Middle Katian/lowermost Hirnantian ostracods from the Prague Basin (Czech Republic): Diversity responses to the climatic changes


Authors: Lajblová K, Kraft P

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 93, issue 2; pages: 205 - 245; Received 22 May 2017; Accepted in revised form 3 November 2017; Online 30 June 2018

Keywords: ostracods, Ordovician, Katian, early Hirnantian, Prague Basin, biogeography,

full text (PDF, 10.33 MB)

Export to RIS



Ostracods are an abundant but long undervalued component of the fossil associations occurring in the Králův Dvůr Formation (Prague Basin; Czech Republic) of the mid Katian to the earliest Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) age. It has been known that they are abundant but it is first evincibly shown that they were also extraordinary diversified. Twenty-eight (plus two dubious) species are described, with only seven (plus the two dubious) having been recorded in the formation before. Ten species are newly established, one established in another area, and ten are kept in open nomenclature. The stratigraphic distribution of the taxa throughout the formation was observed below, inside and above the Perník Bed, the layer of the carbonaceous mudstone interpreted as a response to climatic changes. The taxa from the Perník Bed are described for the first time and those from the interval above this unit have not been studied in detail yet. The pattern of stratigraphic ranges of the species in the Králův Dvůr Formation shows a decreasing diversity toward the top, and a strong but temporary influence by the taxa which appeared in the Prague Basin during the sedimentation of the Perník Bed in the upper part of the formation. It is significant that only several taxa ranging throughout the formation survived above the Perník Bed. They are interpreted as opportunistic, based on such a distribution pattern. All taxa first appeared in the Perník Bed interval (supposed immigrants), and a part of the basin dwellers prior to the sedimentation of the Perník Bed sedimentation disappeared. Such a distribution pattern is interpreted by cooling accompanied by fluctuations in the latest Katian, which is in agreement with the generally accepted model of strong climatic changes in this stratigraphic interval. Analysis of the genera distribution clearly demonstrates the very close relationship of ostracod associations recorded in the Králův Dvůr Formation to Baltica and noticeably weaker migration among the Prague Basin, Avalonia and Laurentia.


Adamczak, F. 1961. Eridostraca - a new suborder of ostracodes and its phylogenetic significance. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 6(1), 29-102.

Barnes, C.R. & McCraken, A.D. 1981. Early Silurian chronostratigraphy and a proposed Ordovician-Silurian stratotype, Anticosti Island, Québec. 71-79. In Lespérance, P.J. (ed.) International Union of Geological Sciences, Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy, Ordovician-Silurian Boundary Working Group, Field Meeting, Anticosti-Gaspé, Québec. Volume 2, Stratigraphy and Paleontology.

Barrande, J. 1872. Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme. 1ere Partie: Recherches Paléontologiques. Supplement au Vol. 1. Trilobites, Crustacés divers et Poissons. 647 pp., 35 pls. Privately published, Prague & Paris.

Bassler, R.S. & Kellett, B. 1934. Bibliographic index of Paleozoic Ostracoda. Geological Society of America Special Papers 1, 1-500.View article

Becker, G. & Bless, M.J.M. 1974. Ostracode stratigraphy of the Ardenno-Rhenish Devonian and Dinantian. International Symposium on Belgian Micropaleontological Limits Publication 1, 1-52.

Bigsby, J.J. 1868. The Flora and Fauna of the Silurian Period. With Addenda (from Recent Acquisitions). Thesaurus Siluricus. 214 pp. John van Voorst, Paternoster Row., London.View article

Blumenstengel, H. 1965. Zur Ostrakodenfauna eines Kalkgerölls aus dem Thüringer Lederschiefer (Ordovizium). Freiberger Forschungshefte C 182, 63-78.

Bolton, T.E. 1970. Subsurface Ordovician fauna, Anticosti Island, Quebec. Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 187, 1-145.View article

Bonnema, J.H. 1909. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Ostrakoden der Kuckersschen Schicht (C2). Mitteilungen aus dem Mineralogischen-Geologischen Institut der Reichs-Universitat zu Groningen 2(1), 1-84.

Bouček, B. 1928. O vrstvách zahořanských - dε českého ordoviku. Rozpravy České akademie věd a umění, Třída II (matematicko-přírodovědecká) 37, 33, 1-59.

Bouček, B. 1936. Die Ostracoden des böhmischen Ludlows (Stufe eb). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie 76, 31-98.

Brenchley, P.J. & Štorch, P. 1989. Environmental changes in the Hirnantian (upper Ordovician) of the Prague Basin, Czechoslovakia. Geological Journal 24(3), 165-181.View article

Budil, P., Fatka, O., Kolář, P. & David, M. 2011a. Arthrorhachis Hawle & Corda, 1847 (Agnostida) in the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Czech Republic) revisited. Bulletin of Geosciences 86(4), 707-724.View article

Budil, P., Fatka, O., Mergl, M. & David, M. 2011b. Trilobite biostratigraphy of the Králův Dvůr Formation (upper Katian, Prague Basin, Czech Republic): global faunal changes or facies-related distribution? Geologické výzkumy na Moravě a ve Slezsku 18(1), 4-10.

Burr, J.H. Jr. & Swain, F.M. 1965. Ostracoda of the Dubuque and Maquoketa Formations of Minnesota and northern Iowa. Minnesota Geological Survey Special Publication 3, 1-40.

Cherns, L. & Wheeley, J.R. 2007. A pre-Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) interval of global cooling - The Boda event re-assessed. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 251(3), 449-460.View article

Chlupáč, I. 1951a. Stratigrafické poměry králodvorských břidlic u Karlíka a Zadní Třebáně. Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 26, 194-212.

Chlupáč, I. 1951b. Profil králodvorskými břidlicemi (Ashgillian) u Velké Chuchle. Věstník Královské české společnosti nauk, třída matematicko-přírodovědecká 1950(1), 1-10. Chlupáč, I. 1953. Poznámky ke stratigrafii králodvorských břidlic v okolí Litně. Časopis Národního musea, oddíl přírodovědný 122, 28-33.

Chlupáč, I. 1999. Barrande’s stratigraphic concepts, palaeontological localities and tradition - comparison with the present state. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 44(1-2), 3-30.

Copeland, M.J. 1970. Ostracoda from the Vauréal Formation (Upper Ordovician) of Anticosti Island, Quebec. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Canada 187, 15-29.View article

Copeland, M.J. 1973. Ostracoda from the Ellis Bay Formation (Ordovician), Anticosti Island, Quebec. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 72(43), 1-49.

Copeland, M.J. 1977. Early Palaeozoic Ostracoda from southwestern district of Mackenzie, and Yukon Territory. Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 275, 1-88.View article

Copeland, M.J. 1989. Silicified upper Ordovician-lower Silurian ostracodes from the Avalanche Lake area, southwestern District of Mackenzie. Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 341, 1-100.View article

Coryell, H.N. & Schenck, H.G. 1941. Type of the Ordovician ostracode genus Leperditella. Journal of Paleontology 15(2), 176-177.

Elrick, M., Reardon, D., Labor, W., Martin, J., Desrochers, A. & Pope, M. 2013. Orbital-scale climate change and glacioeustasy during the early Late Ordovician (pre-Hirnantian) determined from δ18O values in marine apatite. Geology 41(7), 775-778.View article

Fatka, O. & Mergl, M. 2009. The “microcontinent” Perunica: status and story 15 years after conception, 65-102. In Bassett, M.G. (ed.) Early Palaeozoic peri-Gondwanan terranes: New insights from tectonics and biogeography. Geological Society London, Special Publications 325.

Fortey, R.A. & Cocks, L.R.M. 2005. Late Ordovician global warming-The Boda event. Geology, 33(5), 405-408.View article

Gailite, L. 1968. Paleontological characteristic of adjacent Ordovician and Silurian deposits in Latvia, 130-138. In Grigelis A.A. (ed.) Stratigraphy of the Baltic Lower Paleozoic and its Correlation with Other Areas. Mintis, Vilnius. [in Russian with English summary]

Gailite, L. 1970. Ostracodes from the Kuldiga Member of the Upper Ordovician of Latvia, 19-32. In Grigelis A.A. (ed.) Palaeontology and Stratigraphy of the Baltic and the Byelorussia. Mintis, Vilnius. [in Russian with English summary]

Gailite, L. 1975. Ostracoda from the Middle and Upper Ordovician boundary in West Latvia, 59-67. In Grigelis A.A. (ed.) The Fauna and Stratigraphy of Paleozoic of Baltic and Byelorussia. Mintis, Vilnius. [in Russian with English summary]

Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Sá, A.A., García-Bellido, D.C. & Rábano, I. 2017. The Bohemo-Iberian regional chronostratigraphical scale for the Ordovician System and palaeontological correlations within South Gondwana. Lethaia 50(2), 258-295.View article

Hammer, O., Harper, D.A.T. & Ryan, P.D. 2001. PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1), 1-9.

Harlton, B.H. 1933. Micropaleontology of the Pennsylvanian Johns Valley shale of the Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma, and its relationship to the Mississippian Caney shale. Journal of Paleontology 7(1), 3-29.

Havlíček, V. 1981. Development of a linear sedimentary depression exemplified by the Prague Basin (Ordovician-Middle Devonian; Barrandian area - central Bohemia). Sborník geologických věd, Geologie 35, 7-48.

Havlíček, V. 1982. Ordovician in Bohemia: development of the Prague Basin and its benthic communities. Sborník geologických věd, Geologie 37, 103-136.

Havlíček, V. 1989. Climatic changes and development of benthic communities through the Mediterranean Ordovician. Sborník geologických věd, Geologie 44, 79-116.

Havlíček, V. 1998. Ordovician, 41-79. In Chlupáč, I., Havlíček, V., Kříž, J., Kukal, Z. & Štorch, P. (eds) Palaeozoic of the Barrandian (Cambrian to Devonian). Czech Geological Survey, Prague.

Havlíček, V. & Marek, L. 1973. Bohemian Ordovician and its international correlation. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 18(3), 225-232.

Havlíček, V. & Mergl, M. 1982. Deep water shelly fauna in the latest Kralodvorian (upper Ordovician, Bohemia). Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 57(1), 37-46.

Havlíček, V. & Vaněk, J. 1966. The Biostratigraphy of the Ordovician of Bohemia. Sborník geologických věd, Paleontologie 8, 7-69.

Havlíček, V., Vaněk, J. & Fatka, O. 1994. Perunica microcontinent in the Ordovician (its position within the Mediterranean Province, series division, benthic and pelagic associations). Sborník geologických věd, Geologie 46, 23-56.

Henningsmoen, G. 1948. The Tretaspis Series of the Kullatorp Core. Bulletin of the Geological Institute of the University of Uppsala 32, 374-432.

Henningsmoen, G. 1953. Classification of Palaeozoic straight-hinged ostracods. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 31,185-288.

Henningsmoen, G. 1954. Upper Ordovician ostracods from the Oslo Region, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 33(1-2), 69-108.

Herrmann, A.D., Haupt, B.J., Patzkowsky, M.E., Seidov, D. & Slingerland, R.L. 2004. Response of Late Ordovician paleoceanography to changes in sea level, continental drift, and atmospheric pCO2: potential causes for long-term cooling and glaciation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 210(2), 385-401.View article

Hessland, I. 1949. Lower Ordovician ostracodes of the Siljan District. Bulletin of the Geological Institutions of Uppsala 33, 97-408.

Hughes, D.D. 1954. Barrande’s Ostracode Localities. The Micropaleontologist 8(3), 41-47.View article

Jaanusson, V. 1957. Middle Ordovician ostracodes of central and southern Sweden. Bulletin of the Geological Institutions of the University of Uppsala 37, 173-442.

Jones, C.R. 1986-1987. Ordovician (Llandeilo and Caradoc) Beyrichiocope Ostracoda from England and Wales. Monograph of the Palaeontological Society. Part 1, 1-76 (Publ. No. 569, part of vol. 138 for 1984). Part 2, 77-114 (Publ. No. 571, part of vol. 139 for 1985).

Jones, P.J. 1968. Upper Devonian Ostracoda and Eridostraca from the Bonaparte Gulf Basin, northwestern Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Bulletin 99, 1-109.

Jones, T.R. 1855. Notes on Palaeozoic bivalve Entomostraca. No.1. Some species of Beyrichia from the Upper Silurian Limestones of Scandinavia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 2nd Series 16(92), 81-92.

Jones, T.R. 1873. Notes on the Palaeozoic bivalved Entomostraca, no. X. Entomis and Entomidella. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4th Series 11(66), 413-417.View article

Jones, T.R. in Chapman, F. 1901. On some fossils of Wenlock age from Mulde, near Klinteberg, Gotland. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 7th Series 7(38), 141-160, 146-147, and a table by T.R. Jones.

Jones, T.R. & Holl, H.B. 1869. Notes on the Palaeozoic Bivalved Entomostraca. No. IX. Some Silurian Species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4th Series 3(15), 211-229.

Kay, G.M. 1940. Ordovician Mohawkian Ostracoda, lower Trenton Decorah fauna. Journal of Paleontology 14(3), 234-269.

Keenan, J.E. 1951. Ostracodes from the Maquoketa shale of Missouri. Journal of Paleontology 25(5), 561-574.

Kraft, J.C. 1962. Morphologic and systematic relationships of some Middle Ordovician Ostracoda. Geological Society of America Memoir 86, 1-104.View article

Kraft, P., Štorch, P. & Mitchell, C.E. 2015. Graptolites of the Králův Dvůr Formation (mid Katian to earliest Hirnantian, Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences 90(1), 195-225.View article

Krause, 1889. Über Beyrichien und verwandte Ostracoden in untersilurischen Geschieben. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 41, 1-26.

Krůta, M. 1968. Orechina n.g. (Ostracoda, Crustacea) from the Upper Ordovician of Bohemia. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 13(1), 55-62.

Latreille, P.A. 1802. Histoire naturelle, générale et particuliere, des crustacés et des insectes. Volume 5. 468 pp. F. Dufart, Paris.

Levinson, S.A. 1951. Thin sections of Paleozoic Ostracoda and their bearing on taxonomy and morphology: Journal of Paleontology 25(5), 553-560.

Lindström, M. 1953. On the Lower Chasmops Beds in the Fagelsang District (Scania). Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 75(2), 125-148.View article

Lipold, M.V. & Krejčí, J. 1860. Sitzung am 24. April 1860. Verhandlungen der kaiserlich-königlichen geologischen Reichsanstalt 11, 88-91.

Meidla, T. 1993. The ostracode genus Longiscula Neckaja, 1958 in the Ordovician of the East Baltic. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 188(3), 289-303.

Meidla, T. 1996. Late Ordovician Ostracodes of Estonia. Fossilia Baltica 2. 222 pp. Tartu University Press, Tartu.

Meidla, T. 2007. Ostracods from the Upper Ordovician Borenshult fauna, Sweden. GFF 129, 123-132.View article

Meidla, T., Ainsaar, L. & Truuver, K. 2011. Ostracods in Baltoscandia through the Hirnantian crises, 353-357. In Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Rábano, I., Garcia-Bellido, D. (eds) Ordovician of the World. Cuadernos del Museo Geominero 14.

Meidla, T., Tinn, O., Salas, M.J., Williams, M., Siveter, D.J., Vandenbroucke, T.R.A. & Sabbe, K. 2013. Biogeographical patterns of Ordovician ostracods, 337-354. In Harper, D.A.T. & Servais, T. (eds) Early Palaeozoic Biogeography and Palaeogeography. Geological Society London, Memoirs 38.

Meidla, T., Tinn, O., Williams, M. & Ainsaar, L. 2009. Latest Ordovician ostracod assemblages and biogeography, 47-49. In Suttner, T.J., Hubmann, B. & Piller, W.E. (eds) Paleozoic Seas Symposium. Graz, 14-18 September 2009, Abstract Volume, Berichte des Institutes für Erdwissenschaften, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz 14.

Melchin, M.J., Mitchell, C.E., Holmden, C. & Štorch, P. 2013. Environmental changes in the Late Ordovician - early Silurian: Review and new insights from black shales and nitrogen isotopes. The Geological Society of America Bulletin 125(11/12), 1635-1670.View article

Mergl, M. 2011a. Earliest occurrence of the Hirnantia Fauna in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences 86(1), 63-70.View article

Mergl, M. 2011b. Faunal turnover near the Katian/Hirnantian boundary in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic), 359-366. In Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Rábano, I. & García-Bellido, D. (eds) Ordovician of the World. Cuadernos del Museo Geominero 14. 679 pp. Instituto Geológico y Minero de Espana, Madrid.

Mergl, M. & Vohradský, O. 2000. Vycházky za geologickými zajímavostmi Plzně a okolí. 270 pp. KOURA publishing, Mariánské Lázně.

Mitchell, C.E., Štorch, P., Holmden, C., Melchin, M.J. & Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C. 2011. New stable isotope data and fossils from the Hirnantian Stage in Bohemia and Spain: implications for correlation and paleoclimate, 371-378. In Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Rábano, I. & García-Bellido, D. (eds) Ordovician of the World. Cuadernos del Museo Geominero 14. 679 pp. Instituto Geológico y Minero de Espana, Madrid.

Neckaja, A.I. 1952. New ostracode species from the Ordovician strata of the northwestern part of the Russian Platform. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo neftyanogo nauchno-issledovatel’skogo geologorazvedochnogo instituta (VNIGRI) 60, 217-232. [in Russian]

Neckaja, A.I. 1958. New species and genera of ostracodes of the Ordovician and Silurian of the Russian Platform. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo neftyanogo nauchno-issledovatel’skogo geologorazvedochnogo instituta (VNIGRI) 115, 349-373. [in Russian]

Neckaja, A.I. 1966. Ostracods of the Ordovician and Silurian of the USSR [families Schmidtellidae, Rectellidae, Longisculidae and some new species of other families]. 104 pp. Nedra, Leningrad. [in Russian]

Nolvak, J., Meidla, T. & Hints, L. 1989. The Taucionys Formation (Holorhynchus Beds) in the Iljinskoje boring (Pskov District). Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR, Geology 38(2), 88-93.

Olempska, E. 1994. Ostracods of the Mójcza Limestone, 129-212. In Dzik, J., Olempska, E. & Pisera, A. (eds) Ordovician Carbonate Platform Ecosystem of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Palaeontologia Polonica 53.

Olempska E., 2012. Morphology and affinities of Eridostracina: Palaeozoic ostracods with moult retention. Hydrobiologia 688, 139-165.View article

Öpik, 1937. Ostracoda from the Ordovician Uhaku and Kukruse formations of Estonia. Publications of the Geological Institutions of the University of Tartu 43, 1-70.

Pereira, S., Marques da Silva, C., Pires, M. & Sá, A.A. 2015. The oldest brachymetopid trilobite record from the European peri-Gondwana. Bulletin of Geosciences 90(3), 543-553.View article

Pokorný, V. 1954. A contribution to the taxonomy of the Paleozoic ostracods. Sborník Ústředního ústavu geologického, oddíl paleontologický 20 (for 1953), 213-232.

Přibyl, A. 1950. Příspěvek k poznání českých ostrakodů z čeledí Entomozoidae a Entomoconchidae. Rozpravy České akademie věd a umění, Třída II 59 (for 1949), 9, 1-27.

Přibyl, A. 1979. Ostrakoden der Šárka - bis Králův Dvůr-Schichtengruppe des böhmischen Ordoviziums. Sborník Národního Muzea, Řada B 33 (for 1977), 53-145.

Přibyl, A. 1988. Ostracodes from the Silurian of central Bohemia. Sborník geologických Věd, Paleontologie 29, 49-143.

Röhlich, P. & Chlupáč, I. 1952. Svrchní ordovik v býv. Reiserově cihelně u Řeporyj. Sborník Ústředního ústavu geologického, oddíl geologický 19, 1-17.

Salas, M.J. & Vaccari, N.E. 2012. New insights into the early diversification of the Ostracoda: Tremadocian ostracods from the Cordillera Oriental, Argentina. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57(1), 175-190.View article

Saravia, P.D. & Jones, P.J. 1999. New Carboniferous (Namurian) glaciomarine ostracods from Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Micropalaeontology 18, 97-109.View article

Sars, G.O. 1866. Oversigt af Norges marine Ostracoder. Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-Selskabet i Christiania 1865(1), 1-130.

Sarv, L. 1956. New ostracod species of the Vasalemma Stage (Upper Ordovician of Estonia). Trudy Instituta geologii AN ESSR 1, 30-40. [in Russian]

Sarv, L. 1959. Ordovician ostracods in the Estonian S.S.R. Trudy Instituta geologii AN ESSR 4, 1-210. [in Russian]

Sarv, L. & Meidla, T. 1984. Ostracod distribution pattern in the Ordovician-Silurian boundary beds of the North East Baltic. 22 pp. Akademia nauk Estonskoy SSR, Institut geologii, Tallin (VINITI). [in Russian]

Schallreuter, R. 1967. Zur Taxonomic und Phylogenie der Ostrakodenfamilie Tvaerenellidae Jaanusson, 1957 (Palaeocopina, Hollinacea). Geologie, 16(8), 928-943.

Schallreuter, R. 1968. Zur Taxonomie und Phylogenie der Eridostraca (Ostracoda). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 42(1/2), 105-119.View article

Schallreuter, R. 1969. Untergattungen der Ostrakodengattung Platybolbina. Geologie 18(7), 877-879.

Schallreuter, R. 1972. Drepanellacea (Ostracoda, Beyrichicopida) aus mittelordovizischen Backsteinkalkgeschieben IV. Laterophores hystrix sp. n., Pedomphalella germanica sp. n. und Easchmidtella fragosa (Neckaja). Berichte der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geologische Wissenschaften, A Geologie und Paläontologie, 17(1), 139-145.

Schallreuter, R. 1973. Die Ostracodengattung Hyperchilarina und das Aparchites-Problem. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 95(1), 37-49.View article

Schallreuter, R. 1975. Ostrakoden aus Öjlemyrgeschieben (Ordoviz) II. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 150(3), 270-293.

Schallreuter, R. 1977. Zwei neue ordovizische Podocopida (Ostracoda) und Bemerkungen zur Herkunft der Cytheracea und Cypridacea. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 1977(12), 720-734.

Schallreuter, R. 1980. Ostrakoden aus dem Sularpschiefer (Mittelordoviz) von Schonen (Schweden). Palaeontographica A 169(1/3), 1-27.

Schallreuter, R. 1981. Ordovician ostracodes from Baltoscandia. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 103(1), 61-71.View article

Schallreuter, R. 1984. Geschiebe-Ostrakoden I. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 169(1), 1-40.

Schallreuter, R. 1986. Ostrakoden aus Öjlemyrflint-Geschieben von Sylt, 203-232. In Hacht, U. von (ed.) Fossilien von Sylt 2. Verlag und Verlagsbuchhandlung Inge-Maria von Hacht, Hamburg.

Schallreuter, R. 1987. Geschiebe-Ostrakoden II. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 174(1), 23-53.

Schallreuter, R. 1990a. Ordovizische Ostrakoden und Seeigel der Kamischen Alpen und ihre Beziehungen zu Böhmen und Baltoskandien. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 1990(2), 120-128.

Schallreuter, R. 1990b. Ostrakoden aus Öjlemyrflint-Geschieben von Sylt (2), 251-253. In Hacht, U. von (ed.) Fossilien von Sylt 3. Verlag und Verlagsbuchhandlung Inge-Maria von Hacht, Hamburg.

Schallreuter, R. 1999. Ordovizische Ostrakoden Hesslands. Archiv für Geschiebekunde 2(9), 673-682.

Schallreuter, R. & Hinz-Schallreuter, I. 1998. Ein Geschiebe aus Armorica im Thüringer Lederschiefer. Archiv für Geschiebekunde 2(5), 323-360.

Schallreuter, R. & Hinz-Schallreuter, I. 2010. Sexual dimorphism and pore systems in Ordovician ostracodes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 55(4), 741-760.View article

Schallreuter, R. & Hinz-Schallreuter, I. 2011. New Ostracodes from the Öjlemyr Chert (Late Ordovician) of Gotland and Northern Germany. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 50(3), 209-228

Schallreuter, R. & Krůta, M. 1984. On Platybolbina runica sp. nov. Schallreuter and Krůta. A Stereo-Atlas of Ostracod Shells 11(2), 123-126.

Schallreuter, R. & Krůta, M. 1987. The Ordovician ostracode genus Orechina from Bohemia and its Baltic representatives. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 1987(1), 57-64.

Schallreuter, R. & Krůta, M. 1988. Ordovician Ostracodes of Bohemia. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg 67, 99-119.

Schallreuter, R. & Krůta, M. 1990. On Scanipisthia rectangularis (Troedsson). A Stereo-Atlas of Ostracod Shells 17(2), 89-92.

Schallreuter, R. & Krůta M. 2001a. Ostracodes from the Dobrotivá Formation (Ordovician, Bohemia). Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B - Historia Naturalis 56, 95-103.

Schallreuter, R. & Krůta, M. 2001b. Ostracodes from the Letná Formation (Ordovician) of the Blýskava Hill (Bohemia). Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B - Historia Naturalis, 56 (2000) (3-4), 85-94.

Schallreuter, R. & Siveter, D.J. 1985. Ostracodes across the Iapetus Ocean. Palaeontology 28(3), 577-598.

Schmidt, E.A. 1941. Studien in böhmischen Caradoc (Zahoran-Stufe). 1. Ostrakoden aus Bohdalec-Schichten und über die Taxonomie der Beyrichiacea. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 454, 1-96.

Schönlaub, H.P. 1985. Exkursion “Wolayer See?, 53-69. In Schönlaub, H.P. (ed.) Arbeitstagung der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 1985. Geologische Bundesanstalt, Wien.

Schönlaub, H.P. 1988. The Ordovician-Silurian boundary in the Carnic Alps of Austria, 107-115. In Cocks, L.R.M. & Rickards, R.B. (eds) A Global Analysis of the Ordovician-Silurian Boundary, Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology 43.

Shaver, R.H. 1961. Family Bairdiocyprididae Shaver, n. fam., 364-365. In Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part Q. Arthropoda 3, Crustacea, Ostracoda. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Shaw, F.C. 2000. Trilobites of the Králův Dvůr Formation (Ordovician) of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey 75(4), 371-404.

Sidaravičiene, N. 1975. New Ordovician ostracoda of South Baltic area, 21-43. In Grigelis, A.A. (ed.) The Fauna and Stratigraphy of Paleozoic and Mesozoic of Baltic and Byelorussia. Mintis, Vilnius. [in Russian with English summary]

Sidaravičiene, N. 1992. Ordovician ostracods of Lithuania. 252 pp. Litovskiy nauchnoissledovatelskiy geologorazvedochniy institut (LitNIIGRI), Vilnius.

Siveter, D.J. 2009. The Ordovician, 45-90. In Whittaker, J.E. & Hart, M.B. (eds) Ostracods in British Stratigraphy. Micropalaeontological Society London, Special Publications 3.

Siveter, D.J. & Vannier, J.M.C. 1990: The Silurian myodocope ostracode Entomozoe from the Pentland Hills, Scotland; its taxonomic, ecological and phylogenetic significance and the affinity of the bolbozoid myodocopes. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences 81(1), 45-67.View article

Skogsberg, T. 1920. Studies on marine ostracods. Part 1. (Cypridinids, Halocyprids and Polycopids). Zoologiska bidrag fran Uppsala, Supplement 1, 1-784.

Spivey, R.C. 1939. Ostracodes from the Maquoketa shale, Upper Ordovician of Iowa. Journal of Paleontology 13(2), 163-175.

Spjeldnaes, J. 1961. Ordovician climatic zones. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskift 41, 45-77.

Štorch, P. & Mergl, M. 1989. Králodvor/Kosov boundary and the late Ordovician environmental changes in the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Bohemia). Sborník geologických věd, Geologie 44, 117-153.

Štorch, P., Černý, J., Bohátka, J. & Melichar, R. 2009. Excavation of the Prague by-pass highway tunnel driven between Radotín and Lochkov - results of geological and palaeontological research. Český kras 35, 5-13.

Šuf, J. & Prantl, F. 1946. Příspěvek k poznání geologické stavby území mezi Berounem a Prahou. Věstník Státního geologického ústavu Československé republiky 21(1-2), 42-69.

Swain, F.M. 1987. Middle and Upper Ordovician Ostracoda of Minnesota and Iowa, 99-101. In Sloan, R.E. (ed.) Middle and Late Ordovician Lithostratigraphy and Biostratigraphy of the Upper Mississippi Valley, Minnesota Geological Survey, Report of Investigations 35.

Swartz, 1936. Revision of the Primitiidae and Beyrichiidae with new Ostracoda from the Lower Devonian of Pennsylvania. Journal of Paleontology 10, 541-586.

Sylvester-Bradley, P.C. 1961. Suborder Metacopina, Sylvester-Bradley, n. suborder, 358-359. In Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part Q. Arthropoda 3, Crustacea, Ostracoda. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Sztejn, J. 1985. Małżoraczki ordowiku w Północno-wschodniej Polsce. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego 350, 53-89.

Troedsson, G.T. 1918. Om Skanes Brachiopodskiffer. Acta Universitatis Lundensis, Sectio 2 15(3), 1-104.

Truuver, K. & Meidla, T. 2015. A Hirnantian deep-water refuge for warm-water ostracods in Baltoscandia. Geological Quarterly 59(4), 738-749.View article

Truuver, K., Meidla, T., Ainsaar, L., Bergström, J. & Tinn, O. 2012. Stratigraphy of the Ordovician-Silurian boundary interval in Östergötland, Sweden, based on ostracod distribution and stable carbon isotopic data. GFF 134, 295-308.View article

Ulrich, E.O. 1879. Descriptions of new genera and species of fossils from the Lower Silurian about Cincinnati. The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 2, 8-30.

Ulrich, E.O. 1890-1891. New and little known American Paleozoic Ostracoda. The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 13, 104-137, 173-211.

Ulrich, E.O. 1894. Lower Silurian Ostracoda of Minnesota. Final Report of the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota 3, 629-693.

Ulrich, E.O. & Basler, R.S. 1906. New American Paleozoic Ostracoda. Notes and descriptions of Upper Carboniferous genera and species. United States Natural Museum, Proceedings 30, 149-164.View article

Ulrich, E.O. & Basler, R.S. 1923. Paleozoic ostracoda: their morphology, classification and occurrence. Maryland Geological Survey, Silurian 9, 271-391.

Ulst, R.Z., Gailite, L.K. & Yakovleva, V.I. 1982. The Ordovician of Latvia. 294 pp. Zinatne, Riga. [in Russian]

Vandenbroucke, T.R.A., Armstrong, H.A., Williams, M., Paris, F., Zalasiewicz, J.A., Sabbe, K., Nolvak, J., Challands, T.J., Verniers, J. & Servais, T. 2010. Polar front shift and atmospheric CO2 during the glacial maximum of the Early Paleozoic Icehouse. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(34), 14983-14986.View article

Vannier, J.M.C. & Abe, K. 1992. Recent and early Palaeozoic myodocope ostracodes: functional morphology, phylogeny, distribution and lifestyles. Palaeontology 35(3), 485-517.

Vannier, J.M.C., Siveter, D.J. & Schallreuter, R.E.L. 1989. The composition and palaeogeographical significance of the Ordovician ostracode faunas of southern Britain, Baltoscandia, and Ibero-Armorica. Palaeontology 32(1), 163-222.

Vecoli, M. & Hérissé, A. Le 2004. Biostratigraphy, taxonomic diversity and patterns of morphological evolution of Ordovician acritarchs (organic-walled microphytoplankton) from the northern Gondwana margin in relation to palaeoclimatic and palaeogeographic changes. Earth-Science Reviews 67, 267-311.View article

Warshauer, S.M. & Berdan, J.M. 1982. Palaeocopid and podocopid Ostracoda from the Lexington Limestone and Clays Ferry Formation (Middle and Upper Ordovician) of Central Kentucky, 1-80. In Pojeta, J. Jr. (ed.) Contributions to the Ordovician Paleontology of Kentucky and nearby states, Geological Survey Professional Paper 1066-H.

Webby, B.D. 2002. Patterns of Ordovician reef development, 129-179. In Kiessling, W., Flügel, E. & Golonka, J. (eds) Phanerozoic Reef Patterns. Society for Sedimentary Geology Special Publication 72.View article

Williams, M. & Vannier, J.M.C. 1995. Middle Ordovician Aparchitidae and Schmidtellidae: the significance of ’featureless’ ostracods. Journal of Micropalaeontology 14, 7-24.View article

Williams, M., Floyd, J.D., Salas, M., Siveter, D.J., Stone, P. & Vannier, J.M.C. 2003. Patterns of ostracod migration for the ’North Atlantic’ region during the Ordovician. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 195, 193-228.View article

Williams, M., Stone, P., Siveter, D.J. & Taylor, P. 2001. Upper Ordovician ostracods from the Cautley District, northern England: Baltic and Laurentian affinities. Geological Magazine 138, 589-607.View article