Post-Kellwasser event recovery and diversification of phacopid trilobites in the early Famennian (Late Devonian)

 

Authors: Feist R

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 94, issue 1; pages: 1 - 22; Received 2 October 2018; Accepted in revised form 5 March 2019; Online 21 March 2019

Keywords: phacopid trilobites, Famennian, biostratigraphy, phylogeny, morphology, systematics,

full text (PDF, 5.72 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

While no Frasnian phacopid genera are known to survive the terminal Frasnian Kellwasser extinction event, recovery of phacopids in the early Famennian is characterised by one of the highest origination rates of the clade. In this study species and subspecies currently known are updated with regard to their age distribution according to conodont-based bio-zonation. They occur in representative sites including Sessacker (Rhenish Slate Mountains), Wieda (Harz), McWhae Ridge (Canning Basin, Western Australia), Beni Abbes (Algerian Sahara) and Montagne Noire (Southern France). More than two-thirds of the taxa are reduced-eyed or blind, which might indicate adaptation to deep offshore habitats. A few taxa with Phacops-like kidney-shaped eyes with many lenses represent shallower environments in the photic zone. The fauna is characterised by different features of the ventral cephalic doublure due to the presence or absence of individualized anterior border, vincular furrow and postvincular doublure. Phyletic affiliation to Frasnian taxa remains difficult to assess until these are better known for their diversity in various habitats. Chlupacops may be a possible ancestor of taxa with cephalic anterior border such as Nephranops and Houseops, while Cryphops and Trimerocephalus may be rooted in Acuticryphops as previously thought. The systematic part is devoted to diagnoses and descriptions that are completed by new morphological criteria leading to some taxonomic re-assignments. The following taxa are new: Nephranops (Nephranops) angerae sp. nov., Nephranops (Maternia) occitanicus subgen. et sp. nov., Pulvinocephalus gen. nov., P. (Pulvinocephalus) steinachensis triangulus subgen. et subsp. nov., P. (Cryphopsides) ovatus subgen. et sp. nov., P. (?Cryphopsides) walliseri ?subgen. et sp. nov., Trifoliops septimanicus sp. nov., Struveops wiedaensis sp. nov.

References

Abramova, A.N. & Artyushkova O.V. 2004. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary in the southern Urals. Geological Quarterly 48(3), 217-132.

Alberti, G.K.B. 1970. Zur Augenreduktion bei devonischen Trilobiten mit Beschreibung von Nephranops franconicus n. sp. aus dem Oberdevon Iα von Oberfranken. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 44(3-4), 145-160.View article

Basse, M. & Müller, P. 2000. Illaenula struvei n. sp. aus Wissenbach-Schiefern der Dill-Mulde. Senckenbergiana lethaea 79, 441-457.View article

Becker, R.T., Feist, R., Flajs, G., House, M.R. & Klapper, G. 1989. Frasnian-Famennian extinction events in the Devonian at Coumiac, southern France. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences Paris 309 II, 259-266.

Chlupáč, I. 1975. The distribution of phacopid trilobites in space and time. Fossils and Strata 4, 399-408.

Chlupáč, I. 1977. The phacopid trilobites of the Silurian and Devonian of Czechoslovakia. Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 43, 1-172.

Crônier, C. 2003. Systematic relationships of the blind phacopine trilobite Trimerocephalus, with a new species from Causses-et-Veyran, Montagne Noire. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 48(1), 55-70.

Crônier, C. 2007. Larval morphology and ontogeny of an Upper Devonian phacopid: Nephranops from Thuringia, Germany. Journal of Paleontology 81(4), 684-700.View article

Crônier, C. & Feist, R. 2000. Evolution et systématique du groupe Cryphops (Trilobita, Phacopinae) du Dévonien supérieur. Senckenbergiana lethaea 79, 501-515.View article

Crônier, C. & François, A. 2014. Distribution patterns of Upper Devonian phacopid trilobites: paleobiogeographical and paleoenvironmental significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 404, 12-23.View article

Crônier, C., Malti, F.Z., François, A., Benyoucef, M. & Brice, D. 2013. First occurrence of a phacopid trilobite faunule from the Upper Devonian of Saoura Valley, Algeria and biodiversity fluctuations. Geological Magazine 150(6), 1002-1021.View article

Drevermann, F. 1901. Die Fauna der oberdevonischen Tuffbreccie von Langenaubach bei Haiger. Jahrbuch der Preußischen Geologischen Landesanstalt for 1900, 99-207.

Emmrich, H.F. 1844. Zur Naturgeschichte der Trilobiten. Programm Realschule Meiningen, 1-28.

Feist, R. (ed.) 1990. The Frasnian/Famennian boundary and adjacent strata of the eastern Montagne Noire, France. 69 pp. IUGS Guide book, Subcommission of Devonian Stratigraphy, Montpellier.

Feist, R. 1991. The Late Devonian trilobite crises. Historical Biology 5, 197-214.View article

Feist, R. 1995. Effect of paedomorphosis in eye reduction on patterns of evolution and extinction in Trilobites, 225-244. In McNamara, K.J. (ed.) Evolutionary Change and Heterochrony. Wiley, Chichester.

Feist, R. & Becker, R.T. 1997. Discovery of Famennian trilobites in Australia (Late Devonian, Canning Basin, NW Australia). Geobios (Mémoire special 20), 231-242.View article

Feist, R. & Schindler, E. 1994. Trilobites during the Frasnian Kellwasser Crisis in European Late Devonian cephalopod limestones. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 169, 195-223.

Feist, R. & Weyer, D. 2018. The proetid trilobite Perliproetus, a marker of the late Famennian in Central Europe and North Africa. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 287(2), 195-206.View article

Feist, R., Mahboubi, A. & Girard, C. 2016. New Late Devonian phacopid trilobites from Marhouma, SW Algerian Sahara. Bulletin of Geosciences 91(2), 243-259.View article

Feist, R., Yasdi, M. & Becker, R.T. 2003. Famennian trilobites from the Shotori Range, E - Iran. Annales de la Société Géologique du Nord 10, 285-295.

Feist, R., McNamara, K.J., Crônier, C. & Lerosey-Aubril, R. 2009. Patterns of extinction and recovery of phacopid trilobites during the Frasnian-Famennian (Late Devonian) mass extinction event, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Geological Magazine 146(1), 12-33.View article

Girard, C., Corne´e, J.-J., Corradini, C., Fravalo, A. & Feist, R. 2014. Palaeoenvironmental changes at Col de Tribes (Montagne Noire, France), a reference section for the Famennian of north-Gondwana-related areas. Geological Magazine 151(5), 864-884.View article

Gürich, G. 1896. Das Palaeozoicum im Polnischen Mittelgebirge. Verhandlungen der Russisch-Kaiserlichen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 32, 1-539.

Kaufmann, B. 2006. Calibrating the Devonian time scale: A synthesis of U-Pb ID-TIMS ages and conodont stratigraphy. Earth Science Reviews 76, 175-190.View article

Kin, A. & Błażejowski, B. 2013. A new Trimerocephalus species (Trilobita, Phacopidae) from the Late Devonian (Early Famennian) of Poland. Zootaxa 3626(3), 345-355.View article

Klapper, G., Feist, R. Becker, R.T. & House, M.R. 1993. Definition of the Frasnian/Famennian stage boundary. Episodes 16(4), 433-441.

Lazreq, N. 1992. The Upper Devonian of M’rirt. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 154, 107-123.

Lerosey-Aubril, R. & Feist, R. 2012. Quantitative approach to diversity and decline in late Palaeozoic trilobites, 535-550. In Talent, J.A. (ed.) Earth and Life. Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time. Springer.View article

Lütke, F. 1968. Trilobiten aus dem Oberdevon des Südwest-Harzes, Stratigraphie, Biotop und Systematik. Senckenbergiana lethaea 49(2-3), 119-191.

Matern, H. 1927. Mitteilungen über die Oberdevon-Fauna der Dill-Mulde. Senckenbergiana 9(6), 252-260.

Matern, H. 1931. Das Oberdevon der Dill-Mulde. Abhandlungen der Preußischen Geologischen Landes-Anstalt, neue Folge 134, 1-139.

Maximova, Z.A. 1955. Trilobity srednogo i verchnego devona Urala i severnych Mugodzar. Trudy Vsesojuznogo nauchno-issledovatelskii Geologicheskii Instituta, N.S. 3, 1-263.

McCoy, F. 1849. On the classification of some British fossil Crustacea with notices of new forms in the University collection at Cambridge. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Decade 2, 4, 161-179, 300-335, 392-414.View article

McNamara, K.J. & Feist, R. 2016. The effect of environmental changes on the evolution and extinction of Late Devonian trilobites from the northern Canning Basin, Western Australia, 251-271. In Becker, R.T., Königshof, P. & Brett, C.E. (eds) Devonian climate, sea level and evolutionary events. Geological Society London, Special Publication 423.View article

Münster, G.G. 1842. Nachtrag zu den Versteinerungen des Uebergangs-Kalkes mit Clymenien von Oberfranken. Beiträge zur Petrefakten-Kunde 5(16), 112-128.

Osmólska, H. 1958. Famennian Phacopidae from the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 3, 119-148.

Osmólska, H. 1963. On some Famennian Phacopidae (Trilobita) from the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 8, 495-523.

Perna, A. 1915. Upper Devonian trilobites from the environs of the town Vierkhnie-Uralsk. Mémoires du Comité Géologique 138, 1-58.

Pfeiffer, H. 1954. Der Bohlen bei Saalfeld/Thür. Beiheft zur Zeitschrift Geologie 11, 1-105.

Pfeiffer, H. 1959. Neue Beobachtungen und Funde aus dem Saalfelder Oberdevon. Geologie 8, 262-279.

Richter, Re. 1856. Beiträge zur Paläontologie des Thüringer Waldes. Erster Theil. Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch naturwissenschaftliche Classe 11, 87-138.

Richter, Re. 1869. Das Thüringische Schiefergebirge. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 21(2), 341-393.

Richter, R. & Richter, E. 1923. Systematik und Stratigraphie der Oberdevon-Trilobiten des Ostthüringischen Schiefergebirges. Senckenbergiana 5, 59-76.

Richter, R. & Richter, E. 1926. Beiträge zur Kenntnis devonischer Trilobiten. IV. Die Trilobiten des Oberdevons. Abhandlungen der preussischen geologischen Landesanstalt, Neue Folge 99, 1-314.

Richter, R. & Richter, E. 1931. Unterlagen zum Fossilium Catalogus, Trilobitae. V. Senckenbergiana 13, 140-146.

Richter, R. & Richter, E. 1955. Oberdevonische Trilobiten, Nachträge. 1. Trilobiten aus der Prolobites-Stufe III. 2. Phylogenie der oberdevonischen Phacopidae. Senckenbergiana lethaea 36(1-2), 49-72.

Richter, R., Richter, E. & Struve, W. 1959. Family Phacopidae, 462-466. In Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.

Roemer, F.A. 1866. Beiträge zur geologischen Kenntnis des nordwestlichen Harzgebirges, 5. Palaeontographica 13, 201-235.

Schrank, E. 1973. Denckmannites caecus n. sp., ein blinder Phacopide aus dem höchsten Thüringer Silur. Zeitschrift für geologische Wissenschaften 1(3), 347-351.

Schülke, I. 1995. Evolutive Prozesse bei Palmatolepis in der frühen Famenne-Stufe (Conodonta, Ober-Devon). Göttinger Arbeiten zur Geologie und Paläontologie 67, 1-108.

Tagarieva, R.C. 2013. Conodont biodiversity of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary interval (Upper Devonien) in the southern Urals. Bulletin of Geosciences 88(2), 297-314.View article

Volk, M. 1939. Das Oberdevon am Schwarzburger Sattel zwischen Südrandspalte und Kamm des Thüringer Waldes. Sitzungsberichte der physikalisch-medizinischen Sozietät 70, 147-278.

Whittington, H.B. & Kelly, S.R.A. 1997. Morphological terms applied to Trilobita, 313-329. In Kaesler, R.L. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part O. Arthropoda 1. Trilobita, revised, 1: Introduction, Order Agnostida, Order Redlichiida. Geological Society of America, Boulder and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.

Ziegler, W. 1962. Taxonomie und Phylogenie oberdevonischer Conodonten und ihre stratigraphische Bedeutung. Abhandlungen des hessischen Landesamtes für Bodenforschung 38, 1-166.

Ziegler, W. 1971. Conodont Stratigraphy of the European Devonian. Geological Society of America Memoir 127, 227-284.View article