Famennian (Upper Devonian) conodont zonation: revised global standard


Authors: Spalletta C, Perri MC, Over DJ, Corradini C

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 92, issue 1; pages: 31 - 57; Received 27 July 2016; Accepted in revised form 9 February 2017; Online 27 March 2017

Keywords: conodonts, Upper Devonian, Famennian, biostratigraphy, biozonation,

full text (PDF, 3.02 MB)

Export to RIS



The revision of the Famennian part of the "Late Devonian Standard Conodont Zonation" is based on the in-equivalence between biozones and time, and the rejection of the presumed single phyletic concept on which the previous zonation was based. It is also intended to simplify the zonation, eliminating the zonal groups named after only one taxon, and biozones that are defined by a Last Appearance Datum (LAD). The proposed revision is largely based on the zonation proposed by Ziegler and Sandberg (1990) and is for the most part correlatable using the same zonal markers. Modifications have only been made when strictly necessary, as the aim of the proposal is to maintain the stability of over 50 years of studies. The 22 zones constituting the revised zonation are defined by the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of species or subspecies that have a well-established stratigraphic range and wide geographic distribution. Each zone is named after the taxon for which the FAD defines the lower boundary. For each zone an association of other species useful for its identification is listed.


BAHRAMI, A., CORRADINI, C.,OVER, D.J.&YAZDI,M. 2013. Conodont biostratigraphy of the upper Frasnian-lower Famennian transitional deposits in the Shotori Range, Tabas area, Central-East Iran Microplate. Bulletin of Geosciences 88, 369-388.View article

BAHRAMI, A., GHOLAMALIAN, H., CORRADINI, C. & YAZDI, M. 2011. Upper Devonian conodont biostratigraphy of Shams Abad section, Kerman province, Iran. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 117, 199-209.

BARDASHEVA, N.P., BARDASHEV, I.A.,WEDDIGE, K. & ZIEGLER,W. 2004. Stratigraphy and conodonts of the Lower Carboniferous of the Shiskat section (southern Tien Shan, Central Tajikistan). Senckenbergiana Lethaea 84, 225-301.View article

BECKER, R.T., GRADSTEIN, F.M.&HAMMER, O. 2012. The Devonian Period, 559-601. In GRADSTEIN, F.M., OGG, J.G., SCHMITZ, M. & OGG, G. (eds) The Geologic Time Scale 2012, Elsevier, Oxford.

BECKER, R.T., HARTENFELS, S., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S., TRAGELEHN, H., BRICE, D. & EL HASSANI, A. 2013. The Devonian-Carboniferous boundary at Lalla Mimouna (Northern Maider) - a progress report, 109-120. In BECKER, R.T., EL HASSANI, A. & TAHIRI, A. (eds) International Field Symposium “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana” - Field Guidebook. Document de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat 27.

BECKER, R.T., HARTENFELS, S. & WEYER, D. 2015. The Famennian to Lower Visean at Drewer (northern Rhenish Massive). Münstersche Forschungen zur Geologie und Paläontologie 108, 122-140.

BECKER, R. T., EL HASSANI, A. & TAHIRI, A. (eds) 2013. International Field Symposium “The Lower Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana”. International Field Symposium “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana” - Field Guidebook. Document de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat 27, 1-150.

BECKER, R.T., KAISER, S.I.&ARETZ, M. 2016. Review of chrono-, litho- and biostratigraphy across the global Hangenberg Crisis and Devonian-Carboniferous Boundary, 355-386. In BECKER, R.T., KÖNIGSHOF, P. & BRETT, C.E. (eds) Devonian Climate, Sea Level and Evoltionary Events, Geological Society, London, Special Publications 423.View article

BEINERT, R.J., KLAPPER, G., SANDBERG, C.A&ZIEGLER, W. 1971. Revision of Scaphignathus and description of Clydagnathus? ormistoni n.sp. (Conodonta, Upper Devonian). Geologica et Palaeontologica 5, 81-91.

BISCHOFF, G. 1956. Oberdevonische Conodonten (to I ?) aus dem Rheinischen Schiefergebirge. Notizblatt des Hessisches Landesamt für Bodenforschung 84, 115-37.

BISCHOFF, G. 1957. Die Conodonten-Stratigraphie des rhenoherzynischen Unterkarbons mit Berücksichtigung der Wocklumeria-Stufe und der Devon-Karbon Grenze. Abhandlunghen des Hessisches Landesamt für Bodenforschung, 84, 115-137.

BISCHOFF, G. & ZIEGLER, W. 1956. Das Alter der “Urfer Schishten” im Marburger Hinterland nach Conodonten. Notizblatt des Hessisches Landesamt für Bodenforschung 84, 138-169.

BRANSON, E.R. 1934. Conodonts from the Hannibal Formation of Missouri. Missouri University Studies 8, 301-343.

BRANSON, E.B. &MEHL, M.G. 1934a. Conodonts from the Grassy Creek shale of Missouri. Missouri University Studies 8, 171-259.

BRANSON, E.B. & MEHL, M.G. 1934b. Conodonts from the Bushberg sandstone and equivalent formations of Missouri. Missouri University Studies 4, 265-300.

BULTYNCK, P. 2003. Devonian Icriodontidae: biostratigraphy, classification and remarks on paleoecology and dispersal. Revista Espanola de Micropaleontologia 35(3), 295-314.

CAPKINOGLU, S. 1991. A new Pelekysgnathus species from the Lower Famennian of the Taurides, Turkey. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 30, 349-353.

CAPKINOGLU, S. 2000. Late Devonian (Famennian) Conodonts from Denizliköyü, Gebze, Kocaeli, Northwestern Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 9, 91-112.

CAPKINOGLU, S. & GEDIK, I. 2000. Late Devonian conodont fauna of the Gumusali Formation, the Eastern Taurides, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 9, 69-89.

CASIER, J.G., LETHIERS, F. & PRÉAT, A. 2002. Ostracods and sedimentology of the Devonian-Carboniferous stratotype section (La Serre, Montagne Noire, France). Bulletin de l´Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Science de la Terre 72, 43-68.

COOPER, C.L. 1931. New conodonts from the Woodford Formation of Oklahoma. Journal of Paleontology 5(3), 230-243.

CORRADINI, C. 1998. New Devonian (Famennian) taxa of Polygnathids and Icriodids (Conodonts) from Sardinia. Giornale di Geologia 60, 89-92.

CORRADINI, C. 2003. Late Devonian (Famennian) conodonts from the Corona Mizziu sections near Villasalto (Sardinia, Italy). Palaeontographia Italica 98, 65-116.

CORRADINI, C. 2008. Revision of Famennian-Tournaisian (Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous) conodont biostratigraphy of Sardinia, Italy. Revue de Micropaleontologie 51, 123-132.View article

CORRADINI, C., BARCA, S. & SPALLETTA, C. 2003. Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous conodonts from the “Clymeniae limestones” of SE Sardinia (Italy). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 245, 227-253.

CORRADINI, C., KAISER, S.I., PERRI, M.C. & SPALLETTA, C. 2011. Protognathodus (Conodonta) and its potential as a tool for defining the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 117, 15-28.

CORRADINI, C., SPALLETTA, C., KAISER, S.I. & MATYJA, H., 2013. Overview of conodonts across the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary. Asociación Paleontológica Argentina, Publicación Especial 13, 13-16.

CORRADINI, C., SPALLETTA, C., MOSSONI, A., MATYJA, H. & OVER, D.J. 2016. Conodont across the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary: a review and implication for the redefinition of the boundary and a proposal for an updated conodont zonation. Geological Magazine, 1-15.View article

DREESEN, R. & DUSAR, M. 1974. Refinement of conodont- biozonation in the Famenne area, 1-38. In BOUCKAERT, J.P. & STREET, M. (eds) International Symposium on Belgian Micropalaeontological Limits, Namur 1974. Geological Survey of Belgium Publication 13.

DRUCE, E.C. 1969. Devonian and Carboniferous conodonts from Bonaparte Gulf Basin, Northen Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics Bulletin 69, 1-243.

DRUCE, E.C. 1976. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Upper Devonian reef complexes of the Canning Basin, western Australia. Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Bulletin 158, 1-303.

DZIK, J. 2006. The Famennian “Golden Age” of conodonts and ammonoids in the Polish part of the Variscan Sea. Palaeontologia Polonica 63, 1-360.

FLÜGEL, H. & ZIEGLER,W. 1957. Die Gliederung des Oberdevons und Unterkarbons am Steinberg westlich von Graz mit Conodonten. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftischen Vereines für Steinmark 87, 25-60.

GATOVSKY, Y.A. 2008. New Species of Antognathus (Conodonts) from the Famennian Deposits of Southern Kazakhstan. Palaeontological Journal 42(2), 176-180.

GATOVSKY, Y.A. 2009. New Genera Barskovella & Bizignathus (Conodonts) from the Famennian of Southern Kazakhstan. Palaeontological Journal 43(5), 550-557.View article

GEDIK, I. 1969. Karnik Alpler’den Alt Karbonifer’e ait Conodont’lar. The Mineral research and Exploration Institut of Turkey, Bulletin 70, 229-242.

GIRARD, C., CORNÉE, J.J., CHARRAULT, A.L., CORRADINI, C., WEYER, D., BARTZSCH, K., JOACHIMSKI, M. & FEIST, R. 2017. Conodont biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental trends during the Famennian (Late Devonian) in the Thuringian Buschteich section (Germany). Newsletter on Stratigraphy 50(1), 71-89.View article

GIRARD, C., CORNÉE, J.J., CORRADINI, C., FRAVALO, A. & FEIST, R. 2014. Paleoenvironmental changes at Col des Tribes (Montagne Noire, France), a reference section for the Famennian of north Gondwana-related areas. Geological Magazine 151, 864-884.View article

GIRARD, C., KLAPPER, G. & FEIST, R. 2005. Subdivision of the terminal Frasnian linguiformis conodont Zone, revision of the correlative interval of Montagne Noire Zone 13, and discussion of stratigraphically significant associated trilobites, 181-198. In OVER, D.J.,MORROW, J.R.&WIGNALL, P.B. (eds) Understanding Late Devonian and Permian-Triassic Biotic and Climatic Events: Towards an Integrated Approach, Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy 20, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

GLENISTER, B.F.&KLAPPER, G. 1966. Upper Devonian conodonts from the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Journal of Paleontology 40, 777-842.

HAN, Y. 1987. Study on Upper Devonian Frasnian/Famennian boundary in Ma-Anshan, Zhongping, Xiangzhou, Guangxi. Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences Bulletin 17, 171-194.

HARTENFELS, S. 2011. Die globalen Annulata-Events und die Dasberg-Krise (Famennium, Oberdevon) in Europa und Nord-Afrika: hochauflösende Conodonten-Stratigraphie, Karbonat-Mikrofazies, Paläoökologie und Paläodiversität. Münstersche Forschungen zur Geologie und Paläontologie 105, 17-527.

HARTENFELS, S. & BECKER, R.T. 2012. Conodont age and correlation of the transgressive Gonioclymenia and Calloclymenia Limestones (Famennian, Anti-Atlas, SE Morocco). Centenary Meeting of the Paläontologische Gesellschaft, At Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, Abstract Volume, Terra Nostra 2012/3, 67.

HARTENFELS, S. & BECKER, R.T. 2016. The global Annulata Events: review and new data from the Rheris Basin (northern Tafilalt) of SE Morocco, 291-354. In BECKER, R.T., KÖNIGSHOF, P. & BRETT, C.E. (eds) Devonian Climate, Sea Level and Evolutionary Events. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 423.View article

HASS, W.H. 1959. Conodonts from the Chappel Limestone of Texas. U.S. Geological Survey professional paper 294, 365-399.

HELMS, J. 1959. Conodonten aus dem Saalfelder Oberdevon (Thuringen). Geologie 8, 634-677.

HELMS, J. 1961. Die “nodocostata-Gruppe” der Gattung Polygnathus. Geologie 10(6), 674-711.

HELMS, J. 1963. Zur “Phylogenese” und Taxionomie von Palmatolepis (Conodontida, Oberdevon). Geologie 12(4), 449-485.

HELMS, J. & WOLSKA, Z. 1967. New Upper Devonian conodonts from Poland and Germany. Acta Paleontologica Polonica 12(2), 227-238.

HOLMES, G.B. 1928. A bibliography of the conodonts with descriptions of early Mississippian species. U. S. Natural Museum Proceeding 72, 1-38.View article

HOUSE, M.R., BECKER, R.T., FEIST, R., FLAJS, G., GIRARD, C. & KLAPPER, G. 2000. The Frasnian/Famennian boundary GSSP at Coumiac, Southern France. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 225, 59-75.

HUANG, C. & GONG, J. 2016. Timing and patterns of the Frasnian-Famennian event: Evidences from high-resolution conodont biostratigraphy and event stratigraphy at the Yangdi section, Guangxi, South China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 448, 317-338.View article

HUDDLE, J.W. 1934. Conodonts from the New Albany Shale of Indiana. Bullettin American Paleontology 21(72), 1-136.

JI, Q. & ZIEGLER, W. 1993. The Lali section: an excellent reference section for Late Devonian in south China. Courier Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg 157, 1-183.

JOHNSON, J.G. 1992. Belief and reality in biostratigraphic zonation. Newsletter on Stratigraphy 26, 41-48.View article

KAISER, S.I. 2005. Mass extinctions, climatic and oceanographic changes at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. 156 pp. Ph.D. thesis, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany.

KAISER, S.I. 2009. The Devonian/Carboniferous boundary stratotype section (La Serre, France) revisited. Newsletter on Stratigraphy 43(2), 195-205.View article

KAISER, S.I., ARETZ, M. & BECKER, R.T. 2015. The global Hangenberg Crisis (Devonian-Carboniferous transition): review of a first-order mass extinction, 387-437. In BECKER, R.T., KÖNIGSHOF, P. & BRETT, C.E. (eds) Devonian Climate, Sea Level and Evolutionary Events, Geological Society, London, Special Publications 423. DOI: 10.1144/SP423.9View article

KAISER, S.I., BECKER, R.T., SPALLETTA, C. & STEUBER, T. 2009. High-resolution conodont stratigraphy, biofacies and extinctions around the Hangenberg Event in pelagic successions from Austria, Italy and France. Palaeontographica Americana 63, 97-139.

KAISER, S.&CORRADINI, C. 2008. Should the Devonian/Carboniferous Boundary be redefined? Newsletter SDS 23, 55-56.

KAISER, S. & CORRADINI, C. 2011. The early Siphonodellids (Conodonta, Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous): overview and taxonomic state. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 261, 19-35.View article

KALVODA, J.&KUKAL, Z. 1987. Devonian-Carboniferous Boundary in the Moravian Karst at Lesní lom, Brno-Líšeň, Czechoslovakia. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 98, 95-117.

KALVODA, J., KUMPAN, T. & BÁBEK, O. 2015. Upper Famennian and Lower Tournaisian sections of the Moravian Karst (Moravo-Silesian Zone, Czech Republic): a proposed key area for correlation of the conodont and foraminiferal zonations. Geological Journal 50, 17-38.View article

KHALYMBADZHA, V.G., SHINKARYOV, Y. & GATOVSKY, Y.A. 1992. New Famennian polygnathids (conodonts) from southern Kazakhstan. Palaeontological Journal 25, 69-81.

KLAPPER, G. 1958. An Upper Devonian conodont fauna from the Darby Formation of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming. Journal of Paleontology 32, 1082-1093.

KLAPPER, G. 1989. The Montagne Noire Frasnian (Upper Devonian) conodont succession, 449-468. In MCMILLAN, N.J., EMBRY, A. & GLASS, D.J. (eds) Devonian of the World, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 14(III). KLAPPER, G. 1991. Accuracy of biostratigraphic zones. Palaios 6, 1.View article

KLAPPER, G. 1997. Graphic correlation of Frasnian (Upper Devonian) sequences in Montagne Noire, France, and western Canada, 113-129. In KLAPPER, G., MURPHY, M.A. & TALENT, J.A. (eds) Paleozoic Sequence Stratigraphy, Biostratigraphy, and Biogeography: Studies in Honor of J. Granville (“Jess”) Johnson, Geological Society of America Special Paper 321.

KLAPPER, G. 2007a. Frasnian (Upper Devonian) conodont succession at Horse Spring and correlative sections, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Journal of Paleontology 81(3), 513-537.View article

KLAPPER, G. 2007b. Conodont taxonomy and the recognition of the Frasnian/Famennian (Upper Devonian) Stage Boundary. Stratigraphy 4(1), 67-76.

KLAPPER, G. & BECKER, R.T. 1999. Comparison of Frasnian (Upper Devonian) Conodont Zonations. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 37, 339-348.

KLAPPER, G. & FOSTER, C.T. JR. 1993. Shape analysis of Frasnian species on the Late Devonian conodont Genus Palmatolepis. The Paleontological Society Memoir 32, 1-35.

KLAPPER, G. & ZIEGLER, W. 1979. Devonian conodont biostratigraphy, 199-224. In HOUSE, M.R., SCRUTTON, C.T. & BASSETT, M.G. (eds) The Devonian System. Special Papers in Paleontology 23.

KLAPPER, G., FEIST, R. & BECKER, R.T. 1994. Definition of the Frasnian/Famennian Stage boundary. Episodes 16(4), 433-441.

KLAPPER, G., KUZ’MIN, A. V. & OVNATANOVA, N. S. 1996. Upper Devonian conodonts from the Timan-Pechora region, Russia, and correlation with a Frasnian composite standard. Journal of Paleontology 70, 131-152.View article

KLAPPER, G., UYENO, T.T., ARMSTRONG, D.K. & TELFORD, P. G. 2004. Conodonts of the Williams Island and Long Rapids formations (Upper Devonian, Frasnian-Famennian) of the Onakawana B Drillhole, Moose River Basin, northern Ontario, with a revision of Lower Famennian species. Journal of Paleontology 78, 371-387.View article

KOCH, M., LEUTERITZ, K. & ZIEGLER, W. 1970. Alter, Fazies und Paläographie der Oberdevon/Unterkarbon-Schichtenfolge am der Seilerbei Iserlohn. Fortschritte in der Geologie Rheinland und Westfalen 17, 679-732.

KONONOVA, L.I.&WEYER, D. 2013. Upper Famennian conodonts from the Breternitz Member (Upper Clymeniid Beds) of the Saalfeld region, Thuringia (Germany). Freiberger Forschungshefte C 545, 15-97.

KORN, D. & LUPPOLD, F.W. 1987. Nach Clymenien und Conodonten gegliederte Profile des oberen Famennium im Rheinischen Schiefergebirge. Courier Forschunginstitut Senckenberg 92, 199-223.

KOZITSKAYA, R.I., KOSKENKO, Z.A., LIPNYAGOV, O.M. & NEMIROVSKAYA, T.I. 1978. Conodonts from the Carboniferous of the Donets Basin. 133 pp. Institut Geologichekikh Nauk, Akademiya Nauk Ukrainskoy SSR, Naukova Dumka, Kiev. [in Russian]

KRONBERG, P., PILGER, A., SCHERP, A. & ZIEGLER W. 1960. Spuren altvaristischer Bewegungen in nordöstlichen Teil des Rheinischen Schiefergebirges. Fortschritte in der Geologie Rheinland und Westfalen 3(1), 1-46.

KUMPAN, T., BÁBEK, O., KALVODA, J., GRYGAR, T.M. & FRÝDA, J. 2014. Sea-level and environmental changes around the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the Namur-Dinant Basin (S Belgium, NE France): A multi-proxy stratigraphic analysis of carbonate ramp archives and its use in regional and interregional correlations. Sedimentary Geology 311, 43-59.View article

KÜRSCHNER, W., BECKER, R.T., BUHL, D. & VEIZER, J. 1993. Strontium isotopes in conodonts: Devonian-Carboniferous transition, the Northern Rhenish Slate Mountains, Germany. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique 115(2), 595-621.

KUZ’MIN, A.V. 1990. Asimmetricheskiye pary platformennykh elementov u nekotorykh predstaviteley roda Polygnathus (konodonty). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 4, 66-74. [in Russian]

LANE, H.R., SANDBERG, C.A. & ZIEGLER,W. 1980. Taxonomy and phylogeny of some Lower Carboniferous conodonts and preliminary standard post-Siphonodella zonation. Geologica et Palaeontologica 14, 117-164.

MALEC, J. 2014. The Devonian/Carboniferous boundary in the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). Geological Quarterly 58, 217-234.View article

MATYJA, H. 1972. Biostratygrafia dewonu gornego z profilu wiercenis Chojnice 2 (Pomorze Zachodnie). Acta Geologia Polonica 22, 735-750.

MATYJA, H. 1993. Upper Devonian of Western Pomerania. Acta Geologica Polonica 43(1-2), 27-94.

MATYJA, H., SOBIEN, K.,MARYNOWSKI, L., STEMPIEN-SAŁEK, M. & Małkowski, K. 2015. The expression of the Hangenberg Event (latest Devonian) in a relatively shallow-marine succession (Pomeranian Basin, Poland): the results of a multi-proxy investigation. Geological Magazine 152, 400-428.View article

METZGER, R.A. 1994. Multielement reconstructions of Palmatolepis and Polygnathus (Upper Devonian, Famennian) from the Canning Basin, Australia, and Bactrian Mountain, Nevada. Journal of Paleontology 68(3), 617-647.View article

MOLLOY, P.D., TALENT, J.A.&MAWSON, R. 1997 Late Devonian - Tournaisian conodonts from the eastern Khyber region, north-west Pakistan. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 103, 123-148.

MOSSONI, A., 2014. Selected Famennian (Late Devonian) events (Condroz, Annulata, Hangenberg) in Sardinia and in the Carnic Alps: conodont biostratigraphy, magnetic susceptibility and geochemistry. 171 pp. Ph.D. thesis, Universita di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

MOSSONI, A., CARTA, N., CORRADINI, C. & SPALLETTA, C. 2015. Conodonts across the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary in SE Sardinia (Italy). Bulletin of Geosciences 90, 371-388.View article

MÜLLER, K.J. 1956. Zur Kenntnis der Conodonten-Fauna des europaischen Devons, 1; Die Gattung Palmatolepis. Abhandlunghen and Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 494, 1-70.

MURPHY, M.A. 1994. Fossils as a basis for chronostratigraphic interpretation. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 192, 255-271.

OVER, D.J. 1992. Conodonts and the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the Upper Woodford Shale, Arbuckle Mountains, South-Central Oklahoma. Journal of Paleontology 66, 293-311.View article

OVER, D. J. 2007. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Chattanooga Shale, Middle and Upper Devonian, southern Appalachian Basin, eastern United States. Journal of Paleontology 81, 1194-1217.View article

OVER, D.J., LAZAR, R., BAIRD, G.C., SCHIEBER, J. & ETTENSOHN, F.R. 2009. Protosalvinia Dawson and associated conodonts of the Upper trachytera Zone, Famennian, Upper Devonian, in the Eastern United States. Journal of Paleontology 83, 70-79.View article

OVNATANOVA, N.S. 1969. Novye verkhnedevonskie konodonty tsentralnykh rayonov Russkoy Platformy in Timana. Fauna i Stratigraphiya Paleozoya Russkoy Platformy, 39-141. [in Russian]

OWEN, D.E. 1987. Commentary: Usage of stratigraphic terminology in papers, illustrations, and talks. Stratigraphy 6, 106-116.

OWEN, D.E. 2009. How to use of stratigraphic terminology in papers, illustrations, and talks. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 57, 363-372.

PAPROTH, E., FEIST, R. & FLAJS, G. 1991. Decision on the Devonian- Carboniferous boundary stratotype. Episodes 14, 331-336.

PERRI, M.C. & SPALLETTA, C. 1990. Famennian conodonts from climenid pelagic limestone, Carnia Alps, Italy. Palaeontographia Italica 77, 55-83.

PERRI, M.C. & SPALLETTA, C. 1991. Famennian conodonts from Cava Cantoniera and Malpasso sections, Carnic Alps, Italy. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 30, 47-78.

PERRI, M.C. & SPALLETTA, C. 1998a. Latest Devonian and Early Carboniferous conodonts from the Casera Collinetta di Sotto A section (Carnic Alps, Italy). In PERRI, M.C. & SPALLETTA, C. (eds) Southern Alps Field Trip Guidebook, ECOS VII, Giornale di Geologia 60,168-181.

PERRI, M.C. & SPALLETTA, C. 1998b. Late Famennian conodonts from the Casera Collinetta di Sotto B section (Carnic Alps, Italy). In PERRI, M.C.&SPALLETTA, C. (eds) Southern Alps Field Trip Guidebook, ECOS VII, Giornale di Geologia 60, 158-167.

PERRI, M.C. & SPALLETTA, C., 1998c. The Upper marginifera Zone (Late Devonian) in the Casera Collinetta di Sotto C section (Carnic Alps, Italy). In PERRI, M.C. & SPALLETTA, C. (eds) Southern Alps Field Trip Guidebook, ECOS VII, Giornale di Geologia 60, 150-157.

PERRI, M.C. & SPALLETTA, C. 2000. Devonian-Early Carboniferous transgressions and regressions in the Carnic Alps (Italy). Record of the Western Australian Museum, Suppl. 58, 305-319.

PERRI, M.C., & SPALLETTA, C. 2001. Hangenber Event al limite Devoniano/Carbonifero al Monte Zermula, Alpi Carniche, Italia. In PERRI, M.C. (ed.) Giornate di Paleontologia 2001, Giornale di Geologia Serie 3a 62(2000), Supplemento, 31-40. PERRET, M.F. 1988. Le passage du Devonién au Carbonifére dans les Pyrenées, Zonation par conodontes. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 100, 39-52.

RHODES, F.H.T., AUSTIN, R.L. & DRUCE, E.C. 1969. British Avonian (Carboniferous) conodont faunas and their value in local and intercontinental correlation. Bulletin British Museum of Natural History (Geology), Supplement 5, 1-313.

SANDBERG, C.A. 1979. Devonian and Lower Mississippian conodont zonation of the Great Basin and Rocky Mountains, 87-106. In SANDBERG, C.A. & CLARK, D.L. (eds) Conodont biostratigraphy of the Great Basin and Rocky Mountains, Brigham Young University Geology Studies 26(3).

SANDBERG, C.A. & DREESEN, R. 1984. Late Devonian icriodontid biofacies models and alternate shallow water conodont zonation, 143-178. In CLARK, D.L. (ed.) Conodont biofacies and provincialism. Geological Society of America Special Paper 196.View article

SANDBERG, C.A. & ZIEGLER,W. 1973. Refinement of standard Upper Devonian conodont zonation based on sections in Nevada and West Germany. Geologica et Palaeontologica 7, 97-122.

SANDBERG, C.A. & ZIEGLER, W. 1979. Taxonomy and biofacies of important conodonts of Late Devonian styriacus-Zone, United States and Germany. Geologica et Palaeontologica 13, 173-212.

SANDBERG, C.A., ZIEGLER, W. & BULTYNCK, P. 1989. New standard conodont zones and early Ancyrodella phylogeny across the Middle-Upper Devonian boundary. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 110, 195-230.

SANDBERG, C.A., ZIEGLER, W., DREESEN, R. & BUTLER, J.L. 1988. Late Frasnian mass extinction; conodont event stratigraphy, global changes, and possible causes, 263-307. In ZIEGLER, W. (ed.) 1st International Senckenberg Conference and 5th European Conodont Symposium (ECOS V), Contribution 1, Courier Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg 102.

SANDBERG, C.A., ZIEGLER, W., LEUTERITZ, K. & BRILL, S.M. 1978. Phylogeny, speciation and zonation of Siphonodella (Conodonta, Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous). Newsletters on Stratigraphy 7, 102-120.View article

SANNEMANN, D. 1955a. Oberdevonische Conodonten (to II). Senckenbergiana lethaea 36, 123-156.

SANNEMANN, D. 1955b. Beitrag zur untergliederung des Oberdevons nach Conodonten. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 100, 324-331.

SAVAGE, N.M. 2013. Late Devonian Conodonts from northwestern Thailand. 48pp. Bourland Printing, A Trinity Press Company, Eugene.

SCHÄFER, W. 1976. Einige neue Conodonten aus dem höheren Oberdevon des Sauerlandes (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Geologica et Palaeontologica 10, 141-152.

SCHÜLKE, I. 1995. Evolutive Prozesse bei Palmatolepis in der frühen Famenne-Stufe (Conodonta, Ober-Devon). Göttinger Arbeiten zur Geologie und Paläontologie 67, 1-108.

SCHÜLKE, I. 1996. Evolution of early Famennian ancyrognathids (Conodonta, Late Devonian). Geologica et Palaeontologica 30, 33-47.

SCHÜLKE, I. 1998. Conodont community structure around the Kellwasser mass extinction event (Frasnium/Famennium boundary interval). Senckenbergiana lethaea 77, 87-99.View article

SCHÜLKE, I. 1999. Conodont multielement reconstruction from the Early Famennian (Late Devonian) of the Montagne Noire (Southern France). Geologica et Palaeontologica SB 3, 1-123.

SCOTT, A.J. 1961. Three new conodonts from the Lousiana Limestone (Upper Devonian) of western Illinois. Journal of Paleontology 35, 1225-1227.

SPALLETTA, C. & PERRI, M.C. 1994. Associazioni rimaneggiate a conodonti in calcari micritici del Tournaisiano superiore (Alpi Carniche): implicazioni sedimentologiche e paleoambientali. Paleopelagos 3(1993), 145-157.

SPALLETTA, C., PERRI, M.C. & PONDRELLI, M. 1998. Late Famennian conodonts from the Rio Boreado section (Carnic Alps, Italy), 214-219. In PERRI, M.C. & SPALLETTA, C. (eds) Southern Alps Field Trip Guidebook, ECOS VII, Giornale di Geologia 60.

SPASSOV, C. 1965. Das Karbonatische Oberdevon in Kraiste und seine Conodontenfauna. Travaux sur la Géologie de Bulgarie, Série Paléontologie 7, 71-113.

SZULCZEWSKI, M. 1971. Upper Devonian conodonts, stratigraphy and facial development in the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geologica Polonica 21(1), 1-130.

THOMAS, L.A. 1949. Devonian-Mississippian Formations of southeast Iowa. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 60, 403-138.View article

TRAGELEHN, H. 2010. Short note on the origin of the conodont Genus Siphonodella in the Uppermost Famennian. SDS Newsletter 25, 41-43.

TRAGELEHN, H. & HARTENFELS, S. 2011. Neue Conodont taxa aus dem höheren Famennium (Oberdevon) des Frankenwaldes. Münstersche Forschungen zur Geologie and Paläontologie 105, 1-15.

ULRICH, E.O. & BASSLER, R.S. 1926. A classification of the tooth-like fossils, conodonts, with descriptions of American Devonian and Mississippian species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 68, 1-63.View article

VOGES, A. 1959. Conodonten aus dem Unterkarbon I and II (Gattendorfia und Pericyclus-Stufe) des Sauerlandes. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 3, 266-314.View article

VORONTSOVA, T.N. 1993. The genus Polygnathus sensu lato (Conodonta): phylogeny and systematics. Palaeontological Journal 27(3), 83-99.

VORONTSOVA, T.N. & KUZ’MIN, A.V. 1994. The Distribution of New Conodont Species of the Genus Polygnathus in the Famennian Deposits of Central Kazakhstan. Izvestija Akademii Nauk SSSR, Ser. geol. 10, 58-64.

WANG, C.Y.&YIN, B.A. 1988. Conodonts, 105-148. In YU, C.M. ET AL. (eds), Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in Nanbiancun Guilin, Science Press, Beijing.

WANG, Z.H., BECKER, R.T., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S., HARTENFELS, S., JOACHIMSKI, M.M. & GONG, Y.M. 2016. Conodont and carbon isotope stratigraphy near the Frasnian/Famennian (Devonian) boundary at Wulankeshun, Junggar Basin, NW China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 448, 279-297.View article

WITZKE, B.J., BUNKER, B.J.&ROGERS, F.S. 1989. Eifelian through Lower Frasnian stratigraphy and deposition in the Iowa area, Central Midcontinent, U.S.A. Canadian Society Petroleum Geology Memoir 14(I), 221-250.

YAZDI, M. 1999. Late Devonian-Carboniferous conodonts from Eastern Iran. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 105, 167-200.

YOUNGQUIST, W.L. & PETERSON, R.F. 1947. Conodonts from the Sheffield Formation of north-central Iowa. Journal of Paleontology 21, 242-253.

ZHURAVLEV, A.V., 1991. A new Polygnathus species (Conodonta) from the Lower Carboniferous of the North Urals. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1, 129-130. [in Russian]

ZIEGLER, W. 1958. Conodonten-feinstratigraphische Untersuchungen an der Grenze Mitteldevon/Oberdevon und in der Adorfstufe. Notizblatt des Hessisches Landesamt für Bodenforschung 87, 7-77.

ZIEGLER, W. 1959. Conodonten aus Devon und Karbon Südwesteuropas und Bemerkungen zur bretonischen Faltung (Montagne Noire, Massiv Mouthoumet, Span. Pyrenäen). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläeontologie, Monatshefte, 289-309.

ZIEGLER, W. 1962a. Taxionomie und Phylogenie Oberdevonischer Conodonten und ihre stratigraphische Bedeutung. Abhandlunghen des Hessisches Landesamt für Bodenforschung 38, 1-166.

ZIEGLER, W. 1962b. Die Conodonten aus den Geröllen des Zechsteinkonglomerates von Rossenray (südwestlisch Rheinberg/Niederrhein). Fortschritte in der Geologie von Rheinland und Westfalen 6, 391-406, pre-print 1960.

ZIEGLER,W. 1969. Eine neue Conodontenfauna aus dem höchsten Oberdevon. Fortschritte Geologie von Rheinland und Westfalen 17, 179-191.

ZIEGLER,W. 1971. Conodont stratigraphy of the European Devonian. Geological Society of America Memoirs 127, 67-99.

ZIEGLER, W. (ed.) 1975. Catalogue of conodonts, Volume 2. 404 pp. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart.

ZIEGLER, W. (ed.) 1981. Catalogue of conodonts, Volume 4. 445 pp. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart.

ZIEGLER, W. & HUDDLE, J.W. 1969. Die Palmatolepis glabra- Gruppe (Conodonta) nach der Revision der Typen von Ulrich & Bassler durch J. W. Huddle. Fortschritte in der Geologie von Rheinland und Westfalen 16, 377-386.

ZIEGLER,W. & SANDBERG, C.A. 1984. Palmatolepis-based revision of upper part of standard Late Devonian conodont zonation, 179-194. In CLARK, D.L. (ed.) Conodont biofacies and provincialism, Geological Society of America Special Paper 196.

ZIEGLER, W. & SANDBERG, C.A. 1990. The Late Devonian Standard Conodont Zonation. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 121, 1-115.

ZIEGLER, W. & SANDBERG, C.A. 1994. Conodont phylogenetic- Zone concept. Newsletter on Stratigraphy 30, 105-123.View article

ZIEGLER, W. & SANDBERG, C.A. 1996. Reflections on Frasnian and Famennian Stage boundary decisions as a guide to future deliberations. Newsletters on Stratigraphy 33, 157-180.View article

ZIEGLER, W., SANDBERG, C.A. & AUSTIN, R.L. 1974. Revision of Bispathodus group (Conodonta) in the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous. Geologica et Palaeontologica 8, 97-112.