Distribution of coral-microbialite reefs along the French Jura platform during the Bimammatum Zone (Oxfordian, Late Jurassic)


Authors: Olivier N

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 94, issue 3; pages: 257 - 277; Received 6 February 2019; Accepted in revised form 18 July 2019; Online 30 September 2019

Keywords: reefs, corals, microbialites, carbonate platforms, palaeoenvironments, Late Jurassic,

full text (PDF, 9.35 MB)

Export to RIS



During the Late Jurassic, the Jura platform was the site of major carbonate production involving various reef building components, particularly corals and microbialites. The existence of a detailed stratigraphic framework for the French Jura sedimentary succession during the Late Oxfordian-Early Kimmeridgian interval makes it possible to analyse the nature and distribution of these reefs within a high-resolution time frame, the Bimammatum Zone. Even though these reefs developed in a wide range of settings, their development was never optimal, indicating the presence of limiting factors. When the supply of terrigenous material was lower, the inner platform was characterized by strong carbonate production, with the development of a large ooidal shoal complex including ten-meter scale coral-microbialite patch reefs. The large size and high-density skeletal structure of some colonies indicates a favourable environment for coral and reef development (shallow, agitated, well-oxygenated waters with high light levels), despite the coral assemblage being poorly diversified and characterized by a mixed photo-heterotrophic association. The autocyclic character of the sedimentary system (i.e. major migrations of the ooidal dunes after big storm events) recurrently interrupted reef development. When the French Jura platform was subject to significant terrigenous input, the coral assemblages became well-diversified and characterized by mixed or heterotrophic-dominated associations. In the shallow and proximal areas of the inner ramp, limited available space imposed strong constraints on the reef growth, which only developed biostromal morphologies. Along the mid ramp, the reefs were composed firstly of plurimetric bioherms, then metric patches and finally coral meadows, highlighting the inversely proportional relationship of reef size to water depth. Once a certain depth was reached on the mid ramp, the presence of corals with heterotrophic feeding patterns could explain their reduced capacity to grow and build up a reef framework. Periods of greater terrigenous input, causing high turbidity and eutrophic conditions, led to frequent interruptions in reef growth both in the inner and more proximal mid ramp positions. This terrigenous influence is less pronounced in the central part of the mid ramp, where storms could alternatively stop reef development by causing migration of oncoidal sediments that then covered the small coral patches. In the distal part of the mid ramp, reef growth was reduced and relatively stable. Here, periods of reef development were controlled by long-term allocyclic processes that triggered the migration of oncoidal facial belts resulting from variations in relative sea level.


Aurell, M. & Bádenas, B. 2004. Facies and depositional sequence evolution controlled by high-frequency sea-level changes in a shallow-water carbonate ramp (late Kimmeridgian, NE Spain). Geological Magazine 141, 717-733. View article

Bádenas, B. & Aurell, M. 2010. Facies models of a shallow-water carbonate ramp based on distribution of non-skeletal grains (Kimmeridgian, Spain). Facies 56, 89-110. View article

Beauvais, L. & Bernier, P. 1981. Nouvelles especes de Madréporaires dans le Kimméridgien supérieur du Jura (France). Geobios 14, 173-189. View article

Beresi, M.S., Cabaleri, N.G., Löser, H. & Armella, C. 2017. Coral patch reef system and associated facies from southwestern Gondwana: paleoenvironmental evolution of the Oxfordian shallow-marine carbonate platform at Portada Covunco, Neuquén Basin, Argentina. Facies 63, p. 4. View article

Bertling, M. 1993. Ecology and distribution of the Late Jurassic Scleractinian Thamnasteria concinna (Goldfuss) in Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 105, 311-335. View article

Bertling, M. & Insalaco, E. 1998. Late Jurassic coral/microbial reefs from the northern Paris Basin: facies, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 139, 139-175. View article

Bernier, P. 1984. Les formations carbonatées du Kiméridgien et du Portlandien dans le Jura méridional, stratigraphie, micropaléontologie sédimentologie. Documents du Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon 92, 1-883.

Betzler, C., Pawellek, T., Abdullah, M. & Kossler, A. 2007. Facies and stratigraphic architecture of the Korallenoolith Formation in North Germany (Lauensteiner pass, Ith mountains). Sedimentary Geology 194, 61-75. View article

Bill, M., O’Dogherty, L. & Baumgartner, P.O. 2011. Dynamics of a paleoecosystem reef associated with oceanic change in carbonate sedimentary regime and carbon cycling (Oxfordian, Swiss Jura). Palaios 26, 197-211. View article

Cabioch, G., Camoin, G., Webb, G.E., Le Cornec, F., Molina, M.G., Pierre, C. & Joachimski, M.M. 2006. Contribution of microbialites to the development of coral reefs during the last deglacial period: case study from Vanuatu (South-West Pacific). Sedimentary Geology 185, 297-318. View article

Camoin, G., Cabioch, G., Eisenhauer, A., Braga, J.C., Hamelin, B. & Lericolais, G. 2006. Environmental significance of microbialites in reef environments during the last deglaciation. Sedimentary Geology 185, 277-295. View article

Cairns, S.D. & Kitahara, M.V. 2012. An illustrated key to the genera and subgenera of the Recent azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), with an attached glossary. Zookeys 227, 1-47.View article

Cariou, E. 2013. La plateforme jurassienne au passage Oxfordien-Kimméridgien: dynamique sédimentaire et paléoenvironnements. 337 pp. Ph.D. thesis, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.

Cariou, E., Olivier, N., Pittet, B., Mazin, J.M. & Hantzpergue, P. 2014. Dinosaur track record on a shallow carbonate-dominated ramp (Loulle section, Late Jurassic, French Jura). Facies 60, 229-253. View article

Carpentier, C. 2004. Jurassic coral reefs of the north-eastern Paris Basin (Luxembourg and Lorraine). 471 pp. Ph.D. thesis, Université Henri Poincaré Nancy I, Nancy, France.

Carpentier, C., Lathuiliere, B. & Ferry, S. 2010. Sequential and climatic framework of the growth and demise of a carbonate platform: implications for the peritidal cycles (Late Jurassic, North-eastern France). Sedimentology 57, 985-1020. View article

Carpentier, C., Martin-Garin, B., Lathuiliere, B. & Ferry, S. 2006. Correlation of reefal Oxfordian episodes and climatic implications in the eastern Paris Basin (France). Terra Nova 18, 191-201. View article

Cecca, F., Azema, J., Fourcade, E., Baudin, F., Guiraud, R., Ricou, L.E. & De Wever, P. 1993. Early Kimmeridgian (146-144 Ma). In Dercourt, J., Ricou, L.E. & Vrielynck, B. (eds) Atlas of Tethys Palaeoenvironmental Maps. Maps. BEICIP-FRANLAB, Rueil-Malmaison.

Cecca, F., Martin-Garin, B., Marchand, D., Lathuiliere, B. & Bartolini, A. 2005. Paleoclimatic control of biogeographic and sedimentary events in Tethyan and peri-Tethyan areas during the Oxfordian (Late Jurassic). Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 222, 10-32. View article

Chevalier, J.-P. 1987. Ordre des Scléractiniaires, 403-764. In Grassé, P.-P. (ed.) Traité De Zoologie: Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. 3. Cnidaires Anthozoaires. Masson, Paris.

Cochet, F. 1995. Stratigraphie séquentielle dans les carbonates de l’Oxfordien terminal-Kimméridgien du Jura français. 200 pp. Ph.D. thesis, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.

Cochet, F., Ferry, S., Enay, R. & Contini, D. 1994. Passage Oxfordien-Kimméridgien dans les carbonates du Jura franc¸ais au Bassin vocontien. Régression forcée et cortege transgressif. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences série II 319, 1041-1047.

Colombié, C. & Strasser, A. 2005. Facies, cycles, and controls on the evolution of a keep-up carbonate platform (Kimmeridgian, Swiss Jura). Sedimentology 52, 1207-1227. View article

Diaz, M.R., Van Norstrand, J.D., Eberli, G.P., Piggot, A.M., Zhou, J. & Klaus, J.S. 2014. Functional gene diversity of oolitic sands from Great Bahama Bank. Geobiology 12, 231-249. View article

Dullo, W.-C. 2005. Coral growth and reef growth: a brief review. Facies 51, 33-48. View article

Dupraz, C. 1999. Paléontologie, paléoécologie et évolution des facies récifaux de l’Oxfordien moyen-supérieur (Jura suisse et français). Geofocus 2, 1-200.

Dupraz, C. & Strasser, A. 1999. Microbialites and microencrusters in shallow coral bioherms (Middle to Late Oxfordian, Swiss Jura Mountains). Facies 40, 101-130. View article

Dupraz, C. & Strasser, A. 2002. Nutritional modes in coral microbialite reefs (Jurassic, Oxfordian, Switzerland): evolution of trophic structure as a response to environmental change. Palaios 17, 449-471. View article

Enay, R. 1966. L’Oxfordien dans la moitié sud du Jura français. Etude stratigraphique. Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Lyon 8, 1-624.

Enay, R., Contini, D. & Boullier, A. 1988. Le Séquanien-type de Franche-Comté (Oxfordien supérieur): datations et corrélations nouvelles, conséquences sur la paléogéographie et l’évolution du Jura et régions voisines. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 81, 295-363.

Fookes, E. 1995. Development and eustatic control of an Upper Jurassic reef complex (Saint Germain-de-Joux, Eastern France). Facies 33, 129-149. View article

Frakes, L.A., Francis, J.E. & Syktus, J.I. 1992. Climate Modes of the Phanerozoic: The History of the Earth’s Climate Over the Past 600 million Years. 274 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. View article

Gaillard, C. 1983. Les biohermes a Spongiaires et leur environnement dans l’Oxfordien du Jura méridional. Documents du Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon 90, 1-515.

Geister, J. & Lathuiliere, B. 1991. Jurassic coral reefs of the north-eastern Paris Basin (Luxembourg and Lorraine). VI International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria, Münster, Guidebook-Excursion.

Gill, G.A., Santantonio, M. & Lathuiliere, B. 2004. The depth of pelagic deposits in the Tethyan Jurassic and the use of corals: an example from the Apennines. Sedimentary Geology 166, 311-334. View article

Gretz, M., Lathuiliere, B., Martini, R. & Bartolini, A. 2013. The Hettangian corals of the Isle of Skye (Scotland): An opportunity to better understand the palaeoenvironmental conditions during the aftermath of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary crisis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 376, 132-148. View article

Habrant, N. & Lathuiliere, B. 2000. Jurassic corals as emersion indicators. Lethaia 33, 341-344. View article

Hardenbol, J., Thierry, J., Farley, M.B., Graciansky, P.C. de & Vail, P.R. 1998. Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequence chronostratigraphic framework of European basins, 3-13. In Graciansky, P.C. de, Hardenbol, J., Jacquin, T. & Vail, P.R. (eds) Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy of European basins. SEPM Special Publication 60. View article

Helm, C. & Schülke, I. 2006. Patch reef development in the florigemma-Bank Member (Oxfordian) from the Deister Mts (NW Germany): a type example for Late Jurassic coral thrombolite thickets. Facies 52, 441-467. View article

Hug, W. 2003. Sequenzielle Faziesentwicklung der Karbonatplattform des Schweizer Jura im Späten Oxford und fru¨hesten Kimmeridge. GeoFocus 7, Univ. Fribourg, 1-155.

Insalaco, E. 1996. Upper Jurassic microsolenid biostromes of northern and central Europe: facies and depositional environment. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 121, 169-194. View article

Insalaco, E. 1999. Facies and palaeoecology of Upper Jurassic (Middle Oxfordian) coral reefs in England. Facies 40, 81-99. View article

Insalaco, E., Hallam, A. & Rosen, B. 1997. Oxfordian (Upper Jurassic) coral reefs in Western Europe: reef types and conceptual depositional model. Sedimentology 44, 707-734. View article

Larcombe, P. & Woolfe, K.J. 1999. Increased sediment supply to the Great Barrier Reef will not increase sediment accumulation at most coral reefs. Coral Reefs 18, 163-169. View article

Lathuiliere, B. & Gill, G.A. 1995. Some new suggestions on functional morphology in pennular corals. Publications du Service géologique du Luxembourg 29, 259-263.

Lathuiliere, B., Gaillard, C., Habrant, N., Bodeur, I., Boullier, A., Enay, R., Hanzo, M., Marchand, D., Thierry, J. & Werner, W. 2005. Coral zonation of an Oxfordian reef tract in the northern French Jura. Facies 50, 545-559. View article

Leinfelder, R.R. 1993. A sequence stratigraphic approach of the Upper Jurassic mixed carbonate-siliclastic succession of the central Lusitanian Basin, Portugal. Profil 5, 119-140.

Leinfelder, R.R. 2001. Jurassic reef ecosystems, 251-302. In Stanley Jr., G.D. (ed.) The History and Sedimentology of Ancient Reef Systems. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. View article

Leinfelder, R.R. & Schmid, D.U. 2000. Mesozoic reefal thrombolites and other microbolites, 289-294. In Riding, R.E. & Awramik, S.M. (eds) Microbial sediments. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York. View article

Leinfelder, R.R., Nose, M., Schmid, D. & Werner, W. 1993. Microbial crusts of the Late Jurassic: composition, palaeoecological significance and importance in reef construction. Facies 29, 195-229. View article

Leinfelder, R.R., Schmid, D.U., Nose, M. & Werner, W. 2002. Jurassic reef patterns-The expression of a changing globe, 465-520. In Kiessling, W., Flügel, E. & Golonka, J. (eds) Phanerozoic Reef Patterns. SEPM Special Publication 72. View article

Leinfelder, R.R., Werner, W., Nose, M., Schmid, D.U., Krautter, M., Laternser, R., Takacs, M. & Hartmann, D. 1996. Paleoecology, growth parameters and dynamics of coral, sponge and microbolite reefs from the Late Jurassic, 227-248. In Reitner, J., Neuweiler, F. & Gunkel, F. (eds) Global and Regional Controls on Biogenic Sedimentation, I. Reef Evolution. Research Reports Göttinger Arbeiten zur Geologie und Paläontologie Sb2.

López, J. 2011. Répartition spatiale et composition des faunes récifales le long d’une plate-forme carbonatée (Jura méridional français ; Jurassique supérieur). 49 pp. Master thesis, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France.

Mancini, E.A., Llins, J.C., Parcell, W.C., Aurell, M., Badenas, B., Leinfelder, R.R. & Benson, D.J. 2004. Upper Jurassic thrombolite reservoir play, northeastern Gulf of Mexico. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 88, 1573-1602. View article

Martin-Garin, B. 2005. Climatic control of Oxfordian coral reef distribution in the Tethys Ocean. Including a comparative survey of Recent coral communities (Indian Ocean) and a new method of coral morphometrics based on fractal dimensions. 253 pp. Ph.D. thesis, Universität Bern und Universität Henri Poincaré Nancy I, Bern, Switzerland.

Martin-Garin, B., Lathuiliere, B. & Geister, J. 2012. The shifting biogeography of reef corals during the Oxfordian (Late Jurassic). A climatic control? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 365-366, 136-153. View article

Martin-Garin, B., Lathuiliere, B., Geister, J., Chellai, H. & Huault, V. 2007. Geology, facies model and corals association of the Late Jurassic reef complex at Cape Ghir (Atlantic High Atlas, Morocco). Comptes Rendus Geoscience 339, 65-74. View article

Martin-Garin, B., Lathuiliere, B., Geister, J. & Ramseyer, K. 2010. Oxygen isotopes and climatic control of Oxfordian coral reefs (Jurassic, Tethys). Palaios 25, 721-729. View article

Matyszkiewicz, J., Kochman, A. & Duś, A. 2012. Influence of local sedimentary conditions on development of microbialites in the Oxfordian carbonate buildups from the southern part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland (South Poland). Sedimentary Geology 263, 109-132. View article

Matyszkiewicz, J., Krajewski, M. & Kędzierski, J. 2006. Origin and evolution of an Upper Jurassic complex of carbonate buildups from Zegarowe Rocks (Kraków-Wieluń Upland, Poland). Facies 52, 249-263. View article

Mazin, J.-M., Hantzpergue, P. & Pouech, J. 2016. The dinosaur tracksite of Loulle (early Kimmeridgian; Jura, France). Geobios 49, 211-228. View article

Mutti, M. & Hallock, P. 2003. Carbonate systems along nutrient and temperature gradients: some sedimentological and geochemical constraints. International Journal of Earth Sciences 92, 465-475. View article

Nose, M. 1995. Vergleichende Faziesanalyse und Palökologie korallenreicher Verflachungsabfolgen des iberischen Oberjura. Profil 8, 1-273.

Nose, M. & Leinfelder, R.R. 1997. Upper Jurassic coral communities within siliciclastic settings (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal): implications for symbiotic and nutrient strategies. Proceeding 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, June 1996, Panama City, 1755-1760.

Olivier, N. 2004. Microbialites dans les bioconstructions du Jurassique: morphologies, rôles édificateurs et significations paléoenvironnementales. 380 pp. Ph.D. thesis, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.

Olivier, N., Cariou, E. & Hantzpergue, P. 2015. Evolution of a Late Oxfordian: early Kimmeridgian carbonate platform, French Jura Mountains. Swiss Journal of Geosciences 108, 273-288. View article

Olivier, N., Lathuiliere, B. & Thiry-Bastien, P. 2006. Growth models of Bajocian coral-microbialite reefs of Chargey-les-Port (eastern France): palaeoenvironmental interpretations. Facies 52, 113-127. View article

Olivier, N., Pittet, B. & Mattioli, E. 2004b. Palaeoenvironmental control on sponge reefs and contemporaneous deep-shelf marl-limestone deposition (Late Oxfordian, southern Germany). Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 212, 233-263. View article

Olivier, N., Carpentier, C., Martin-Garin, B., Lathuiliere, B., Gaillard, C., Ferry, S., Hantzpergue, P. & Geister, J. 2004a. Coral-microbialite reefs in pure carbonate versus mixed carbonate-siliciclastic depositional environments: the example of the Pagny-sur-Meuse section (Upper Jurassic, northeastern France). Facies 50, 229-255. View article

Olivier, N., Colombier, C., Pittet, B. & Lathuiliere, B. 2011. Microbial carbonates and corals on the marginal French Jura platform (Late Oxfordian, Molinges section). Facies 57, 469-492. View article

Olivier, N., Hantzpergue, P., Gaillard, C., Pittet, B., Leinfelder, R.R., Schmid, D.U. & Werner, W. 2003. Microbialite morphology, structure and growth: a model of the Upper Jurassic reefs of the Chay Peninsula (western France). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 193, 383-404. View article

Olivier, N., Martin-Garin, B., Colombié, C., Cornée, J.J., Giraud, F., Schnyder, J., Kabbachi, B. & Ezaidi, K. 2012. Ecological succession in an Upper Jurassic coral reef system (Izwarn section, High Atlas, Morocco). Geobios 45, 555-572. View article

Olivier, N., Pittet, B., Gaillard, C. & Hantzpergue, P. 2007. High-frequency palaeoenvironmental fluctuations recorded in Jurassic coral-and sponge-microbialite bioconstructions. Comptes Rendus Palevol 6, 21-36. View article

Olóriz, F., Reolid, M. & Rodríguez-Tovar, F.J. 2012. Palaeogeography and relative sea-level history forcing eco-sedimentary contexts in Late Jurassic epicontinental shelves (Prebetic Zone, Betic Cordillera): an ecostratigraphic approach. Earth-Science Reviews 111, 154-178. View article

Pawellek, T. & Aigner, T. 2003. Apparently homogenous “reef”-limestones built by high-frequency cycles: Upper Jurassic, SW-Germany. Sedimentary Geology 160, 259-284. View article

Pittet, B. & Strasser, A. 1998. Long-distance correlations by sequence stratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy; examples and implications (Oxfordian from the Swiss Jura, Spain, and Normandy). Geologische Rundschau 86, 852-874. View article

Pleş, G., Mircescu, C.V., Bucur, I.I. & Săsăran, E. 2013. Encrusting micro-organisms and microbial structures in Upper Jurassic limestones from the Southern Carpathians (Romania). Facies 59, 19-48. View article

Pratt, B.R. & James, N.P. 1986. The St George Group (Lower Ordovician) of western Newfoundland: tidal flat island model for carbonate sedimentation in shallow epeiric seas. Sedimentology 33, 313-343. View article

Purser, B.H. 1983. Sédimentation et diagenese des carbonates néritiques récents. 389 pp. IFP Technip, Rueil Malmaison, Paris.

Rankey, E.C. 2002. Spatial patterns of sediment accumulation on a Holocene tidal flat, Northwest Andros Island, Bahamas. Journal of Sedimentary Research 72, 591-601. View article

Reolid, M., Gaillard, C. & Lathuiliere, B. 2007. Microfacies, microtaphonomic traits and foraminiferal assemblages from Upper Jurassic oolitic-coral limestones: stratigraphic fluctuations in a shallowing-upward sequence (French Jura, Middle Oxfordian). Facies 53, 553-574. View article

Reolid, M., Gaillard, C., Olóriz, F. & Rodríguez-Tovar, F.J. 2005. Microbial encrustations from the Middle Oxfordian-earliest Kimmeridgian lithofacies in the Prebetic Zone (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain): characterization, distribution and controlling factors. Facies 50, 529-543. View article

Reolid, M., Molina, J.M., Löser, H., Navarro, V. & Ruiz-Ortiz, P.A. 2009. Coral biostromes of the Middle Jurassic from the Subbetic (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain): facies, coral taxonomy, taphonomy, and palaeoecology. Facies 55, 575-593. View article

Ricci, C., Lathuiliere, B. & Rusciadelli, G. 2018b. Coral communities, zonation and paleoecology of an Upper Jurassic reef complex (Ellipsactinia Limestones, Central Apennines, Italy). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 124(3), 433-508.

Ricci, C., Rusciadelli, G., Della Porta, G., Lanfranchi, A., Jadoul, F. & Lathuiliere, B. 2018a. Sedimentary evolution of a coral-, microbialites-and debris-rich Upper Jurassic reef (upper Tithonian, eastern Sardinia, Italy). Sedimentary Geology 376, 113-35. View article

Rusciadelli, G., Ricci, C., & Lathuiliere, B. 2011. The Ellipsactinia Limestones of the Marsica area (Central Apennines): a reference zonation model for Upper Jurassic Intra-Tethys reef complexes. Sedimentary Geology 233, 69-87. View article

San Miguel, G., Aurell, M. & Bádenas, B. 2017. Occurrence of high-diversity metazoan-to microbial-dominated bioconstructions in a shallow Kimmeridgian carbonate ramp (Jabaloyas, Spain). Facies 63, 1-21. View article

Schmid, D.U. 1996. Marine Mikrobolithe und Mikroinkrustierer aus dem Oberjura. Profil 9, 101-251.

Shiraishi, F. & Kano, A. 2004. Composition and spatial distribution of microencrusters and microbial crusts in upper Jurassic-lowermost Cretaceous reef limestone (Torinosu Limestone, southwest Japan). Facies 502, 217-227. View article

Sprachta, S., Camoin, G., Golubic, S. & Campion, T.L. 2001. Microbialites in a modern lagoonal environment: nature and distribution, Tikehau atoll (French Polynesia). Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 175, 103-124. View article

Stanley, G.D. 2003. The evolution of modern corals and their early history. Earth-Science Review 60, 195-225. View article

Stanley Jr., G.D. & Cairns, S.D. 1988. Constructional azooxanthellate coral communities: an overview with implications for the fossil record. Palaios 3, 233-242. View article

Strasser, A. 2007. Astronomical time scale for the Middle Oxfordian to Late Kimmeridgian in the Swiss and French Jura Mountains. Swiss Journal of Geosciences 100, 407-429. View article

Strasser, A. & Védrine, S. 2009. Controls on facies mosaics of carbonate platforms: a case study from the Oxfordian of the Swiss Jura, 199-213. In Swart, P.K., Eberli, G.P. & McKenzie, J.A. (eds) Perspectives in Carbonate Geology: a Tribute to the Career of Robert Nathan Ginsburg. Special publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists 41. View article

Thierry, J. et al. 2000. Early Kimmeridgian (146-144 Ma), Map 10, 85-97. In Dercourt, J., Gaetani, M., Vrielynck, B. et al. (eds) Atlas Peri-Tethys. Palaeogeographical Maps.

Tucker, M.E. & Wright, V.P. 1990. Carbonate Sedimentology. 482 pp. Blackwell, Oxford. View article

Werner, W., Leinfelder, R.R., Fürsich, F.T. & Krautter, M. 1994. Comparative palaeoecology of marly coralline sponge bearing reefal associations from the Kimmeridgian (Upper Jurassic) of Portugal and southwestern Germany. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 172, 381-397.

Wright, V.P. & Burgess, P.M. 2005. The carbonate factory continuum, facies mosaics and microfacies: an appraisal of some of the key concepts underpinning carbonate sedimentology. Facies 51, 19-25. View article

Zamagni, J., Košir, A. & Mutti, M. 2009. The first microbialite-coral mounds in the Cenozoic (Uppermost Paleocene) from the Northern Tethys (Slovenia): Environmentally-triggered phase shifts preceding the PETM? Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 274, 1-17. View article