The Aeronian/Telychian (Llandovery, Silurian) boundary, with particular reference to sections around the El Pintado reservoir, Seville Province, Spain


Authors: Loydell DK, Frýda J, Gutiérrez-Marco JC

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 90, issue 4; pages: 743 - 794; Received 20 April 2015; Accepted in revised form 27 July 2015; Online 10 November 2015

Keywords: graptolite, biostratigraphy, palaeobiogeography, Aeronian, Telychian, Llandovery, Spain,

full text (PDF, 7.22 MB)

Export to RIS



The upper Aeronian to lower Telychian (Llandovery Series, lower Silurian) strata at the east end of El Pintado reservoir, Seville Province, Spain are documented in terms of their lithologies, graptolite biostratigraphy and δ13Corg record. This is the first time that a continuously graptolitic section throught the Aeronian/Telychian boundary has been studied in detail. The upper Aeronian part of the section is assigned to the Stimulograptus halli Biozone which is divisible into three, the middle part being referred to the Lituigraptus rastrum Subzone. The Telychian strata are assigned to the Spirograptus guerichi Biozone and lower Sp. turriculatus Biozone. Unusually, two specimens of Sp. turriculatus were found at a level low in the guerichi Biozone. 118 graptolite species are recorded, 18 of which are new and described here together with other species for which the El Pintado material provides new information. Diversity increases considerably in some genera (Glyptograptus, Parapetalolithus, Rastrites, Streptograptus) in the upper halli Biozone and/or lower to middle guerichi Biozone only to decline again (except for Streptograptus) in the upper part of the guerichi Biozone as part of the “utilis Event”. This diversity decline coincides with an interval of elevated δ13Corg values. There are no major δ13Corg excursions present in the El Pintado sections. The δ13Corg record through the guerichi Biozone is very similar to that in Arctic Canada.


Barrande, J. 1850. iGraptolites de Bohemei. vi +74 pp. Published by the author, Prague.

Bassett, M.G. 1985. Towards a ‘common language’ in stratigraphy. Episodes 8, 87-92.View article

Bergström, S.M., Eriksson, M.E., Young, S.E. & Widmark, E.-M. 2012. Conodont biostratigraphy, and δsup13supC and δsup34supS isotope chemostratigraphy, of the uppermost Ordovician and Lower Silurian at Osmundsberget, Dalarna, Sweden. iGFF 134i, 251-272.View article

Bergström, S.M., Toprak, F.Ö., Huff, W.D. & Mundil, R. 2008. Implications of a new, biostratigraphically well-controlled, radio-isotopic age for the lower Telychian Stage of the Llandovery Series (Lower Silurian, Sweden). Episodes 31, 309-314.View article

Bjerreskov, M. 1971. The stratigraphy of the Llandovery Series on Bornholm. iBulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 21i, 34-50.

Bjerreskov, M. 1975. Llandoverian and Wenlockian graptolites from Bornholm. iFossils and Strata 8i, 1-94.

Bouček, B. 1953. Biostratigraphy, development and correlation of the Želkovice and Motol Beds of the Silurian of Bohemia. iSborník Ústředního ústavu geologického 20i, 421-484.

Bouček, B. & Přibyl, A. 1941. Ueber die Gattung iPetalolithus iSuess aus dem böhmischen Silur. iMitteilungen der Tschechischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 51i, 1-17.

Carvajal y Acuna, E. 1944. Criaderos de hierro de Espana. Tomo VI. Hierros de Sevilla. iMemoria del Instituto Geológico y Minero de Espana 46i, 265-454.

Cave, R. & Hains, B.A. 1986. iGeology of the country between Aberystwyth and Machynlleth. Memoir for 150 000 geological sheet 163 (England & Wales).i 148 pp. HMSO, London.

Chen, X. 1984. Silurian graptolites from southern Shaanxi and northern Sichuan with special reference to classification of Monograptidae. iPalaeontologia Sinica, New Series Bi i166(20)i, 1-102.

Chen, X., Fan, J.X., Chen, Q., Tang, L. & Hou, X.D. 2014. Toward a stepwise Kwangsian orogeny. Science China, Earth Sciences 57, 379-387.View article

Cooper, R.A., Sadler, P.M., Munnecke, A. & Crampton, J.S. 2014. Graptoloid evolutionary rates track Ordovician-Silurian global climate change. iGeological Magazine 151i, 349-364.View article

Cramer, B.D., Brett, C.E., Melchin, M.J., Männik, P., Kleffner, M.A., McLaughlin, P.I., Loydell, D.K., Munnecke, A., Jeppsson, L., Corradini, C., Brunton, F.R. & Saltzman, M.R. 2011. Revised correlation of Silurian Provincial Series of North America with global and regional chronostratigraphic units and δsup13supCsubcarb subchemostratigraphy. iLethaiai i44i, 185-202.View article

Davies, J.R., Fletcher, C.J.N., Waters, R.A., Wilson, D., Woodhall, D.G. & Zalasiewicz, J.A. 1997. iGeology of the country around Llanilar and Rhayader. Memoir for 150 000 geological sheets 178 and 179 (England and Wales). i267 pp. The Stationery Office, London.

Davies, J.R., Molyneux, S.G., Vandenbroucke, T.R.A., Verniers, J., Waters, R.A., Williams, M. & Zalasiewicz, J.A. 2011. Pre-conference trip to the Type Llandovery area, 29-71. iIn iRay, D.C. (ed.) iSiluria revisited a field guide. i166 pp. International Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy.

Davies, J.R., Waters, R.A., Molyneux, S.G., Williams, M., Zalasiewicz, J.A., Vandenbroucke, T.R.A. & Verniers, J. 2013. A revised sedimentary and biostratigraphical architecture for the Type Llandovery area, Central Wales. iGeological Magazine 150i, 300-332.View article

Floyd, J. 2001. The Southern Uplands terrane a stratigraphical review. iTransactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences 91i, 349-362.View article

Fu, L. & Song, L. 1986. Stratigraphy and paleontology of Silurian in Ziyang Region (transitional belt). iBulletin of the Xi’an Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences 14i, 1-198.

Ge, M. 1990. Silurian graptolites from Chengkou, Sichuan. iPalaeontologia Sinica, New Series Bi i179(26)i, 1-157.

Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Lenz, A.C., Robardet, M. & Piçarra, J.M. 1996. Wenlock-Ludlow graptolite biostratigraphy and extinction a reassessment from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). iCanadian Journal of Earth Sciencesi i33i, 656-663.View article

Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Robardet, M. & Piçarra, J.M. 1998. Silurian stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal), 13-44. iIn iGutiérrez-Marco, J.C. & Rábano, I. (eds) iProceedings 6supthsup International Graptolite Conference (GWG-IPA) & 1998 Field Meeting, IUGS Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy. Temas Geológico-Mineros ITGE 23i.

Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C. & Štorch, P. 1998. Graptolite biostratigraphy of the Lower Silurian (Llandovery) shelf deposits of the Western Iberian Cordillera, Spain. iGeological Magazine 135i, 71-92.View article

Howe, M.P.A. 1983. Measurement of thecal spacing in graptolites. iGeological Magazine 120i, 635-638.View article

Hutt, J.E. 1974. The Llandovery graptolites of the English Lake District. Part 1. iPalaeontographical Society Monograph 128(540)i, 1-56.

Hutt, J.E. 1975. The Llandovery graptolites of the English Lake District. Part 2. iPalaeontographical Society Monograph 129(542)i, 57-137.

Inanli, F.Ö., Huff, W.D. & Bergström, S. M. 2009. The lower Silurian (Llandovery) Osmundsberg K-bentonite in Baltoscandia and the British Isles chemical fingerprinting and regional correlation. iGFF 131i, 269-279.View article

Jaeger, H. & Robardet, M. 1979. Le Silurien et le Dévonien basal dans le nord de la Province de Seville (Espagne). iGéobios 12(5)i, 687-714.View article

Jaekel, O. 1889. Über das Alter des sogen. Graptolithengesteins mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der in demselben enhalten Graptolithen. iZeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 41i, 653-690.

Jones, O.T. 1909. The Hartfell-Valentian succession in the district around Plynlimon and Pont Erwyd (North Cardiganshire). iQuarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 65i, 463-537.View article

Jones, O.T. & Pugh, W.J. 1916. The geology of the district around Machynlleth and the Llyfnant valley. iQuarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 71i, 343-385.View article

Koren’, T.N. & Rickards, R.B. 1996. Taxonomy and evolution of Llandovery biserial graptoloids from the southern Urals, western Kazakhstan. iSpecial Papers in Palaeontology 54i, 1-103.

Lapworth, C. 1873. Notes on the British graptolites and their allies. 1. On an improved classification of the Rhabdophora. iGeological Magazine 1(10)i, 500-504, 555-560.View article

Lapworth, C. 1878. The Moffat Series. iQuarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 34i, 240-346.View article

Legrand, P. 2003. Silurian stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the northern African margin of Gondwana. iNew York State Museum Bulletin 493i, 59-104.

Lenz, A.C. 1982. Llandoverian graptolites of the northern Canadian Cordillera: Petalograptus, Cephalograptus, Rhaphidograptus, Dimorphograptus, Retiolitidae, and Monograptidae. Life Science Contributions, Royal Ontario Museum 130, 1-154.View article

Lenz, A.C., Robardet, M., Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C. & Piçarra, J.M. 1996. Devonian graptolites from southwestern Europe a review with new data. iGeological Journali i31i, 349-358.View article

Levina, E.F. 1928. Graptoliti iz Aq-Tengi v Turkestanskom chrebte. iTrudy Srednie-aziatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, Series 7a, Geologiya Fascicule 5i, 1-18.

Linnarsson, G. 1881. Graptolitskiffrar med iMonograptus turriculatusi vid Klubbudden nära Motala. iGeologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 5(12)i, 503-527.View article

Loydell, D.K. 1990a. Sinodiversograptus - its occurrence in Australia and northern Canada. Journal of Paleontology 64, 847-849.View article

Loydell, D.K. 1990b. On the graptolites described by Baily (1871) from the Silurian of Northern Ireland and the genus iStreptograptus iYin. iPalaeontology 33i, 937-943.

Loydell, D.K. 1991a. The biostratigraphy and formational relationships of the upper Aeronian and lower Telychian (Llandovery, Silurian) formations of western mid-Wales. iGeological Journal 26i, 209-244.View article

Loydell, D.K. 1991b. Dob’s Linn - the type locality of the Telychian (Upper Llandovery) iRastrites maximus iBiozone iNewsletters on Stratigraphy 25i, 155-161.

Loydell, D.K. 1992. Upper Aeronian and lower Telychian (Llandovery) graptolites from western mid-Wales. Part 1. iPalaeontographical Society Monograph 146(589)i, 1-55.

Loydell, D.K. 1993a. Worldwide correlation of Telychian (Upper Llandovery) strata using graptolites, 323-340. iIn iHailwood, E.A. & Kidd, R.B. (eds) iHigh resolution stratigraphy. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 70i.

Loydell, D.K. 1993b. Upper Aeronian and lower Telychian (Llandovery) graptolites from western mid-Wales. Part 2. iPalaeontographical Society Monograph 147(592)i, 56-180.

Loydell, D.K. 1994. Early Telychian changes in graptoloid diversity and sea level. iGeological Journal 29i, 355-368.View article

Loydell, D.K. 2000. iRastrites hybridus hybridus iLapworth, 1876. iAtlas of graptolite type specimensi, Folio 1.85. The Palaeontographical Society, London.

Loydell, D.K. 2007a. Early Silurian positive δsup13supC excursions and their relationship to glaciations, sea-level changes and extinction events. iGeological Journali i42i, 531-546.View article

Loydell, D.K. 2007b. Graptolites from the Upper Ordovician and lower Silurian of Jordan. iSpecial Papers in Palaeontologyi i78i, 1-66.

Loydell, D.K., Butcher, A. & Frýda, J. 2013. The middle Rhuddanian (lower Silurian) ‘hot’ shale of North Africa and Arabia an atypical hydrocarbon source rock. iPalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 386i, 233-256.View article

Loydell, D.K. & Frýda, J. 2007. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of the upper Telychian and lower Sheinwoodian (Llandovery-Wenlock, Silurian) of the Banwy River section, Wales. iGeological Magazine 144i, 1015-1019.View article

Loydell, D.K., Kaljo, D. & Männik, P. 1998. Integrated biostratigraphy of the lower Silurian of the Ohesaare core, Saaremaa, Estonia. iGeological Magazine 135i, 769-783.View article

Loydell, D.K. & Maletz, J. 2002. Isolated ‘iMonograptusi’ igemmatus ifrom the Silurian of Osmundsberget, Sweden. iGFF 124i, 193-196.View article

Loydell, D.K. & Maletz, J. 2004. The Silurian graptolite genera iStreptograptus iand iPseudostreptograptusi. iJournal of Systematic Palaeontology 2i, 65-93.View article

Loydell, D.K. & Maletz, J. 2009. Isolated graptolites from the iLituigraptus convolutus iBiozone (Silurian, Llandovery) of Dalarna, Sweden. iPalaeontology 52i, 273-296.View article

Loydell, D.K., Männik, P. & Nestor, V. 2003. Integrated biostratigraphy of the lower Silurian of the Kolka-54 core, Latvia. iGeological Magazine 147i, 253-280.View article

Loydell, D.K., Nestor, V. & Männik, P. 2010. Integrated biostratigraphy of the lower Silurian of the Aizpute-41 core, Latvia. iGeological Magazine 140i, 205-229.View article

Loydell, D.K., Sarmiento, G.N., Štorch, P. & Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C. 2009. Graptolite and conodont biostratigraphy of the upper Telychian-lower Sheinwoodian (Llandovery-Wenlock) strata, Jabalón River section, Corral de Calatrava, central Spain. iGeological Magazinei i146i, 187-198.View article

Loydell, D.K., Štorch, P. & Melchin, M.J. 1993. Taxonomy, evolution and biostratigraphical importance of the Llandovery graptolite iSpirograptusi. iPalaeontology 36i, 909-926.

Maletz, J. 2006. Graptolithen, 132-137. iIn iHeuse, T. & Leonhardt, D. (eds) Stratigraphie von Deutschland VII, Silur. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften 46.

Maletz, J., Ahlberg, P., Suyarkova, A. & Loydell, D.K. 2014. Silurian graptolite biostratigraphy of the Röstanga-1 drill core, Scania - a standard for southern Scandinavia. iGFF 136i, 175-178.View article

Maletz, J. Bates, D.E.B., Brussa, E.D., Cooper, R.A., Lenz, A.C., Riva, J.F., Toro, B.A. & Zhang, Y.D. 2014. Part V, revised, Chapter 12 Glossary of the Hemichordata. iTreatise Onlinei i62i, 1-23.

Manck, E. 1928. Das Vogtland, die klassische Fundstätte von Graptolithen. iFrisch auf 1i, 9.

Melchin, M.J. 1989. Llandovery graptolite biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography, Cape Phillips Formation, Canadian Arctic Islands. iCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences 26i, 1726-1746.View article

Melchin, M.J. & Holmden, C. 2006. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Llandovery in Arctic Canada implications for global correlation and sea-level change. iGFF 128i, 173-180.View article

Melchin, M.J., MacRae, K.-D. & Bullock, P. 2015. A multi-peak organic carbon isotope excursion in the late Aeronian (Llandovery, Silurian) evidence from Arisaig, Nova Scotia, Canada. iPalaeoworld 24i, 191-197.View article

Melchin, M.J., Mitchell, C.E., Naczk-Cameron, A., Fan, J.X. & Loxton, J. 2011. Phylogeny and adaptive radiation of the Neograptina (Graptoloida) during the Hirnantian mass extinction and Silurian recovery. iProceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 5i, 281-309.View article

Melchin, M.J., Sadler, P.M. & Cramer, B.D. 2012. The Silurian Period, 525-558. iIn iGradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., Schmitz, M.D. & Ogg, G.M. (eds) iThe geologic time scale 2012. Volume 2i. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Mitchell, C.E., Melchin, M.J., Cameron, C.B. & Maletz, J. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that iRhabdopleurai is an extant graptolite. iLethaia 46i, 34-56.View article

Mu, E.Z., Li, J.J., Ge, M.Y., Lin, Y.K. & Ni, Y.N. 2002. iGraptolites of Chinai. 1205 pp. Science Press, Beijing. [in Chinese]

Müller, H. 1963. iLehrbuch der Paläozoologie. Band II. Invertebraten. Teil 3. Arthropoda 2 Stomochorda.i 612 pp. Fischer, Jena.

Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica (NIGP) 1974. iHandbook of stratigraphy and palaeontology of Southwest China.i 454 pp. Science Press, Beijing.

Ni, Y.N. 1978. Lower Silurian graptolites from Yichang, western Hubei. iActa Palaeontologica Sinica 17i, 387-416.

Ni, Y.N., Chen, T.E., Cai, C.Y., Li, G.H., Duan, Y.X. & Wang, J.D. 1982. The Silurian rocks in western Yunnan. iActa Palaeontologica Sinica 21i, 119-132.

Packham, G.H. 1962. Some diplograptids from the British Lower Silurian. iPalaeontology 5i, 498-526.

Obut, A.M., Sobolevskaya, R.F. & Bondarev, V.I. 1965. iSilurian graptolites of Taimir. i120 pp. Akademiya nauk SSR, Sibirskoe otdelenie, Institut geologii i geofiziki. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Moskva. [in Russian]

Page, A., Gabbott, S.E., Wilby, P.R. & Zalasiewicz, J.A. 2008. Ubiquitous Burgess Shale-style “clay templates” in low-grade metamorphic rocks. iGeology 36i, 855-858.View article

Paškevičius, J. 1979. iBiostratigraphy and graptolites of the Lithuanian Silurian. i268 pp. Mokslas, Vilnius.

Piçarra, J.M., Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Lenz, A.C. & Robardet, M. 1998. Přídolí graptolites from the Iberian Peninsula a review of previous data and new records. iCanadian Journal of Earth Sciencesi i35i, 65-75.View article

Přibyl, A. 1942. Příspěvek k poznání německých zástupců rodu iRastrites iBarr. iRozpravy II. třídy České akademie věd a umění 52(4)i, 1-10.

Přibyl, A. & Münch, A. 1942. Revision der mitteleuropäischen Vertreter der Gattung iDemirastrites iEisel. iRozpravy II. třídy České akademie věd a umění 52(30)i, 1-26.

Přibyl, A. & Štorch, P. 1983. iMonograptus i(iStimulograptusi) subgen. n. (Graptolites) from the Lower Silurian of Bohemia. iVěstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 58i, 221-226.

Raiswell, R. 1987. Non-steady state microbiological diagenesis and the origin of concretions and nodular limestones, 41-54. iIni Marshall, J.D. (ed.) iDiagenesis of sedimentary sequences.i iGeological Society of London, Special Publication 36i.

Richter, R. 1853. Thüringische Graptolithen. iZeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 5i, 439-464.

Rickards, R.B. 1970. The Llandovery (Silurian) graptolites of the Howgill Fells, northern England. iPalaeontographical Society Monograph 123(524)i, 1-108.

Rickards, R.B. & Chen, X. 2002. Graptolites, 73-83. iIn iHolland, C.H. & Bassett, M.G. (eds) iTelychian rocks of the British Isles and China (Silurian, Llandovery Series) an experiment to test precision in stratigraphyi. 210 pp. National Museums & Galleries of Wales, Geological Series 21, Cardiff.

Robardet, M. & Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C. 2002. Silurian, 51-66. iIn iGibbons, W. & Moreno, T. (eds) iThe geology of Spain. i649 pp. The Geological Society, London.

Robardet, M. & Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C. 2004. The Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian sedimentary rocks of the Ossa-Morena Zone (SW Iberian Peninsula, Spain). iJournal of Iberian Geology 30i, 73-92.

Robardet, M., Piçarra, J.M., Štorch, P., Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C. & Sarmiento, G.N. 1998. Ordovician and Silurian stratigraphy and faunas (graptolites and conodonts) in the Ossa Morena Zone of the SW Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain), 289-318. iIn iGutiérrez-Marco, J.C. & Rábano, I. (eds) iProceedings 6supthsup International Graptolite Conference (GWG-IPA) & 1998 Field Meeting, IUGS Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy. Temas Geológico-Mineros ITGE 23i.

Schauer, M. 1967. Biostratigraphie und Taxionomie von iRastrites i(Pterobranchiata, Graptolithina) aus dem anstehenden Silur Ostthüringens und des Vogtlandes. iFreiberger Forschungshefte C213i, 171-199.

Schauer, M. 1971. Biostratigraphie und Taxionomie der Graptolithen des tieferen Silurs unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der tektonischen Deformation. iFreiberger Forschungshefte C273i, 1-185.

Sennikov, N.V., Yolkin, E.A., Petrunina, Z.E., Gladkikh, L.A., Obut, O.T., Izokh, N.G. & Kipriyanova, T.P. 2008. iOrdovician-Silurian biostratigraphy and paleogeography of the Gorny Altai. i156 pp. Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk.

Sherwin, L. 1974. Llandovery graptolites from the Forbes district, New South Wales. iSpecial Papers in Palaeontology 13i, 149-175.

Simon, W. 1951. Untersuchungen im Paläozoikum von Sevilla (Sierra Morena, Spanien). iAbhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 485i, 31-62.

Štorch, P. 1983. The genus iDiplograptus i(Graptolithina) from the lower Silurian of Bohemia. iVěstník Ústředního ústavu geologickéhoi i58i, 159-170.

Štorch, P. 1992. Some new and little known graptolites from the Lower Silurian of Bohemia (Prague Basin, Barrandian Area). iČasopis pro mineralogii a geologii 37(3)i, 193-201.

Štorch, P. 1994. Graptolite biostratigraphy of the Lower Silurian (Llandovery and Wenlock) of Bohemia. iGeological Journal 29i, 137-165.View article

Štorch, P. 1995. Biotic crises and post-crisis recoveries recorded by Silurian planktonic graptolite faunas of the Barrandian area (Czech Republic). iGeolines 3i, 59-70.

Štorch, P. 1998a. New data on Telychian (Upper Llandovery) graptolites from Spain. iJournal of the Czech Geological Society 43i, 113-141.

Štorch, P. 1998b. Graptolites of the iPribylograptus leptotheca iand iLituigraptus convolutus ibiozones of Tmaň (Silurian, Czech Republic). iJournal of the Czech Geological Society 43i, 209-272.

Štorch, P. 2001. Graptolites, stratigraphy and depositional setting of the middle Llandovery (Silurian) volcanic-carbonate facies at Hýskov (Barrandian area, Czech Republic). iVěstník Ústředního ústavu geologickéhoi i76i, 55-76.

Štorch, P. & Frýda, J. 2012. The late Aeronian graptolite isedgwickii iEvent, associated positive carbon isotope excursion and facies changes in the Prague Synform (Barrandian area, Bohemia). iGeological Magazine 149i, 1089-1106.View article

Štorch, P., Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Sarmiento, G.N. & Rábano, I. 1998. Upper Ordovician and Lower Silurian of Corral de Calatrava, southern part of the Central Iberian Zone, 319-325. iIn iGutiérrez-Marco, J.C. & Rábano, I. (eds) iProceedings 6supthsup International Graptolite Conference (GWG-IPA) & 1998 Field Meeting, IUGS Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy. Temas Geológico-Mineros ITGE 23i.

Štorch, P. & Loydell, D. 1992. Graptolites of the iRastrites linnaei iGroup from the European Llandovery (Lower Silurian). iNeues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 184i, 63-86.

Štorch, P., Mitchell, C.E., Finney, S.C. & Melchin, M.J. 2011. Uppermost Ordovician (upper Katian-Hirnantian) graptolites of north-central Nevada, U.S.A. iBulletin of Geosciences 86i, 301-386.View article

Temple, J.T. 1988. Biostratigraphical correlation and the stages of the Llandovery. iJournal of the Geological Society, London 145i, 875-879.View article

Toghill, P. 1968. The graptolite assemblages and zones of the Birkhill Shales (Lower Silurian) at Dobb’s Linn. iPalaeontology 11i, 654-668.

Törnquist, S.L. 1907. Observations on the genus iRastritesi and some allied species of iMonograptusi. iLunds Universitets Årsskrift, N.F., Afd. 2, 3(5)i, 1-22.

Underwood, C.J. 1992. Graptolite preservation and deformation. iPalaios 7i, 178-186.View article

Van Grootel, G., Zalasiewicz, J., Verniers, J. & Servais, T. 1998. Chitinozoa and graptolite biozonation of the Aeronian and lower Telychian in the Brabant Massif (Belgium), 135-136. iIn iGutiérrez-Marco, J.C. & Rábano, I. (eds) iProceedings 6supthsup International Graptolite Conference (GWG-IPA) & 1998 Field Meeting, IUGS Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy. Temas Geológico-Mineros ITGE 23i.

Williams, M., Zalasiewicz, J., Rushton, A.W.A., Loydell, D.K. & Barnes, R.P. 2003. A new, stratigraphically significant iTorquigraptus ispecies (Silurian graptolite) from the Southern Uplands Terrane. iScottish Journal of Geology 39i, 17-28.View article

Worsley, D., Aarhus, N., Bassett, M.G., Howe, M.P.A., Mork, A. & Olaussen, S. 1983. The Silurian succession of the Oslo region. iNorges Geologiske Undersokelsei i384i, 1-57.

Yin, T.H. 1937. Brief description of the Ordovician and Silurian fossils from Shihtien. iBulletin of the Geological Society of China 16i, 281-302.View article

Zalasiewicz, J. 1994. Middle to late Telychian (Silurian Llandovery) graptolite assemblages of central Wales. iPalaeontology 37i, 375-396.

Zalasiewicz, J., Williams, M., Miller, M., Page, A. & Blackett, E. 2007. Early Silurian (Llandovery) graptolites from central Saudi Arabia: first documented record of Telychian faunas from the Arabian Peninsula. GeoArabia 12, 15-36.View article

Zhang, Y.D., Wang, Y., Zhan, R.B., Fan, J.X., Zhou, Z.Q. & Fang, X. 2014. iOrdovician and Silurian stratigraphy and palaeontology of Yunnan, Southwest China. i138 pp. Science Press, Beijing.