., Tomkin, J.H. & Rowe, H.D. 2011. Defining the timing and duration of the Kačák Interval within the Eifelian/Givetian boundary GSSP, Mech Irdane, Morocco, using geochemical and magnetic susceptibility patterns. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304(1-2), 74-84.View article

Etheridge, R. 1907. A Monograph of the Silurian and Devonian corals of New South Wales. Part II. The genus Tryplasma. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of New South Wales, Palaeontology 13, 41-102.

Frech, F. 1885. Ueber das Kalkgerüst der Tetrakorallen. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 37, 928-945.

Frech, F. 1886. Die Cyathophylliden und Zaphrentiden des deutsche Mitteldevon, eingeleitet durch den Versuch einer Gliederung desselben. Palaeontologische Abhandlugen 3(3), 1-120.

Galle, A. 1993. Middle Devonian Rugosa from Horní Benešov (Moravia, Czech Republic). Journal of the Czech Geological Society 38(1-2), 59-70.

Galle, A. 1995. The Breviphrentis-dominated coral faunule from the Middle Devonian of Moravia, Czech Republic. Věstník Českého geologického ústavu 70(2), 59-70.

García-Alcalde, J.L. & Soto, F. 1999. El límite Eifeliense/Givetiense (Devónico Medio) en la Cordillera Cantábrica (N de Espana). Revista Espanola de Paleontología, n°extra Homenaje al Prof. J. Truyols, 43-56.

García-López, S., Sanz-López, J. & Sarmiento, G.N. 2002. The Palaeozoic succession and conodont biostratigraphy of the section between Cape Penas and Cape Torres (Cantabrian coast, NW Spain), 125-161. In García-López, S. & Bastida, F. (eds) Palaeozoic conodonts from northern Spain. Eight International Conodont Symposium held in Europe. Madrid, Publicaciones del Instituto Geológico y Minero de Espana.

Glinski, A. 1955. Cerioide Columnariidae (Tetracoralla) aus dem Eifelium der Eifel und des Bergischen Landes. Seckenbergiana lethaea 36, 73-114.

Glinski, A. 2001. Tryplasma (Anthozoa, Rugosa) im Mittel-Devon der Eifel (Rheinisches Schiefergebirges, Deutschland). Senckenbergiana lethaea 81(1), 71-89.View article

Godefroid, J. 1968. Contribution a l?étude du Couvinien entre Wellin et Jemelle (Bord sud du basin de Dinant). Mémoires de l?Académie Royale de Belgique, Classe des Sciences, 2e série 17(3), 1-87.

Godefroid, J. 1995. Les brachiopodes (Pentamerida, Atrypida et Spiriferida) de la fin de l’Eifelien et du début du Givetien a Pondrôme (Belgique, bord sud du Synclinorium de Dinant). Bulletin de l?institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 65, 69-116.

Goldfuss, A. 1826. Petrefacta Germaniae. 76 pp. Arnz & Comp., Düsseldorf.

Gouwy, S. & Bultynck, P. 2003. Conodont based graphic correlation of the Middle Devonian formations of the Ardenne (Belgium): implications for stratigraphy and construction of a regional composite. Revista espanola de Micropaleontologia 35(3), 315-344.

Gürich, G. 1896. Das Paläozoicum im Polischen Mittelgebirge. Verhandlungen der Russich-Kaiserlichen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 32, 1-539.

Hall, J. 1843. Geology of New York, Part 4, comprising the survey of the fourth geological district. Natural History of New York. 683 pp. Carroll & Cook Ed., Albany, New York.

Hall, J. & Whitfield, R.P. 1873. Descriptions of new species of fossils from the Devonian rocks of Iowa. Annual Report of the Regents of the University of the State of New York on the Condition of the State Cabinet of Natural History 23, 223-239.

Haller, W. 1936. Einige biostratigraphische Unterschungen in der Roher Mulde unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Keriophyllen. Jahrbuch der Preussischen Geologischen Landesanstalt zu Berlin 56, 590-632.

Hill, D. 1942. The Middle Devonian rugose corals of Queensland, III. Burdekin Downs, Fanning River and Ried Gap, north Queensland. Proceedings, Royal Society of Queensland 53, 229-268.

Hill, D. 1981. Rugosa and Tabulata, 1-378. In Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, part F, supplement 1-2. Geological Society of America & The University of Kansas Press, Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas.

Hladil, J. & Kalvoda, J. 1993, Extinction and recovery successions of the Devonian marine shoals: Eifelian-Givetian and Frasnian-Famennian events, Moravia and Bohemia. Věstník Českého geologického ústavu 68(4), 13-23.

Horodyski, R.S., Holz, M., Grahn, Y. & Bosetti, E. 2014. Remarks on sequence stratigraphy and taphonomy of the Malvinokaffric shelly fauna during the Kačák Event in the Apucarana Sub-basin (Paraná Basin), Brazil. International Journal of Earth Sciences 103(1), 367-380.View article

House, M.R. 1985. Correlation of mid-Palaeozoic ammonoid evolutionary events with global sedimentary perturbations. Nature 313(5997), 17-22.View article

House, M.R. 1996. The middle Devonian Kačák event. Proceedings of the Ussher Society 9, 79-84.

House, M.R. 2002. Strength, timing, setting and cause of mid-Palaeozoic extinctions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 181(1-3), 5-25.View article

Joseph, J. & Tsien, H.H. 1975. Calcaires mésodévoniens et leur faune de tétracoralliaires en haute Vallée d?Ossau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques). Bulletin de la Société d?Histoire naturelle de Toulouse 111(1-2), 179-203.

Kasimi, R. & Préat, A. 1996. Sédimentation de rampe mixte silico-carbonatée des couches de transition eiféliennes-givétiennes franco-belges. Deuxieme partie: cyclostratigraphie et paléostructuration. Bulletin des Centres de recherches exploration-production Elf-Aquitaine 20(1), 61-90.

Kettnerová, M. 1932. Palaeontological Studies of the Devonian of Čelechovice (Moravia). Part IV. Rugosa. Práce geologicko-palaeontologického ústavu Karlovy university v Praze za rok 1932, 1-97.

Kido, E. & Suttner, T.J. 2011. A new project has been launched: FWF P23775-B17 “Late Eifelian climate perturbations: Effects on tropical coral communities”. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 151(3-4), 407-416.

Königshof, P., Da Silva, A.C., Suttner, T.J., Kido, E., Waters, J., Carmichael, S.K., Jansen, U., Pas, D. & Spassov, S. 2016. Shallow-water facies setting around the Kačák Event: a multidisciplinary approach, 171-199. In Becker, R.T., Königshof, P. & Brett, C.E. (eds) Devonian Climate, Sea Level and Evolutionary Events. Geological Society London, Special Publication 423.View article

Königshof, P., Narkiewicz, K., Hoa, P.T., Carmichael, S.K. & Waters, J.A. 2017. Devonian events: examples from the eastern Palaeotethys (Si Phai section, NE Vietnam). Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 97(3), 481-496.View article

LeMaître, D. 1947. Contribution a l?étude du Dévonien du Tafilalet. II. Le récif coralligene de Ouihlane. Notes et Mémoires du Service des Mines et de la Carte Géologique du Maroc 67, 1-112.

Linnaeus, C. 1771. Mantissa plantarum altera generum editionis VI & specierum editionis II. 143-588 pp. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.

Lonsdale, W. 1845. Description of some characteristic Palaeozoic corals of Russia, 591-634. In Murchinson, R.I., de Verneuil, E. & von Keyserling, A. (eds) Géologie de la Russie d?Europe et des montagnes de l?Oural v. 1. John Murray, London.

Lütte, B.-P. 1987. Glossophyllum-Arten aus dem Mittel-Devon der Eifel (Rugosa; Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Senckenbergiana lethaea 67(5-6), 433-457.

Mabille, C. & Boulvain, F. 2008. Les Monts de Baileux section: Detailed sedimentology and magnetic susceptibility of Hanonet, Trois-Fontaines and Terres d?Haurs Formations (Eifelian/Givetian boundary and lower Givetian, SW Belgium). Geologica Belgica 11, 93-121.

Mamet, B. & Préat, A. 2005. Microfacies d?une lentille biohermale a la limite Eifelien/Givetien (Wellin, bord Sud du Synclinorium de Dinant). Geologica Belgica 8(3), 85-111.

Marshall, J.E.A. 2016. Palynological calibration of Devonian events at near-polar paleolatitudes in the Falkland Islands, South Atlantic, 25-44. In Becker, R.T., Königshof, P. & Brett, C.E. (eds) Devonian Climate, Sea Level and Evolutionary Events. Geological Society London, Special Publication 423.View article

Marshall, J.E.A., Astin, T.R., Brown, J.F., Mark-Kurik, E. & Lazauskiene, J. 2007. Recognizing the Kačák Event in the Devonian terrestrial environment and its implications for understanding land-sea interactions, 133-155. In Becker, R.T. & Kirchgasser, W.T. (eds) Devonian Events and Correlations. Geological Society London, Special Publication 278.View article

Maurer, F. 1885. Die Fauna der Kalke von Waldgrimes bei Giessen. Abhandlungen der Hessishen geologischen Landes-Anstalt 1(2), 63-340.

May, A. 1993. Korallen aus dem höheren Eifelium und unteren Givetium (Devon) des Nordwestlichen Sauerlandes (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge) Teil II: Rugose Korallen, Chaetetiden und Spezielle Themen. Paleontographica 228, 1-103.

May, A. 1995. Relationship among sea-level fluctuation, biogeography, and bioevents of the Devonian: an attempt to approach a powerful, but simple model for complex long-range control of biotic crises. Geolines 3, 38-49.

May, A. 1997a. Ein Modell zur Erklärung der Bio-Events und der biogeographischen Entwicklung im Devon durch den Meeresspiegel. Dortmunder Beiträge zur Landeskunde 31, 137-174.

May, A. 1997b. Gedanken über Zusammenhänge zwischen Meeresspiegel, Biogeographie und Bio-Events im Devon. Coral Research Bulletin 5, 291-318.

Merriam, C.W. 1974a. Lower and lower Middle Devonian rugose corals of the central Great Basin. U.S. geological Survey professional Paper 805, 1-83.View article

Merriam, C.W. 1974b. Silurian Rugose Corals of the Central and Southwest Great Basin. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 777, 1-99. View article

Milne-Edwards, H. & Haime, J. 1850. A Monograph of the British Fossil Corals. Part 1, Introduction, corals from the Tertiary and Cretaceous formations. 71 pp. The Palaeontographical Society, London.View article

Milne-Edwards, H. & Haime, J. 1851. Monographie des Polypiers fossiles des terrains paléozoiques. Archives du Muséum d?Histoire Naturelles 5, 1-502.

McLean, R.A. 1976. Middle Devonian Cystiphyllid corals from the Hume Formation, Northwestern Canada. Geological survey of Canada 274, 1-80.View article

Nicholson, H.A. & Lydekker, R. 1889. A Manual of Palaeontology, for the Use of Students: With a General Introduction of the Principles of Palaentology, vol. 1, 3rd edition. 885 pp. Wm. Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London.View article

Oliver, W.A., Jr. 1973. Devonian coral endemism in Eastern America and its bearing on palaeogeography. Special Papers in Paleontology 12, 318-319.

Oliver, W.A., Jr. 1975. Endemism and evolution of Late Silurian to Middle Devonian rugose corals in Eastern North America. Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., Siberian Filial, Transactions of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics 202 (Ancient Cnidaria, v. 2), 148-160.

Oliver, W.A., Jr. 1976. Noncystimorph colonial rugose corals of the Onesquethaw and lower Cazenovia Stages (Lower and Middle Devonian) in New York and adjacent areas. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 869, 1-156.View article

Oliver, W.A., Jr. 1990. Extinctions and migrations of Devonian rugose corals in the Eastern Americas Realm. Lethaia 23, 167-178.View article

Oliver, W.A., Jr. 1993. The Siphonophrentidae (Rugose Corals, Devonian) of Eastern North America. United State Geological Survey, Bulletin 2024-B, 1-32.

Oliver, W.A., Jr. 1997. Origins and relationships of colonial Heliophyllum in the upper Middle Devonian (Givetian) of New York. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Espnola de Historia Natural (Seccion Geologica) 91(1-4), 53-60.

Oliver, W.A., Jr. 1998. Nomenclatural problems of Breviphrentis Stumm, 1949 and Contophrentis new genus (Devonian rugose corals). Journal of Palaeontology 72(5), 932-934.View article

Oliver, W.A., Jr. & Pedder, A.E.H. 1979a. Biogeography of Late Silurian and Devonian Rugose Corals in North America. Historical Biogeography, Plate Tectonics, and the Changing Environment. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 131-145.

Oliver, W.A., Jr. & Pedder, A.E.H. 1979b. Rugose corals in Devonian stratigraphical correlation. Special Papers in Palaeontology 23, 233-248.

Oliver, W.A., Jr. & Pedder, A.E.H. 1994. Crises in the Devonian history of the rugose corals. Paleobiology 20(2), 178-190.View article

Oliver, W.A., Jr. & Sorauf, J.E. 1988. Heliophyllum hall and Charisphyllum n. gen. (Devonian rugose corals) of the Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain). Trabajos de Geología, Universidad de Oviedo 17, 3-17.

Oliver, W.A., Jr. & Sorauf, J.E. 2002. The Genus Heliophyllum (Anthozoa, Rugosa) in the Upper Middle Devonian (Givetian) of New York. Bulletins of American Paleontology 362, 1-72.

Pedder, A.E.H. 1976. First records of five rugose coral genera from Upper Silurian rocks of the Canadian Arctic Islands. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 76-1B, 287-293.View article

Pedder, A.E.H. 1982. Chostophyllum, a new genus of charactophyllid corals from the Middle Devonian of western Canada. Journal of Paleontology 56(3), 559-582.

Pedder, A.E.H. 2002. New systematic and biostratigraphic data concerning the Breviphyllidae (Lower Devonian Rugosa) of Nevada. Coral Research Bulletin 7, 141-166.

Pedder, A.E.H. & Feist, R. 1998. Lower Devonian (Emsian) Rugosa of the Izarne formation, Montagne Noire, France. Journal of Paleontology 72(6), 967-991.View article

Pedder, A.E.H. & McLean, R. 1982. Lower Devonian cystiphyllid corals from North America and eastern Australia with notes on the genus Utaratuia. Geologica et Palaeontologica 16, 57-110.

Pedder, A.E.H., Norford, B.S., & Irish, E.J.W. 1971. Dohmophyllum and a new related genus of corals from the Middle Devonian of northwestern Canada. Contributions to Canadian Paleontology. Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 197, 37-77.View article

Préat, A. 1989. Sedimentology, facies and depositional environment of the Hanonet (upper Eifelian) and Trois-Fontaines (lower Givetian) formations in Couvin area (Dinant basin, Belgium). Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie 98(2), 149-154.

Préat, A. & Kasimi, R. 1995. Sédimentation de rampe mixte silico-carbonatée des couches de transition eiféliennes-givétiennes franco-belges. Premiere partie: Microfacies et modele sédimentaire. Bulletin des Centres de recherches exploration-production Elf-Aquitaine 19(2), 329-375.

Préat, A., Coen-Aubert, M., Mamet, B. & Tourneur, F. 1984. Sédimentologie et paléoécologie de trois niveaux récifaux du Givetien inférieur de Resteigne (bord Sud du bassin de Dinant, Belgique). Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie 93(1-2), 227-240.

Qie, W., Ma, X., Xu, H., Qiao, L., Liang, K., Guo, W., Song, J., Chen, B. & Lu, J. 2018. Devonian integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China. Science China Earth Sciences 61, 1-23.View article

Roemer, C.F. 1883. Lethaea geognostica oder Beschreibung und Abbildung der fur die Gebirgs-Formationen bezeichnendsten Versteinerungen. I. Theil, Lethaea palaeozoica. 324-543 pp. Zweite Lieferung, Stuttgart.

Schlüter, C. 1880. Über Zoantharia rugosa aus dem rheinischen Mittel- und Ober-Devon. Sitzungs-bericht der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1880(3), 50-53.View article

Schlüter, C. 1881. Über einige Anthozoen des Devon. Zeiutschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 33(1), 75-108.

Schlüter, C. 1882. Über neue Korallen des Mitteldevon der Eifel. Sitzungsberichte der niederrheinischen Gesellschafte fur Natur- und Heilkunde in Bonn. Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereines der preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens 39, 205-210.

Schlüter, C. 1889. Anthozoen des rheinischen Mittel-Devon. Abhandlungen zur geologischen Specialkarte von Preussen und der Thüringischen Staaten 8(4), 1-207.

Schöne, B.R. 1997. Der otomari-Event und seine Auswirkungen auf die Fazies des Rhenoherzynishen Schelfs (Devon, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Göttinger Arbeiten zur Geologie und Paläontologie 70, 1-147.View article

Schröder, S. 1995a. Rugose Korallen aus der Freilingen-Formation der Dollendorfer Mulde (Ober-Eifelium/Mitteldevon; Eifel/Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Senckenbergiana lethaea 75(1-2), 33-75.

Schröder, S. 1995b. Die Korallenfauna des Kirchen-Berges (Freilingen-Formation) in der Blankenheimer Mulde (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge/Eifel). Münstersche Forschungen zur Geologie und Paläontologie 77, 373-421.

Schröder, S. 1996. Revision der rugosen Koralle Macgeea bathycalyx (FRECH 1886) (Mitteldevon, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Senckenbergiana lethaea 76(1-2), 53-63.View article

Schröder, S. 1997a. Die Rugosen-Fauna des Eilenbergium der Dollendorfer Mulde (Mittel-Devon/Ober-Eifelium; Rheinisches Schiefergebirge/Eifel). Geologica et Palaeontologica 31, 1-36.

Schröder, S. 1997b. Upper Eifelian (Middle Devonian) rugose corals of the Eifel Hills (Germany) and their relation to North American and Eastern European taxa. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural 92(1-4), 271-279.

Schröder, S. 1997c. Rugose Korallen aus dem “Bouderath-Riff“ (Eifelium/Ahrdorf-Formation) der Blankenheimer Mulde/Eifel. Coral Research Bulletin 5, 211-220.

Schröder, S. 1998. Rugose Korallen und Stratigraphie des oberen Eifelium und unteren Givetium der Dollendorfer Mulde/Eifel (Mittel-Devon; Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 208, 1-140.

Schröder, S. 2001. On some western European Siphonophrentidae. Bulletin of the Tohoku University Museum 1, 254-264.

Schröder, S. 2002. Rugose Korallen aus dem hohen Givetium und tiefen Frasnium (Devon) des Messinghäuser Sattels (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge/Sauerland). Coral Research Bulletin 7, 175-189.

Schröder, S. 2005. Stratigraphie und Systematik rugoser Korallen aus dem Givetium und Unter-Frasnium des Rheinischen Schiefergebirges (Sauerland/Bergisches Land). Zitteliana B25, 39-116.

Schröder, S. 2007. Colonial Rugosa from the Early Devonian (Pragian) of the Zeravshan Range, Tajikistan. Alcheringa 31, 121-151.View article

Schröder, S. & Kazmierczak, M. 1999. The Middle Devonian “coral reef” of Ouihlane (Morocco) - New data on the geology and rugose coral fauna. Geologica et Palaeontologica 33, 93-115.

Schröder, S., Lütte, B.-P. & Oekentorp, K. 1996. Enallophrentis (Rugosa, Siphonophrentidae) aus dem Ober-Eifelium/Mittel-Devon der Dollendorfer Mulde (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge/Eifel). Geologica et Palaeontologica 30, 15-31.

Schulz, E. 1883. Die Eifelkalkmulde von Hillesheim. Jahrbuch peruse geologische Landesandalt 3, 158-250.

Scotese, C.R. 2014. Atlas of Devonian Paleogeographic Maps, PALEOMAP Atlas for ArcGIS, volume 4, The Late Paleozoic, Maps 65-72. Mollweide Projection, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL.

Shrock, R.R. & Twenhofel, W.H. 1953. Principles of invertebrate palaeontology. 816 pp. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Shurigina, M.V. 1972. Podklass Tetracoralla, 98-113. In Khodalevitch, A.N. (ed.) Kishechnopolostnye i brakhiopody zhivetskikh otlozheniy vostochnogo sklona Urala. Izdatelstvo Nedra, Moskva. [in Russian]

Smith, S. & Thomas, H.D. 1963. On Amplexus coralloides Sowerby and some ampleximorph corals from the English Devonian. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History 13(6), 161-172.View article

Soshkina, E.D. 1936. Korally Rugosa srednego devona Severnogo Urala. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Trudy Polyarnoy Komissii 28, 15-76. [in Russian]

Soto, F. & Lin, B. 1995. Corales rugosos Cistimorfos del Devónico del Suroeste de las Montanas de Qingling (Provencia de Gansu, China). Geobios 28(3), 293-315.View article

Stampfli, G.M., von Raumer, J. & Borel, G.D. 2002. Paleozoic evolution of pre-Variscan terranes: From Gondwana to the Variscan collision, 263-280. In Martínez Cotalán, J.R., Hatcher, R.D., Jr. , Arenas, R. & Díaz García, F. (eds) Variscan-Appalachian dynamics: The building of the late Paleozoic basement. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 364. Boulder, Colorado.View article

Stampfli, G.M., Hochard, C., Vérard, C., Wilhem, C. & von Raumer, J. 2013. The formation of Pangea. Tectonophysics 593, 1-19.View article

Struve, W. 1982. The Great Gap in the record of marine Middle Devonian. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 55, 433-448.

Talent, J.A., Mawson, R., Andrew, A.S., Hamilton, P.J. & Whitford, D.J. 1993. Middle Palaeozoic extinction events: Faunal and isotopic data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 104(1-4), 139-152.View article

Troth, I., Marshall, J.E.A., Racey, A. & Becker, R.T. 2011. Devonian sea-level change in Bolivia: A high palaeolatitude biostratigraphical calibration of the global sea-level curve. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304(1-2), 3-20.View article

Truyóls-Massoni, M., Montesinos, R., Garcia-Alcalde, J. & Leyva, F. 1990. The Kačák-otomari event and its characterization in the Palentine domain (Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain), 133-143. In Kauffman, E.G. & Walliser, O.H. (eds) Extinction Events in Earth History. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.View article

Tsien, H.-H. 1969. Contribution a l?étude des Rugosa du Couvinien dans la région de Couvin. Mémoires de l?institut géologique de l?université de Louvain 25, 1-174.

Tsyganko, V.S. 1977. Novye jivetskie vidy rugoz PayKhoya, 31-32. In Stukalina, G.A. (ed.) Novye vidy drevnikh rasteniy i bespozvonochnykh SSSR 4. Nauka, Moskva. [in Russian]

Ulitina, L.M. 1968. Devonskie korally tsistifilliny Zakavkaz?ya. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta 113, 1-119. [in Russian]

van Hengstum, P.J. & Gröcke, D.R. 2008. Stable isotope record of the Eifelian-Givetian boundary Kačák-otomari Event (Middle Devonian) from Hungry Hollow, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Science 45, 353-366.View article

Van Viersen, A. 2007. Preliminary report of trilobites from the Hanonet Formation (Eifelian-Givetian transition), southern border of Dinant Synclinorium, Belgium. Bulletin de l?Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 77, 15-29.

Verrill, A.E. 1865. Classification of polyps (Extract condensed from a synopsis of the polypi of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under captains Ringgold and Rogers, U.S.N.). Communications of the Essex Institute 4, 145-149.

Walliser, O.H. (ed.) 1996. Global Events and Event Stratigraphy in the Phanerozoic. 333 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.View article

Webster, C.L. 1889. Description of a new genus of corals from the Devonian rocks of Iowa. The American Naturalist 23 (272), 710-712.View article

Wedekind, R. 1922. Zur Kenntnis der Stringophyllen des oberen Mitteldevon. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der gesamten Naturwissenschaften zu Marburg 1921(1), 1-16.

Wedekind, R. 1923. Die Gliederung des Mitteldevons auf Grund von Korallen. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft zu Beförderung der gesamten Naturwissenschaften zu Marburg 1922(4), 24-35.

Wedekind, R. 1924. Das Mitteldevon der Eifel. Eine biostratigraphische Studie. I. Teil. Die Tetrakorallen des unteren Mitteldevon. Schriften der Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der gesamten Naturwissenschaften zu Marburg 14(3), 1-93.

Wedekind, R. 1925. Das Mitteldevon der Eifel. Eine biostratigraphische Studie. II. Teil. Die Materialien zur Kenntnis des mittleren Mitteldevon. Schriften der Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der gesamten Naturwissenschaften zu Marburg 14(4), 1-85.

Weissermel, W. 1894. Die korallen der silurgeschiebe Ostpreussens und östlichen Westpreussens. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 46, 580-674.

Wright, A.J., Coen-Aubert, M., Bultynck, P. & van Viersen, A.P. 2010. New data on occurrences of the Devonian rugose coral Calceola in Belgium. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists 39, 121-129.

Wrzołek, T. 2002. Siphonophrentidae (Rugosa) in the Devonian of Poland. Coral Research Bulletin 7, 229-240.

Ziegler, P.A. 1982. Geological atlas of the Western and Central Europe. 130 pp. Shell International Petroleum Maatschappij BV.