An Early Silurian (Aeronian) cephalopod fauna from Kopet-Dagh, north-eastern Iran: including the earliest records of non-orthocerid cephalopods from the Silurian of Northern Gondwana

 

Authors: Evans DH, Ghobadi Pour M, Popov LE, Jahangir H

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 90, issue 2; pages: 479 - 507; Received 17 October 2014; Accepted in revised form 23 February 2015; Online 19 March 2015

Keywords: Llandovery, Aeronian, Cephalopoda, palaebiogeography, peri-Gondwana,

full text (PDF, 5.15 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

The cephalopod fauna from the Aeronian Qarebil Limestone of north-eastern Iran comprises the first comprehensive record of early Silurian cephalopods from peri-Gondwana. Although consisting of relatively few taxa, the assemblage includes members of the orders Oncocerida, Discosorida, Barrandeocerida and Orthocerida. Coeval records of several of these taxa are from low palaeolatitude locations that include Laurentia, Siberia, Baltica and Avalonia, and are otherwise unknown from peri-Gondwana until later in the Silurian. The cephalopod assemblage occurs in cephalopod limestones that currently represent the oldest record of such limestones in the Silurian of the peri-Gondwana margin. The appearance of these cephalopods, together with the development of cephalopod limestones may be attributed to the relatively low latitudinal position of central Iran and Kopet-Dagh compared with that of the west Mediterranean sector during the Aeronian. This, combined with the continued post-glacial warming after the Hirnantian glaciation, facilitated the initiation of carbonate deposition and conditions suitable for the development of the cephalopod limestones whilst permitting the migration of cephalopod taxa, many of which were previously restricted to lower latitudes.

References

AGASSIZ, L. 1847. An introduction to the study of natural history, in a series of lectures delivered in the hall of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 58 pp. (fide KUMMEL, B. 1963. Miscellaneous nautiloid type species of Alpheus Hyatt. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 128, 325-368).

AHMADZADEH-HERAVI, M. 1983. Brachiopods and conodonts from the Lower Palaeozoic sediments at southern Bojnourd city. Journal of Technology and Science, Tehran University 45, 1-24. [in Persian]

BARRANDE, J. 1865-1877. Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme. Part 2. Céphalopodes, texte: part 1, pp. 1-712, 1867; part 2, pp. 1-263, 1870; part 3, pp. 1-804, 1874; part 4, pp. 1-742, 1877; part 5, 1-743, 1877; supplement pp. 1-297, 1877; pls 1-107, 1865; pls 108-244, 1866; pls 245-350, 1868; pls 351-460. 1868; pls 351-460, 1870; supplement pls 461-544, 1877. Prague.

BARSKOV, I.S. 1972. Late Ordovician and Silurian molluscs of Kazahkstan and middle Asia. 109 pp. Nauka, Moscow. [in Russian]

BERRY, W.B.N & BOUCOT, A.J. 1970. Correlation of the North American Silurian rocks. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 102, 1-289.

BOGOLEPOVA, O.K. 1995. Lower Silurian cephalopod limestones from the Mojero River Section (Eastern Siberia, Russia) and their paleogeographic relationships. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 138, 155-160.

BRICE, D., LAFUSTE, J., DE LAPPARANT, A.F., PILLET, J. & YASSINI, I. 1973. Etude de deux gisements paléozoiques (Silurien et Dévonien) de l’Elbourz oriental (Iran). Annales de la Société géologique du Nord 93, 177-218.

CHEN, J.Y., LIU, G. & CHEN, T. 1981. Silurian nautiloid faunas of central and southwestern China. Memoir of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology 13, 1-104.

CLAYPOLE, E.W. 1878. On the occurrence of a tree-like fossil plant, Glyptodendron, in the Upper Silurian (Clinton) rocks of Ohio. American Journal of Science, Series 3 15(88), 302-304.View article

COCKS, L.R.M. 1979. A silicified brachiopod fauna from the Silurian of Iran. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology 32, 25-42.

CUVIER, G.L.C.F.D. 1797. Tableau élémentaire de l’histoire des animaux. xvi + 710 pp. Deterville, Paris.

DÜRKOOP, A. 1970. Brachiopoden aus dem Silur, Devon und Karbon in Afghanistan. Palaeontographica, Series A 134, 153-225.

DZIK, J. 1984. Phylogeny of the Nautiloidea. Palaeontologica Polonica 45, 1-219.

EVANS, D.H. 1988. Cephalopods from the Ordovician of England and Wales. 445 pp. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales.

EVANS, D.H. 1996. Cephalopods, 116-129. In HARPER, D.A.T. & OWEN, A.W. (eds) Fossils of the Upper Ordovician. Field Guides to Fossils No. 7. 312 pp. The Palaeontological Association, London.

EVANS, D.H. 2000. A cephalopod fauna from the Middle Ordovician of Saudi Arabia. Palaeontology 43, 573-589.View article

EVANS, D.H. & HOLLAND, C.H. 1996. The nautiloid cephalopod Order Endocerida in the Silurian. Paläontologie Zeitschrift 69, 343-352.View article

FLOWER, R.H. 1946. Ordovician cephalopods of the Cincinnati region. Bulletin of American Paleontology 29, 1-656.

FLOWER, R.H. 1952. New Ordovician cephalopods from eastern North America. Journal of Paleontology 26, 24-39.

FLOWER, R.H. 1962. Notes of the Michelinoceratida. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Memoir 10, 21-55.

FLOWER, R.H. 1968. Silurian cephalopods of the James Bay lowland with a revision of the Narthecoceratidae. Canadian Geological Survey, Bulletin 164, 1-88.

FLOWER, R.H. & KUMMEL, B. 1950. A classification of the Nautiloidea. Journal of Paleontology 24, 604-616.

FLOWER, R.H. & TEICHERT, C. 1957. The cephalopod Order Discosorida. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Mollusca, Article 6, 1-114.

FOERSTE, A.F. 1893. An examination of Glyptodendron and other so-called Silurian land plants from Ohio. The American Geologist 12, 133-141.

FOERSTE, A.F. 1925. Notes on cephalopod genera, chiefly coiled Silurian forms. Denison University Bulletin, Journal of the Science Laboratory 21, 1-69.

FOERSTE, A.F. 1928. A restudy of American orthoconic Silurian cephalopods. Denison University Bulletin, Journal of the Science Laboratory 23, 236-320.

FOERSTE, A.F. 1936. Several New Silurian cephalopods and crinoids, chiefly from Ohio and Hudson Bay. Ohio Journal of Science 36, 261-276.

FREY, R.C. 1995. Middle and Upper Ordovician nautiloid cephalopods of the Cincinnatti Arch region of Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1066-P, i-iv + 1-126.

GHAVIDEL-SYOOKI, M. 2000. Palynostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography of lower Palaeozoic strata in the Ghelli area, Northeastern Alborz Range (Kopet-Dagh Region). Journal of Sciences, I. R. Iran 11, 305-318.

GHAVIDEL-SYOOKI, M. & VECOLI, M. 2007. Latest Ordovician-early Silurian chitinozoans from the eastern Alborz Mountain Range, Kopet-Dagh region, northeastern Iran: biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography. Reviews of Palaeobotany and Palynology 145, 173-192.View article

GHOBADI POUR, M., MOHIBULLAH, M., WILLIAMS, M., POPOV, L.E. & TOLMACHEVAE, T.Y. 2011. New, early ostracods from the Ordovician (Tremadocian) of Iran: systematic, biogeographical and palaeoecological significance. Alcheringa 35, 317-329.

GNOLI, M. 1990. New evidence for faunal links between Sardinia and Bohemia in Silurian time on the basis of nautiloids. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 29, 289-307.

GNOLI, M. 2003. Northern Gondwanan Siluro-Devonian palaeogeography assessed by cephalopods. Palaeontologia Electronica 5, 1-19.

GNOLI, M. & SERPAGLI, E. 1991. Nautiloid assemblages from middle-late Silurian of Southwestern Sardinia: a proposal. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 30, 187-195.

GNOLI, M. & SERVENTI, P. 2009. Silurian nautiloid cephalopods from Sardinia: the state of the art, 109-118. In CORRADINI, C., FERRETTI, A. & ŠTORCH, P. (eds) The Silurian of Sardinia. Rendiconti della Societa Palaeontologica Italiana 3.

GRABAU, A.W. & SHIMER, H.W. 1910. North American index fossils: Invertebrates. Volume II. Conularida, Pteropoda, Cephalopoda, Annelida, Trilobita, Phyllopoda, Ostracoda, Cirripedia, Malacostraca, Merostomata, Arachnida, Myriopoda, Insecta, Cystoidea, Blastoidea, Crinoidea, Ophiuroidea, Asteroidea, Echinoidea and appendices. xiv + 764 pp. A.G. Seiler & Co., New York.

HAIRAPETIAN, V., GHOBADI POUR, M., POPOV, L. & MODZALEVSKAYA, T.L. 2012. Stegocornu and associated brachiopods from the Silurian (Llandovery) of Central Iran. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 61, 82-104.View article

HAIRAPETIAN, V., MOHIBULLAH, M., TILLEY, L.J., WILLIAMS, M., MILLER, C.G., AFZAL, J., GHOBADI POUR, M. & HEJAZI, H. 2011. Early Silurian carbonate platform ostracods from Iran: A peri-Gondwanan fauna with strong Laurentian affinities. Gondwana Research 20, 645-653.View article

HALL, J. 1847. Descriptions of the organic remains of the lower division of the New New York system. New York Geological Survey, Palaeontology of New York. Volume 1. 338 pp. C. Van Benthuysen, New York.

HALL, J. 1868. Report on the geological survey of the state of Wisconsin. Volume I. James Hall, on general geology and palaeontology, and J. D. Whitney, on the upper Mississippi lead region. xx + 455 pp. Commissioners of the Geological, Mineralogical, and Agricultural Survey, Wisconsin.

HANSEN, T. 2009. Trilobites from the Middle Ordovician Elnes Formation of the Oslo Region, Norway. Fossils and Strata 56, 1-215.

HISTON, K. 2012a. Paleoenvironmental and temporal significance of variably colored Paleozoic orthoconic nautiloid cephalopod accumulations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 367, 193-208.View article

HISTON, K. 2012b. The Silurian nautiloid-bearing strata of the Cellon Section (Carnic Alps, Austria): Color variation related to events. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 367, 231-255.View article

HISTON, K. 2012c. An Alpine immigrant: Phragmoceras Broderip, 1839 from the Silurian of the Carnic Alps. Geobios 45, 41-48.View article

HOLLAND, C.H. 2002. One of many problems: Taxonomy of the common Silurian nautiloid cephalopod “Orthoceras” bullatum J. de C. Sowerby. Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 57, 353-358.

HOLLAND, C.H. 2014. Biostratigraphy of British Silurian nautiloid cephalopods. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 53, 19-26.View article

HOLLAND, C.H & COPPER, P. 2008. Ordovician and Silurian nautiloid cephalopods from Anticosti Island: traject across the Ordovician-Silurian (O-S) mass extinction boundary. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 45, 1015-1038.View article

HOLLAND, C.H. & STRIDSBERG, S. 2004. Specific representation of the Silurian cephalopod genus Phragmoceras in Gotland and Britain. GFF 126, 301-310.View article

HYATT, A. 1883-1884. Genera of fossil cephalopods. Proceedings of the Boston Society for Natural History 22, 253-272 (1883), 273-338 (1884).

JILSON, W.R. 1931. The Paleontology of Kentucky. xi + 463 pp. Kentucky Geological Survey, Frankfort, Kentucky.

JIN, J. & COPPER, P. 2000. Late Ordovician and Early Silurian pentamerid brachiopods from Anticosti Island, Québec, Canada. Palaeontographica Canadiana 18, 1-140.

KISSELEV, G.N. 1998. Silurian cephalopods of northern Siberia. 94 pp. St Petersburg University.

KOZLU, H., SACHANSKI, V. & GÖNCÜOGLU, M.C. 2012. Silurian, 61-78. In GÖNCÜOGLU, M.C. & BOZDOGAN, N. (eds) Guidebook to Palaeozoic of eastern Taurides. Turkish Association of Petroleum Geologists, Special Publication 7.

KRÖGER, B. 2008. Nautilids before and during the origin of ammonoids in a Siluro-Devonian section in the Tafilalt, Anti-Atlas, Morocco. Special Papers in Palaeontology 79, 1-110.

KRÖGER, B. 2013. The cephalopods of the Boda Limestone, Late Ordovician, of Dalarna, Sweden. European Journal of Taxonomy 41, 1-110.View article

KRÖGER, B. & ISAKAR, M. 2006. Revision of annulated orthoceridan cephalopods of the Baltoscandic Ordovician. Fossil Record 9, 137-163.View article

KRÖGER, B., ZHANG, Y. & ISAKAR, M. 2009. Discosorids and Oncocerids (Cephalopoda) of the Middle Ordovician Kunda and Aseri Regional Stages of Baltoscandia and the early evolution of these groups. Geobios 42, 273-292.View article

KUHN, O. 1940. Paläozoologie in Tabellen. 50 pp. G. Fischer, Jena.

MANDA, Š. 2007. New Silurian nautiloids Phragmoceras Broderip, 1839, and Tubiferoceras Hedström, 1917, from the Prague Basin (Bohemia). Bulletin of Geosciences 82(2), 119-131.View article

MANDA, Š. 2008. Palaeoecology and palaeogeographic relations of the Silurian phragmoceratids (Nautiloidea, Cephalopoda) of the Prague Basin (Bohemia). Bulletin of Geosciences 83(1), 39-62.View article

MANDA, Š. & KŘÍŽ, J. 2007. New cephalopod limestone horizon in the Ludlow (Gorstian, lower L. scanicus Biozone) of the Prague Basin (Bohemia, Perunica). Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 46, 33-45.

MANDA, Š. & TUREK, V. 2009. Minute Silurian oncocerid nautiloids with unusual colour patterns. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54, 503-512.View article

MAREK, J. 1999. Ordovician cephalopods of the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Czech Republic): a review. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 43, 413-416.

MCCOY, F. 1844. A synopsis of the characters of the Carboniferous Limestone fossils of Ireland. 274 pp. Dublin University Press, Dublin.View article

MIAGKOVA, E.I. 1967. Silurian nautiloids of the Siberian platform. 47 pp. Nauka, Moscow. [in Russian]

MUTVEI, H. 1957. On the relationship of the principal muscles to the shell in Nautilus and other fossil nautiloids. Arkiv för Mineralogi och Geologi 2, 219-254.

MUTVEI, H. 2012. Siphuncular structure in Silurian discosorid and ascocerid nautiloids (Cephalopoda) from Gotland, Sweden: implications for interpretation of mode of life and phylogeny. GFF 134, 27-37.View article

NIKO, S. & HAMADA, T. 1989. Silurian Orthocerataceaea (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the Yokokurayama Formation, Kurosegawa Terrane. Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, New Series 154, 59-67.

NIKO, S., KAKUVA, Y., WATANABE, D. & MATSUMOTO, R. 1999. Early Silurian actinoceratid and orthoceratid cephalopods from the Kerman area, East-Central Iran. Palaeontological Research 3, 41-48.

NIKO, S., MASATOSHI, S. & LEMAN, M. S. 2007. Two new species of orthocerid cephalopod from the Carboniferous, Panching Limestone, West Malaysia. Paleontological Research 11, 331-336.View article

PAGE, A.A., ZALASIEWICZ, J.A., WILLIAMS, M. & POPOV, L.E. 2007. Were transgressive black shales a negative feedback modulating glacioeustacy in the Early Palaeozoic icehouse?, 125-156. In WILLIAMS, M., HAYWOOD, A.M., GREGORy, F.J. & SCHMIDT, D.N. (eds) Deep-time perspectives on climate change: marrying the signal from computer models and biological proxies. The Micropalaeontological Society, Special Publications. i-vi + 589 pp. The Geological Society, London.

POPOV, L.E. & COCKS, L.R.M. 2013. The radiation of early Silurian spiriferide brachiopods, with new taxa from the Llandovery of Iran. Alcheringa 37, 558-564.View article

POPOV, L.E., GHOBADI POUR, M., BASSETT, M.G. & KEBRIA-EE, M. 2009. Billengsellidae and orthide brachiopods: new insights into earliest Ordovician evolution and biogeography from northern Iran. Palaeontology 52, 35-52.View article

RONG, J. & CHEN, X. 2003. Silurian biostratigraphy of China, 173-234. In ZHANG, W.T., CHEN, P.J. & PALMER, A.R. (eds) The Biostratigraphy of China. i-iii + 599 pp. Science Press, Beijing.

RONG, J., XU, H. & YANG, X. 1974. Silurian brachiopods, 195-208. In NANJING INSTITUTE OF GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY, ACADEMIA SINICA (ed.) The Handbook of Stratigraphy and Palaeontology in Southwest China. Science Press, Beijing. [in Chinese]

SERPAGLI, E. & GNOLI, M. 1977. Upper Silurian cephalopods from southwestern Sardinia. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 16, 155-196.

SOWERBY, J. DE C. 1839. Shells, 589-712. In MURCHISON, R.I. The Silurian System. 768 pp. John Murray, London.

STRAND, T. 1934. The Upper Ordovician cephalopods of the Oslo area. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 14, 1-117.

SUNDQUIST, B. 1982. Wackestone petrography and bipolar orientation of cephalopods as indicators of littoral sedimentation in the Ludlovian of Gotland. GFF 104, 81-90.

SUTTNER, T.J. & KRÖGER, B. 2006. Late Ordovician to early Silurian Gondwanan cephalopods of the Pin Formation (Spiti, northern India). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 2006(10), 595-612.

SWEET, W.C. 1958. The Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway. 10. Nautiloid cephalopods. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 38, 1-176.

SWEET, W.C. 1959. Ordovician and Silurian Cyrtogomphoceratidae (Nautiloidea) from the Oslo region, Norway. Journal of Paleontology 33, 55-62.

SWEET, W.C. 1964a. Orthocerida, K216-K261. In MOORE, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part K. Mollusca 3, Cephalopoda. General features, Endoceratoidea, Actinoceratoidea, Nautiloidea, Bactritoidea. xxxvii + 519 pp. Geological Society of America & University of Kansas Press, Boulder & Lawrence.

SWEET, W.C. 1964b. Oncocerida, K277-K319. In MOORE, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part K. Mollusca 3, Cephalopoda. General features, Endoceratoidea, Actinoceratoidea, Nautiloidea, Bactritoidea. xxxvii + 519 pp. Geological Society of America & University of Kansas Press, Boulder & Lawrence.

TEICHERT, C. 1930. Die Cephalopoden-Fauna der Lyckholm-Stufe des Ostbaltikums. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 12, 264-312.View article

TEICHERT, C. 1964. Actinocerida, K190-K216. In MOORE, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part K. Mollusca 3, Cephalopoda. General features, Endoceratoidea, Actinoceratoidea, Nautiloidea, Bactritoidea. xxxvii + 519 pp. Geological Society of America & University of Kansas Press, Boulder & Lawrence.

TORSVIK, T.H. & COCKS, L.R.M. 2013. New global palaeogeographical reconstructions for the Early Palaeozoic and their generation, 2-24. In HARPER, D.A.T. & SERVAIS, T. (eds) Early Palaeozoic Biogeography and Palaeogeography. Geological Society of London, Memoir 38.View article

TORSVIK, T.H., VAN DER VOO, R., PREEDEN, U., MAC NIOCAILL, C., STEINBERGER, B., DOUBROVINE, P.V., VAN HINSBERGEN, D.J.J., DOMEIER, M., GAINA, C., TOHVER, E., MEERT, J.G., MCCAUSLAND, P.J.A. & COCKS, L.R.M. 2012. Phanerozoic polar wander, palaeogeography and dynamics. Earth Science Reviews 114, 325-368.View article

TROEDSSON, G.T. 1928. On the Middle and Upper Ordovician faunas of northern Greenland, 1. Cephalopods. Meddelelser om Gronland 71, 1-157.

TROEDSSON, G.T. 1932. Studies on Baltic fossil cephalopods, II. Vertically striated or fluted orthoceracones in the Orthoceras limestone. Lunds Universitets Arsskrift 28, 1-38.

TUREK, V. 2008. Boionautilus gen. nov. from the Silurian of Europe and North Africa (Nautiloidea, Tarphycerida). Bulletin of Geosciences 83(2), 141-152.View article

WOLFART, R., BENDER, F. & STEIN, V. 1968. Stratigraphie und Fauna des Ober-Ordoviziums (Caradoc-Ashgill) and Unter-Silurs (Unter-Llandovery) von Sudjordanien. Geologisches Jahrbuch, Beihefte 85, 517-551.

ZHURAVLEVA, F.A. 1959. O semeistve Pseudorthoceratidae Flower & Caster, 1935. Akademia nauk SSSR, Doklady 116, 677-680. [in Russian]

ZHURAVLEVA, F.A. 1964. New Ordovician and Silurian cephalopods from the Siberian platform. Paleontological Journal 1964, 87-100.

ZITTEL, K.A. VON 1900. Text-book of palaeontology. Volume 1. 706 pp. Macmillan, London & New York.