Emsian (Lower Devonian) conodont stratigraphy and correlation of the Anti-Atlas (Southern Morocco)


Authors: Aboussalam ZS, Becker RT, Bultynck P

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 90, issue 4; pages: 893 - 980; Received 3 September 2014; Accepted in revised form 7 July 2015; Online 27 November 2015

Keywords: Emsian, conodonts, ammonoids, lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, global events, Morocco,

full text (PDF, 9.42 MB)

Export to RIS



Based on revised previous records and many new data from the Tafilalt, Maider, eastern and western Dra Valley, the Emsian litho- and conodont biostratigraphy of the Anti-Atlas is reviewed, with some data on the Pragian below and the basal Eifelian above. More than 14.000 platform and single cone elements are assigned to 62 species/subspecies of 16 genera, partly in open nomenclature. The region is characterized by rather episodic polygnathid occurrences despite a predominant outer shelf biofacies with abundant dacryoconarids and goniatites. The studied Tafilalt polygnathid succession is as follows: rare records of Eoctenopolygnathus pireneae (Pragian), Eolinguipolygnathus excavatus Morphotype 114 Zone (basal Emsian, with Eol. radula sp. nov.), Eol. catharinae Subzone (of Eol. gronbergi Zone), Linguipolygnathus inversus Zone (with dominant Eol. jacksoni), Eol. laticostatus Zone (at the top of the lower Emsian), a regional basal upper Emsian interregnum (locally with the last L. inversus), L. bultyncki Zone (with L. cooperi cooperi Subzone), Polygnathus patulus Zone, Po. partitus Zone (basal Eifelian). Abundant icriodids provide an alternative zonation, from base to top with Latericriodus steinachensis Zone (lower/middle Pragian), Caudicriodus celtibericus Zone (upper Pragian/basal Emsian), Lat. bilatericrescens gracilis Zone, Lat. bilatericrescens bilatericrescens Zone, Lat. latus Zone, Icriodus fusiformis Zone (basal upper Emsian, with Icriodus ovalis sp. nov. and I. praerectirostratus sp. nov.), and I. corniger corniger Zone. Criteriognathus miae and Crit. steinhornensis provide an alternative ozarkodinid zonation in the Pragian to lower Emsian. The conodont sequences are correlated with the regional ammonoid zonations and global event succession. It contributes to the current chronostratigraphic revision of the Emsian. The Zinzilban basal Emsian GSSP level may project into the lower “Pragian Limestone” of the Tafilalt. The proposed revised basal Emsian GSSP level at the first appearance of Eol. excavatus Morphotype 114 is correlated in the Tafilalt with the base of the Devonobactrites Shale. A significant change of conodont faunas and facies took place at the top of the Mimagoniatites Limestone (main Daleje Event). The significant icriodid radiation of the I. fusiformis Zone is relevant for the debate on Emsian substage subdivision. Lenzites gesinae Klug, 2001 is designated as the type species of the new goniatite genus Klugites.


ABOUSSALAM, Z.S. & BECKER, R.T. 2013. Lower Emsian stratigraphy at Jebel Ihrs (western Tafilalt Platform), 135-141. iIni BECKER, R.T., EL HASSANI, A. & TAHIRI, A. (eds) iInternational Field Symposium “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana”, Field Guidebook, Document de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat 27.i

AKSENOVA, L.M. 1987. Novye konodonty iz zlihovskih otlozhenii Gornogo Altaya, 90-95. iIni BULYNNIKOVA, S.P. & KLIMOVA, I.G. (eds) iNovye vidy drevnikh rasteniy i bespozvonochnykh iz fanerozoya Sibiri.i Siberian Scientific-Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineral Resources, Novosibirsk.

ALBERTI, G.K.B. 1980. Neue Daten zur Grenze Unter-Mittel-Devon, vornehmlich aufgrund der Tentaculiten und Trilobiten im Tafilalt (SE-Marokko). iNeues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 1980(10)i, 581-594.

ALBERTI, G.K.B. 1981. Daten zur stratigraphischen Verbreitung der Nowakiidae (Dacryoconarida) im Devon von NW-Afrika (Marokko, Algerien). iSenckenbergiana lethaea 62(2-6)i, 205-216.

ALBERTI, G.K.B. 1982. Paläontologische Daten zum Grenzbereich PragiumZlichovium (Unter-Devon) auf Grund der Tentaculiten (Dacryoconarida). iNewsletters on Stratigraphy 11(1)i, 22-31.

ALBERTI, G.K.B. 1993. Dacryoconaride und homoctenide Tentaculiten des Unter- und Mitteldevons. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 158i, 1-229.

ALBERTI, G.K.B. 1998. Planktonische Tentakuliten des Devon. III. Dacryoconarida Fisher 1962 aus dem Unter-Devon und oberen Mitteldevon. iPalaeontographica, Abteilung A 250(1-3)i, 1-46.

AL-RAWI, D. 1977. Biostratigraphische Gliederung der Tentaculiten-Schichten des Frankenwaldes mit Conodonten und Tentaculiten (Unter- und Mittel-Devon, Bayern, Deutschland). iSenckenbergiana lethaea 58(1-3)i, 25-79.

APEKINA, L.S. 1989. Novyi konodont iz nizhnego devona Zeravshanskogo khrebta. iPaleontogicheskiy zhurnal 1989(1)i, 119-120.

APEKINA, L.S. & MASHKOVA, T.V. 1978. Conodonts, pls 73-78. iIni SOKOLOV, S.B. & GARKOVETS, V.G. (eds) iType sections of the Lower and Middle Devonian boundary beds in Middle Asia, Field Session of the International Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, A Guide to Field Excursionsi. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Siberian Branch, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Novosibirsk.

BAI, S., NING, Z. & YIN, S. 1982. The Devonian conodonts of Guangxi, their sequence and systematic descriptions, 39-66. iIni BAI, S., JIN, S. & NING, Z. (eds) iThe Devonian biostratigraphy of Guangxi and adjacent areasi. Peking University Press, Beijing.

BAI, Z. & BAI, S. 1988. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Devonian iZdimiri from Bahe, Guangxi, China. iCanadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 14(3)i, 529-534.

BARANOV, V.V. 1991. iKonodonty i zonal’naia stratigrafya nizhnego devona Vostochnoi Yakutii, regional’naya geologiya i poleznye iskopaemya Yakutiii, 24-36. Izdatel’stvo Yakutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, Yakutsk.

BARANOV, V.V. 2012. Lower Devonian Conodont Zonation in Arctic Regions of Eurasia. iStratigraphy and Geological Correlations 20(2)i, 179-198.View article

BARANOV, V.V. & AL’KHOVIK, T.S. 2003. Conodonts of iGagievodusi Baranov & Alkhovik, gen. nov., and iVjaloviodusi Gagiev genera in Lower Devonian of the Northeast Asia. iOtechestvennaia geologia 2003(6)i, 92-96. [in Russian]

BARANOV, V.V., SLAVÍK, L. & BLODGETT, R.B. 2014. Early Devonian polygnathids of Northeast Asia and correlation of Pragian Emsian strata of the marginal seas of Angarida. iBulletin of Geosciences 89(3)i, 645-678.View article

BARCA, S., GNOLI, M., OLIVIERI, R. & SERPAGLI, E. 1986. New stratigraphic data and evidence of Lower and Upper Devonian based on conodonts in Sarabus area. iRivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 92(3)i,i i299-320.

BARDASHEV, I.A. 1986. Emsian conodonts of the iPolygnathusi genus from central Tadzhikistan. iPaleontologicheskii zhurnal 1986(2)i, 61-66. [in Russian]

BARDASHEV, I.A. & WEDDIGE, K. 2003. The invalid genus name iCostapolygnathusi Bardashev, Weddige & Ziegler 2002 and the new conodont genus iEucostapolygnathusi. iSenckenbergiana lethaea 85(1-2)i, 1-2.

BARDASHEV, I., WEDDIGE, K. & ZIEGLER, W. 2002. The phylomorphogenesis of some Early Devonian platform conodonts. iSenckenbergiana lethaea 82(2)i,i i375-451.

BARDASHEV, I. & ZIEGLER, W. 1992. Conodont biostratigraphy of Lower Devonian deposits of the Shishkat section (Southern Tien-Shan, Middle Asia). iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 154i, 1-29.

BARRANDE, J. 1865. iSysteme silurien du centre de la Boheme. Iere Partie Recherches Paléontologiques. Vol. II. Céphalopodesi. 107 pls. Kayserliche und Königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei Wien, Praha & Paris.

BARRANDE, J. 1867. iSysteme silurien du centre de la Boheme. Iere Partie Recherches Paléontologiques. Vol. III. Pteropodes. i179 pp. Kayserliche und Königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei Wien, Praha & Paris.

BECKER, G., LAZREQ, N. & WEDDIGE, K. 2003. Ostracods of Thuringian provenance in the Lower Devonian of Eurasia and North Africa with special reference to the Emsian of Morocco. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 242i, 39-49.

BECKER, R.T. 1997. Minutes of the SDS Business Meeting, 21supthsup July, Rochester. iSDS Newsletter 14i, 2-5.

BECKER, R.T. 2003. Minutes of the SDS Business Meeting, Toulouse, June 2002. iSDS Newsletter 19i, 5-10.

BECKER, R.T. 2007. Emsian substages and the Daleje Event - a consideration of conodont, dacryoconarid, ammonoid and sealevel data. iSDS Newsletter 22i, 29-32.

BECKER, R.T. 2009. Minutes of the SDS Business Meeting, Kitab State Geological Reserve, Uzbekistan, 2supndsup September 2008. iSDS Newsletter 24i, 12-15.

BECKER, R.T. 2012. The uncounted species of iPolygnathusi - plea for clear tracks through a taxonomic jungle. iSDS Newsletter 27i, 42-48.

BECKER, R.T. & ABOUSSALAM, Z.S. 2011. Emsian chronostratigraphy - preliminary new data and a review of the Tafilalt (SE Morocco). iSDS Newsletter 26i, 33-43.

BECKER, R.T. & ABOUSSALAM, Z.S. 2013. The global Chotec Event at Jebel Amelane (western Tafilalt Platform) - preliminary data, 129-134. iIni BECKER, R.T., EL HASSANI, A. & TAHIRI, A. (eds) iInternational Field Symposium “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana”, Field Guidebook, Document de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat 27i.

BECKER, R.T., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S., BAIDER, L., EL HASSANI, A. & STICHLING, S. 2013b. The Lower and Middle Devonian at El Khraouia (southern Tafilalt), 31-40. iIni BECKER, R.T., EL HASSANI, A. & TAHIRI, A. (eds) International Field Symposium “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana”, Field Guidebook, Document de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat 27.

BECKER, R.T., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S., BOCKWINKEL, J., EBBIGHAUSEN, V., EL HASSANI, A. & NÜBEL, H. 2004b. Upper Emsian stratigraphy at Rich Tamelougou near Torkoz (SW Dra Valley, Morocco). iDocuments de l’Institut Scientifique 19i, 85-89.

BECKER, R.T., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S. & BRETT, C.E. 2008. High-resolution biostratigraphy of Emsian mixed siliciclastic-carbonate successions of the western Dra Valley (Anti-Atlas, SW-Morocco), 14-18. iIni KIM, A.I., SALIMOVA, F.A. & MESHCHANKINA, N.A. (eds) iInternational Conference “Global alignments of Lower Devonian carbonate and clastic sequences”, IGCP 499 ProjectSDS joint field meeting, Kitab State Geological Reserve, Uzbekistan, August 25 - September 3, 2008, Contributionsi. SealMag Press, Tashkent.

BECKER, R.T., BOCKWINKEL, J., EBBIGHAUSEN, V., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S., EL HASSANI, A. & NÜBEL, H. 2004c. Lower and Middle Devonian stratigraphy and faunas at Bou Tserfine near Assa (Dra Valley, SW Morocco). iDocuments de l’Institut Scientifique 19i, 90-100.

BECKER, R.T., DE BAETS, K. & NIKOLAEVA, S. 2010. New ammonoid records from the lower Emsian of the Kitab Reserve (Uzbekistan - preliminary results). iSDS Newsletter 25i, 20-28.

BECKER, R.T., EL HASSANI, A. & TAHIRI, A. (eds) 2013a. International Field Symposium “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana”, Field Guidebook. iDocument de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat 27i, 1-150.

BECKER, R.T., GRADSTEIN, F.M. & HAMMER, O. 2012. The Devonian Period, 559-601. iIni GRADSTEIN, F.M., OGG, J.G., SCHMITZ, M.D. & OGG, G. (eds) iThe Geological Time Scale 2012, vol. 2.i Elsevier, Amsterdam.

BECKER, R.T., HARTENFELS, S., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S., TRAGELEHN, H., BRICE, D. & EL HASSANI, A. 2013c. The Devonian-Carboniferous boundary at Lalla Mimouna (northern Maider) - a progress report, 109-120. iIni BECKER, R.T., EL HASSANI, A. & TAHIRI, A. (eds) iInternational Field Symposium “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana”, Field Guidebook, Document de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat 27.i

BECKER, R.T. & HOUSE, M.R. 1994. International Devonian goniatite zonation, Emsian to Givetian, with new records from Morocco. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 169i, 79-135.

BECKER, R.T. & HOUSE, M.R. 2000. Emsian and Eifelian ammonoid succession at Bou Tchrafine (Tafilalt platform, Anti-Atlas, Morocco). iNotes et Mémoires du Service Géologique 399i, 21-36.

BECKER, R.T., HOUSE, M.R., BOCKWINKEL, J., EBBIGHAUSEN, V. & ABOUSSALAM, Z.S. 2002. Famennian ammonoid zones of the eastern Anti-Atlas (southern Morocco). iMünstersche Forschungen zur Geologie und Paläontologie 93i, 159-205.

BECKER, R.T., JANSEN, U., PLODOWSKI, G., SCHINDLER, E., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S. & WEDDIGE, K. 2004a. Devonian litho- and biostratigraphy of the Dra Valley - an overview. iDocuments de l’Institut Scientifique 19i, 3-18.

BELKA, Z., KAUFMANN, B. & BULTYNCK, P. 1997. Conodont-based quantitative biostratigraphy for the Eifelian of the eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco. iGSA Bulletin 109(6)i, 643-651.View article

BELKA, Z., KLUG, C., KAUFMANN, B., KORN, D., DÖRING, S., FEIST, R. & WENDT, J. 1999. Devonian conodont and ammonoid succession of the eastern Tafilalt (Ouidane Chebbi section), Anti-Atlas, Morocco. iActa Geologica Polonica 49i, 1-23.

BENFRIKA, E.M. & BULTYNCK, P. 2003. Lower to Middle Devonian conodonts from the Oued Cherrat area and its southern extension (North-Western Meseta, Morocco). iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 242i, 209-215.

BENFRIKA, E.M., BULTYNCK, P. & EL HASSANI, A. 2007. Upper Silurian to Middle Devonian conodont faunas from the Rabat-Tiflet area (northwestern Moroccan Meseta). iGeological Quarterly 51(4)i, 393-406.

BENSAID, M. 1974. Etude sur des Goniatites a la limite du Dévonien Moyen et Supérieur, du Sud Marocain. iNotes de Service Carte géologique du Maroc 36(264)i, 81-140.

BEYRICH, E. 1837. iBeiträge zur Kenntnis der Versteinerungen des Rheinischen Übergangsgebirgesi. 44 pp. Berlin.

BISCHOFF, G. & SANNEMANN, D. 1958. Unterdevonische Conodonten aus dem Frankenwald. iNotizblätter des hessischen Landesamtes für Bodenforschung 86i, 87-110.

BOCKWINKEL, J., BECKER, R.T. & EBBIGHAUSEN, V. 2002. Morphometry and taxonomy of Lower Famennian Sporadoceratidae (Goniatitida) from Southern Morocco. iAbhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 57i, 279-297.

BOCKWINKEL, J., BECKER, R.T. & EBBIGHAUSEN, V. 2013. Late Givetian ammonoids from Hassi Nebech (Tafilalt Basin, Anti-Atlas, southern Morocco). iFossil Record 16(1)i, 5-65.View article

BOERSMA, K.T. 1974. Description of certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts of the Spanish Central Pyrenees. iLeidse Geologische Mededelingen 49(2)i, 285-301.

BOGOSLOVSKIY, B.I. 1972. Novye rannedevonskie golovonogie Novoy Zemli. iPaleontologicheskii zhurnal 1972(4)i, 44-51.

BONCHEVA, I. 1991. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Lower Devonian in Southwest Bulgaria. iGeologica Balcanica 21(4)i, 55-72.

BONCHEVA, I., SACHANSKI, V., LAKOVA, I. & YANEVA, M. 2007. Facies transition and biostratigraphic correlation of the Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian in West Bulgaria. iGeological Quarterly 51(4)i, 407-418.

BOUČEK, B. 1964. iThe Tentaculites of Bohemia. Their morphology, taxonomy, ecology, phyloneny and biostratigraphyi. 215 pp. Publishing House of Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Praha.

BOUČEK, B. 1966. Eine neue bisher jüngste Graptolithen Fauna aus dem böhmischen Devon. iNeues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 3i, 161-168.

BOUČEK, B. & PRANTL, F. 1959. Význam tentaculitů pro stratigrafii středočeského devonu. iČasopis Národního musea 128(1)i,i i5-7.

BRANSON, E.B. & MEHL, M.G. 1933. A study of Hinde’s types of conodonts preserved in the British Museum. iUniversity of Missouri Studies 8(2)i, 133-156.

BRANSON, E.B. & MEHL, M.G. 1938. The conodont genus iIcriodusi and its stratigraphic distribution. iJournal of Paleontology 12(2)i, 156-166.

BRETT, C.E., ZAMBITO, J.J. IV, SCHINDLER, E. & BECKER, R.T. 2012. Diagenetically-enhanced trilobite obrution deposits in concretionary limestones The paradox of “rhythmic event beds”. iPalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 367368i, 30-43.View article

BUCHROITHNER, M.F. 1978. Zur Conodontenstratigraphie vorwiegend klastischer Folgen im Devon der Ost- und Zentralpyrenäen. iMitteilungen der österreichischen geologischen Gesellschaft 69i, 247-266.

BUCHROITHNER, M.F. 1979. Biostratigraphische und fazielle Untersuchungen im Palaeozoikum von Mittelkärnten. iCarinthia II 169(89)i, 71-95.

BULTYNCK, P. 1970. Révision stratigraphique et paléontologique de la coupe type du Couvinien. iMémoires de l’Institut Géologique de l’Université de Louvain 26i, 1-152.

BULTYNCK, P. 1971. Le Silurien superieur et le Dévonien inferieur de la Sierra de Guadarrama (Espagne Centrale). Deuxieme partie assemblages de Conodontes a iSpathognathodusi. iBulletin du Institut royal des Sciences naturelles Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 47(3)i,i i1-43.

BULTYNCK, P. 1976. Le Silurien superieur et le Dévonien inferieur de la Sierra de Guadarrama (Espagne Centrale). Troisieme partie Elements icriodiformes, pelekysgnathiformes et polygnathiformes. iBulletin du Institut royal des Sciences naturelles Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 49(5)i, 1-74.

BULTYNCK, P. 1979 (with contributions by HOLLARD, H., GARCÍA-ALCALDE, J.L., HOUSE, M.R. & SOTO, F.) Excursion in the Devonian of the Sierra de Guadarrama between Cercadillo and La Riba de Santiuste, 32-34. iIni GARCÍA-ALCALDE, J.R. iet ali. (eds) iGuidebook of the Field Trip, Meeting of the International Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, Spain 1979i. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad, Oviedo.

BULTYNCK, P. 1985. Lower Devonian (Emsian) - Middle Devonian (Eifelian and lowermost Givetian) conodont successions from the Ma’der and the Tafilalt, southern Morocco. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 75i, 261-286.

BULTYNCK, P. 1989. Conodonts from the La Grange Limestone (Emsian), Armorican Massif, North-Western France. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 117i, 173-203.

BULTYNCK, P. 1991. Section Jbel Ou Driss (Mapsheet Tarhbalt, NH-30-XIII-4), 17-23. iIni WALLISER, O.H. (ed.) iMorocco 1991, Field Meeting of the Subcommisuion on Devonian Stratigraphy, International Union of Gelological Sciences, Nov. 28 - Dec. 5, 1991, Guide-Booki. Göttingen.

BULTYNCK, P. 1998. Regional and local facies influences on conodont distribution in Emsian to earliest Eifelian successions of southern Morocco, 22-23. iIni BAGNOLI, G. (ed.) iSeventh International Conodont Symposium held in Europe, Abstract. iTipografia Compositori, Bologna.

BULTYNCK, P. 2003. Devonian Icriodontidae biostratigraphy, classification and remarks on paleoecology and dispersal. iRevista Espanola de Micropaleontología 35(3)i, 295-314.

BULTYNCK, P. & GODEFROID, J. 1974. Excursion G, 1-42. iIni iGuidebook International Symposium on Belgian micropaleontological limits from Emsian to Viséan, Namur 1974i. Geological Survey of Belgium, Bruxelles.

BULTYNCK, P. & HOLLARD, H. 1980. Distribution comparée de Conodontes et Goniatites dévoniens des plaines du Dra, du Ma’der et du Tafilalt. iAardkundige Mededelingen 1i, 1-73.

BULTYNCK, P. & HOLLARD, H. 1982. An Emsian to lower Frasnian conodont and goniatite succession from southern Morocco, 46-50. iIni iBiostratigraphy of Lower and Middle Devonian boundary deposits. Proceedings of Field Symposium of the International Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, Samarkand, UDSSR, 1978i. Leningrad. [in Russian with English summary]

BULTYNCK, P., HOLLARD, H., HOUSE, M.R., GARCÍA-ALCALDE, J. & SOTO, F. 1979. Excursion in the Devonian of the Sierra de Guadarrama between Cercadillo and La Riba de Santiuste, 32-34. iIni GARCÍA-ALCALDE, J.L. iet ali. (eds) iMeeting of the International Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, Spain 1979, Guidebook of the Field Tripi. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad, Oviedo.

BULTYNCK, P., LARDEUX, H. & WALLISER, O.H. 2000. On the correlation of middle-Emsian. iSDS Newsletter 17i, 10-11.

BULTYNCK, P. & MORZADEC, P. 1979. Conodontes de la coupe de Reun ar C’Hrank en Lanvéoc (Rade de Brest), Emsien du Massif Armoricain (France), corrélations biostratigraphiques. iGeobios 12i, 675-685.View article

BULTYNCK, P. & WALLISER, O.H. 2000a. Emsian to Middle Frasnian sections in the Northern Tafilalt. iNotes et Mémoires du Service géologique 399i, 11-20.

BULTYNCK, P. & WALLISER, O.H. 2000b. Devonian Boundaries in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 225i, 211-226.

CARLS, P. 1999. El Devónico de Celtiberia y sus fósiles, 101-164. iIni GÁMEZ-VINTANED, J.A. & LINAN, Ei. Memorias de las VI Jornadas Aragonesas de Paleontología “25 anos de Paleontología”, Homenaje al Prof. Leandro Sequeirosi. Institut Fernando el Católigo, Zaragoza.

CARLS, P. & GANDL, J. 1969. Stratigraphie und Conodonten des Unter-Devons der Östlichen Iberischen Ketten (NE-Spanien). iNeues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 132i, 155-218.

CARLS, P., GANDL, J., GROOS-UFFENORDE, H., JAHNKE, H. & WALLISER, O.H. 1972. Neue Daten zur Grenze Unter-Mittel-Devon. iNewsletters on Stratigraphy 2(3)i, 115-147.

CARLS, P. & GONG, D. 1992. Devonian and Early Carboniferous conodonts from Shidian (Western Yunnan, China). iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 154i, 179-221.

CARLS, P., SLAVÍK, L. & VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. 2008. Comments on the GSSP for the basal Emsian stage boundary the need for its redefinition. iBulletin of Geosciences 83(4)i, 383-390.View article

CARLS, P., SLAVÍK, L. & VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. 2009. Request and comments concerning the GSSP for the basal Emsian stage boundary. iSDS Newsletter 24i, 20-27.

CARLS, P. & VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. 2002. Early Emsian conodonts and associated shelly faunas of the Mariposas Fm (Iberian Chains, Aragón, Spain). iCuadernos del Museo Geominero 1i, 315-333.

CARLS, P. & VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. 2007. From the Emsian GSSP to the early late Emsian - correlations with historical boundaries. iSDS Newsletter 22i, 24-28.

CHLUPÁČ, I. 1995. Evaluation of some Devonian standard boundaries. iNova Acta Leopoldina, Neue Folge 71(291)i, 41-52.

CHLUPÁČ, I. & KUKAL, Z. 1986. Reflection of possible global Devonian events in the Barrandian area, C.S.S.R. iLecture Notes on Earth Sciences 8i, 171-179.View article

CHLUPÁČ, I. & KUKAL, Z. 1988. Possible global events and the stratigraphy of the Palaeozoic of the Barrandian (Cambrian-Middle Devonian, Czechoslovakia). iSborník geologických věd, Geologie 43i, 83-146.

CHLUPÁČ, I. & LUKEŠ, P. 1999. PragianZlíchovian and ZlíchovianDalejan boundary sections in the Lower Devonian of the Barrandian area, Czech Republic. iNewsletters on Stratigraphy 37(1-2)i, 75-100.

CHLUPÁČ, I., LUKEŠ, P., PARIS, F. & SCHÖNLAUB, H.-P. 1985. The Lochkovian-Pragian Boundary in the Lower Devonian of the Barrandian Area (Czechoslovakia). iJahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 128i, 9-41.

COLQUHOUN, G.P. 1995. Early Devonian conodont faunas from the Capertee High, NE Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 182i, 347-369.

CORRADINI, C. & CORRIGA, M.G. 2012. A Přídolí-Lochkovian conodont zonation in Sardinia and the Carnic Alps implications for a global zonation scheme. iBulletin of Geosciences 87(4)i, 635-650.View article

DE BAETS, K., KLUG, C. & MONNET, C. 2013. Intraspecific variability through ontogeny in early ammonoids. iPalaeobiology 39(1)i, 75-94.View article

DE BAETS, K., KLUG, C. & PLUSQUELLEC, Y. 2010. Zlíchovian faunas with early ammonoids from Morocco and their use for the correlation of the eastern Anti-Atlas and the western Dra Valley. iBulletin of Geosciences 85(2)i, 317-352.View article

DESTOMBES, J. & HOLLARD, H. (eds) 1986. Carte géologique du Maroc Tafilalt - Taouz, Echelle 1200000. iNotes et Mémoires du Service Géologique du Maroc 244i, 1 map.

DOJEN, C., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S. & BECKER, R.T. 2010. Palaeoecological and biogeographical interpretation of Devonian ostracodes (Emsian to basal Givetian) of the Western Dra Valley, Morocco (sections Bou Tserfine, Rich Tamelougou and Hassi Mouf). iSDS Newsletter 25i, 37-40.

DOJEN, C., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S. & BECKER, R.T. 2011. Lowermost Emsian to lower Givetian ostracods from the Western Dra Valley (Morocco) First palaeoecological and event-stratigraphical data. iJoannea Geologie und Paläontologie 11i, 53-54.

DONGAL, G.M.S. 1995. Early Devonian (Pragian and early Emsian) fauna from the eastern Tamworth Terrane, New South Wales. iMemoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists 18i, 131-142.

DÖRING, S. 2002. iSedimentological evolution of the late Emsian to early Givetian carbonate ramp in the Mader (eastern Anti-Atlas, SE Morocco).i 80 pp. Dissertation, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen. httptobias-lib.ub.uni-tuebingen.devolltexte2002560

DRYGANT, D. & SZANIAWSKI, H. 2012. Lochkovian conodonts from Podolia, Ukraine, and their stratigraphic significance. iActa Palaeontologica Polonica 74(4)i, 833-861.View article

EBBIGHAUSEN, V., BECKER, R.T. & BOCKWINKEL, J. 2011. Emsian and Eifelian ammonoids from Oufrane, eastern Dra Valley (Anti-Atlas, Morocco) - taxonomy, stratigraphy and correlation. iNeues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 259i, 313-379.View article

EBBIGHAUSEN, V., BOCKWINKEL, J., BECKER, R.T., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S., BULTYNCK, P., EL HASSANI, A. & NÜBEL, H. 2004. Late Emsian and Eifelian stratigraphy at Oufrane (Tata region, eastern Dra Valley, Morocco). iDocuments de l’Institut Scientifique 19i, 44-52.

EICHENBERG, W. 1931. Die Schichtenfolge des Herzberg-Andreasberger Sattelzuges. iNeues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Beilage-Band B 65i, 141-196.

EIKHVALD, L.P. 2008. Devonian conodonts of the Amur Region. iRussian Journal of Pacific Geology 2(3)i, 244-254.View article

ERBEN, H.K. 1960. Primitive Ammonoidea aus dem Unterdevon Frankreichs und Deutschlands. iNeues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 110(1)i, 1-128.

FAHRAEUS, L.E. 1974. Taxonomy and evolution of iOzarkodina steinhornensisi and iOzarkodina optimai (Conodontophorida). iGeologica et Palaeontologica 8i, 29-37.

FEIST, R., SCHÖNLAUB, H.-P. & BULTYNCK, P. 1985. Facies et biostratigraphie (conodontes) du passage Dévonien Inférieur-Moyen dans la Montagne Noire (France). iHercynica 1(2)i, 81-97.

FERROVÁ, L., FRÝDA, J. & LUKEŠ, P. 2012. High-resolution tentaculite biostratigraphy and facies developments across the Early Devonian Daleje Event in the Barrandian (Bohemia) implications for global Emsian stratigraphy. iBulletin of Geosciences 87(3)i, 587-624.View article

FRÖHLICH, S. 2004. iEvolution of a Devonian carbonate shelf at the northern margin of Gondwana (Jebel Rheris, eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco).i 71 pp. Dissertation, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen.

FUREY-GREIG, T. 1995. The “Nemingha” and “Loomberah” limestones (Early Devonian; Emsian) of the Nemingha-Nundle area, northern New South Wales conodont data and inferred environments. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 182i, 217-233.

GAETANI, M., MAWSON, R., SCIUNNACH, D. & TALENT, J.A. 2008. The Devonian of Western Karakorum (Pakistan). iActa Geologica Polonica 58(3)i, 261-285.

GAGIEV, M.H. 2000. Sedimentary evolution and sea-level fluctuations in the Devonian of North-East Asia. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 199i, 75-82.

GAGIEV, M.H. & RODYGIN, S.A. 1988. Zonal’noe raschlenenie i korrelatsia otlozhenii srednego devona Salaira i Severo-Vostoka SSSR po konodontam, 28-44. iIni PODOBINA, V.M. (ed.) iMaterialy po paleontologii i stratigrafii zapodnoi Sibirii. Izdatel’stvo Tomskogo universiteta, Tomsk.

GARCÍA-ALCALDE, J. 1997. North Gondwanan Emsian events. iEpisodes 20(4)i, 241-246.

GARCÍA-ALCALDE, J. 1998. Devonian events in northern Spain. iNewsletters on Stratigraphy 36(2-3)i, 157-175.

GARCÍA-LÓPEZ, S. 1987. Los conodontos y su aplicación al studio de las divisiones cronostrátigraficas mayors del Devonico asturleonés (Espana). iBoletín Geólogico y Minero, publicaciones especiales 47(3-5)i, 1-112.

GARCÍA-LÓPEZ, S. & ALONSO-MENENDEZ, C. 1994. Conodontos del Grupo la Vid, limites PraguienseEmsiense y Emsiense inferiorEmsiense superior, Zona Cantábrica (NO de Espana). iRevista Espanola de Micropaleontología 26(2)i, 81-97.

GARCÍA-LÓPEZ, S., JAHNKE, H. & SANZ-LÓPEZ, J. 2002. Uppermost Pridoli to Upper Emsian stratigraphy of the Alto Carrión Unit, Palentine Domain (Northwest Spain). iCuadernos del Museo Geominero 1i, 229-257.

GARCÍA-LÓPEZ, S., JULIVERT, M., SOLDEVILA, J., TRUYOLS-MASSONI, M. & ZAMARRENO, I. 1990. Biostratigrafía y Facies de la sucesíón carbonatada del Silúrico Superior y Devónico Inferior de Santa Creu d’Olorda (Cadenas Costeras Catalanas, NE de Espana). iActa Geológica Hispánica 25(1-2)i,i i141-168.

GARCÍA-LÓPEZ, S. & SANZ-LÓPEZ, J. 2002. Devonian to Lower Carboniferous conodont stratigraphy of the Bernesga Valley section (Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain). iCuadernos del Museo Geominero 1i, 163-205.

GÉLARD, J.-P., BOSSIERE, G., LEGRAND, P., SEMENOFF-TIAN-CHANSKY, P. & WEYANT, M. 1978. Ler Dévonien d’Ihamziene dans la Dorsale Kabyle (massif de Chellata, Grande Kabylie) sa stratigraphie et son complexe volcano-sédimentaire spilitique. iBulletin de la Société géologique de France 20(3)i, 277-289.View article

GOUWY, S. & BULTYNCK, P. 2002. Graphic correlation of Middle Devonian sections in the Ardenne region (Belgium) and the Mader-Tafilalt region (Morocco) development of a Middle Devonian composite standard. iAardkundige Mededelingen 12i, 105-108.

GRADSTEIN, F.M., OGG, J.G. & SMITH, A.G. (eds) 2004. iA Geological Time Scale 2004i. 589 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.View article

HINDE, G.J. 1879. On conodonts from the Chazy and Cincinnati group of the Cambrian-Silurian, and from the Hamilton and Genesee Shale divisions of the Devonian, in Canada and the United States. iQuarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 35(3)i, 351-369.View article

HOLLARD, H. 1960. Vorläufiger Bericht über die Silur-Devon-Stratigraphie des vorsaharischen Marokko, 437-453. iIni SVOBODA, J. (ed.) iPrager Arbeitstagung über die Stratigraphie des Silurs und des Devons (1958)i. Ústřední ústav geologický, Praha.

HOLLARD, H. 1963a. Un tableau stratigraphique du Dévonien du Sud de l’Anti-Atlas. iNotes du Service Géologique du Maroc 23i, 105-109.

HOLLARD, H. 1963b. Présence d’iAnetoceras advolvensi Erben (Ammonoidée primitive) dans le Dévonien inférieur du Maroc présaharien. iNotes du Service Géologique du Maroc 23(172)i, 131-139.

HOLLARD, H. 1967. Le Dévonien du Maroc et du Sahara nord-occidental, 203-244. iIni OSWALD, D.H. (ed.) iInternational Symposium on the Devonian System, Calgary, 1967 I.i Alberta Society of Petroleum Geologists, Calgary.

HOLLARD, H. 1974. Recherches sur la stratigraphie des formations du Dévonien moyen, de l’Emsien supérieur au Frasnien, dans le Sud du Tafilalt et dans le Ma’der (Anti-Atlas oriental). iNotes du Service géologique du Maroc 36(264)i, 7-78.

HOLLARD, H. 1978. Corrélations entre niveaux a brachiopods et a goniatites au voisinage de la limite Dévonien inférieur - Dévonien moyen dans les plaines du Dra (Maroc présaharien). iNewsletters on Stratigraphy 7(1)i, 8-25.

HOLLARD, H. 1981a. Principaux caracteres des formations dévoniennes de l’Anti-Atlas. iNotes du Service Géologique du Maroc 42(308)i, 15-22.

HOLLARD, H. 1981b. Tableux de corrélations du Silurien et du Dévonien de l’Anti-Atlas. iNotes du Service Géologique du Maroc 42i, 1-308.

HOLLARD, H. & JAQUEMONT, P. 1956. Le Gothlandien, le Dévonien et le Carbonifere des régions du Dra et du Zemoul. iNotes du Service Géologique du Maroc 15i, 7-33.

HOUSE, M.R. & PEDDER, A. E. 1963. Devonian goniatites and stratigraphical correlations in Western Canada. iPalaeontology 6(3)i, 491-539.

IZOKH, N.G. 1990. Ikriodusy telengitskogo nadgorizonta Salaira (konodonty; devon, ems), 107-111. iIni YOLKIN, E.A. & KANYGIN, A.V. (eds) iNovoe v paleontologii i biostratigrafii paleozoia aziatskoi chasti SSSR.i Nauka, Novosobirsk.

IZOKH, N.G. 1998. iKonodonty i zonal’noe raschlenenie emskikh otlozheniy Salairai. 24 pp. Izdatel’stvo SO RAN, NITS OIGGM, Novosibirsk.

IZOKH, N.G. 2005. Emsian conodonts from Tashtyp Formation (Tuva, south of West Siberia), 68-69. iIni YOLKIN, E.A., IZOKH, N.G., OBUT, O.T. & KIPRIYANOVA, T.P. (eds) iInternational Conference “Devonian Terrestrial and Marine Environments From Continent to Shelf” (IGCP 499 Project SDS joint field meeting), Contributionsi. Publishing House of SB RAS “Geo” Branch, Novosibirsk.

IZOKH, N.G., VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. & SLAVÍK, L. 2011b. Conodont report of the Zinzilban Gorge Emsian GSSP and up. iSDS Newsletter 26i, 57-58.

IZOKH, N.G., YOLKIN, E.A., WEDDIGE, K., ERINA, M.V. & VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. 2011a. Late Pragian and early Emsian conodont polygnathid species from the Kitab State Geological Reserve sequences (Zeravshan-Gissar mountainous area, Uzbekistan). iNews on Paleontology and Stratigraphy, Supplement to Geologiya i Geofizika 52(15)i, 49-63.

JANSEN, U. 2012. On the traditional Siegenian-lower Emsian successions in the Rhenish Slate Mountains, in special consideration of the basal Emsian boundary and its supraregional correlation. iSDS Newsletter 27i, 21-27.

JANSEN, U., BECKER, G., PLODOWSKI, G., SCHINDLER, E., VOGEL, O. & WEDDIGE, K. 2004a. The Emsian to Eifelian near Foum Zguid (NE Dra Valley, Morocco). iDocuments de l’Institut Scientifique 19i, 19-28.

JANSEN, U., BECKER, G., PLODOWSKI, G., SCHINDLER, E., VOGEL, O. & WEDDIGE, K. 2004b. Pragian and Emsian near Aouinet Torkoz (SW Dra Valley, Morocco). iDocuments de l’Institut Scientifique 19i, 75-84.

JANSEN, U., LAZREQ, N., PLODOWSKI, G., SCHEMM-GREGORY, M., SCHINDLER, E. & WEDDIGE, K. 2007. Neritic-pelagic correlation in the Lower and basal Middle Devonian of the Dra Valley (Southern Anti-Atlas, Moroccan Pre-Sahara), 9-37. iIni BECKER, R.T. & KIRCHGASSER, W.T. (eds) iDevonian Events and Correlations. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 278i.

JANSEN, U. & SCHINDLER, E. 1997. Subdivision of the Emsian stage - German Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy. iSDS Newsletter 14i, 8-9.

JENTZSCH, I. 1962. Conodonten aus dem Tentaculitenknollenkalk (Unterdevon) in Thüringen. iGeologie 11(8)i, 961-985.

JIN, S., SHEN, A., CHEN, Z., LU, J., WIE, M., WANG, Y. & XIE, F. 2005. iMixed Biostratigraphy of Devonian in Wenshan, Yunnani. 195 pp. Petroleum Industry Press.

JOHNSON, D.B. & KLAPPER, G. 1981. New Early Devonian conodont species of central Nevada. iJournal of Paleontology 55(6)i, 1237-1250.

JOHNSON, J.G., KLAPPER, G., MURPHY, M.A. & TROJAN, W.R. 1985. Devonian Series Boundaries in Central Nevada and neighbouring regions, Western North America. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 75i, 177-196.

JOHNSON, J.G., KLAPPER, G. & TROJAN, W.R. 1980. Brachiopod and conodont successions in the Devonian of the northern Antelope Range, central Nevada. iGeologica et Palaeontologica 14i, 77-116.

KALVODA, J. 1995. Conodont Fauna from the PragianEmsian boundary in the Mramorka and Stydlé vody Quarry (Barrandian, Czech Republic). iVěstník Českého geologického ústavu 70(2)i, 33-44.

KAUFMANN, B. 1998. Facies, stratigraphy and diagenesis of Middle Devonian reef- and mud-mounds in the Mader (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco). iActa Geologica Polonica 48(1)i, 43-106.

KAUFMANN, B. 2006. Calibrating the Devonian Time Scale A synthesis of U-Pb ID-TIMS ages and conodont stratigraphy. iEarth Science Reviews 76i, 175-190.View article

KAYSER, E. 1884. Die Orthocerasschiefer zwischen Balduinstein und Laurenburg an der Lahn. iJahrbuch der Preussischen Geologischen Landesanstalt 1883i, 1-56.

KIM, A.I., ERINA, M.V., KIM, I.A., SALIMOVA, F.A., MESHCHANKINA, N.A. & RAKHMONOV, U.D. 2012. The Pragian-Emsian event and subdivision of the Emsian in the Zinzilban and Khodzha-Kurgan sections. iSDS Newsletter 27i, 38-41.

KIM, A.I., ERINA, M.V., YOLKIN, E.A. & SENNIKOV, N.V. 1988. Subdivision and correlation of the Devonian of South Fergana (Turkestan-Alai Mountain area, U.S.S.R.). iCanadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 14(3)i, 703-714.

KLAPPER, G. 1969. Lower Devonian conodont sequence, Royal Creek, Yukon Territory, and Devon Island, Canada. iJournal of Paleontology 43(1)i, 1-27.

KLAPPER, G. 1971. Sequence within the conodont genus iPolygnathusi in the New York lower Middle Devonian. iGeologica et Palaeontologica 5i, 59-79.

KLAPPER, G. 1977. Lower and Middle Devonian conodont sequence in central Nevada, with contributions by D.B. Johnson, 33-54. iIni MURPHY, M.A., BERRY, W.B.N. & SANDBERG, C.A. (eds) iWestern North America Devonian, University of California, Riverside Campus Museum Contributions 4i.

KLAPPER, G. & JOHNSON, D.B. 1975. Sequence in conodont genus iPolygnathusi in Lower Devonian at Lone Mountain, Nevada. iGeologica et Palaeontologica 9i, 65-83.

KLAPPER, G. & JOHNSON, J.G. 1980. Endemism and dispersal of Devonian conodonts. iJournal of Paleontology 54i, 400-455.

KLAPPER, G. & PHILIP, G. 1971. Devonian conodont apparatuses and their vicarious skeletal elements. iLethaia 4i, 429-452.View article

KLAPPER, G. & VODRÁŽKOVÁ, S. 2013. Ontogenetic and intraspecific variation in the late Emsian-Eifelian (Devonian) conodonts iPolygnathus serotinusi and iP. bultynckii in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic) and Nevada (western U.S.). iActa Geologica Polonica 63(2)i,i i153-174.View article

KLAPPER, G. & ZIEGLER, W. 1967. Evolutionary development of the iIcriodus latericrescensi Group (Conodonta) in the Devonian of Europe and North America. iPalaeontographica, Abteilung A 127(1-3)i, 68-83.

KLAPPER, G., ZIEGLER, W. & MASHKOVA, T.V. 1978. Conodonts and correlation of Lower-Middle Devonian boundary beds in the Barrandian area of Czechoslowakia. iGeologica et Palaeontologica 12i, 103-116.

KLISHEVICH, V.L., BISKE, Y.S., SAVITSKY, Y.V. & EYKHGORN, T.F. 1985. Biostratigraphy of the Lower and Middle Devonian Beds of the Shakhimardan River Basin, Southern Fergana. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 75i, 83-92.

KLUG, C. 2001. Early Emsian ammonoids from the eastern Anti-Atlas (Morocco) and their succession. iPaläontologische Zeitschrift 74(4)i, 479-515.View article

KLUG, C. 2002. Quantitative stratigraphy and taxonomy of late Emsian and Eifelian ammonoids of the eastern Anti-Atlas (Morocco). iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 238i, 1-109.

KLUG, C., KORN, D., NAGLIK, C., FREY, L. & DE BAETS, K. 2013. The Lochkovian to Eifelian succession of the Amessoui Syncline (southern Tafilalt), 51-59. iIni BECKER, R.T., EL HASSANI, A. & TAHIRI, A. (eds) iInternational Field Symposium “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana”, Field Guidebook, Document de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat 27i.

KLUG, C., KORN, D. & REISDORF, A. 2000. Ammonoid and conodont stratigraphy of the late Emsian to early Eifelian (Devonian) at the Jebel Ouaoufilal (near Taouz, Tafilalt, Morocco). iTravaux de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat, Série Géologie & Géographie Physique 20i, 45-56.

KLUG, C., KRÖGER, B., RÜCKLIN, M., KORN, D., SCHEMM-GREGORY, M., DE BAETS, K. & MAPES, R.H. 2008. Ecological change during the early Emsian (Devonian) in the Tafilalt (Morocco), the origin of the Ammonoidea, and the first African pyrgocystid edrioasteroids, machaerids, and phyllocarids. iPalaeontographica, Abteilung A 283i, 83-176.

KRÖGER, B. 2008. Nautiloids before and during the origin of ammonoids in a Silurian-Devonian section in the Tafilalt, Anti-Atlas, Morocco. iSpecial Papers in Palaeontology 79i, 1-110.

KUANG, G. & ZHOU, H. 1992. The Standard Devonian Section and Sedimentary Types in Guangxi, China. iInternational Symposium on the Devonian System, its Economy Oil and Mineral Resources, September 9-12, 1992, Guilin, Field Trip No. 2i, 22 pp.

KULLMANN, J. 1960. Die Ammonoidea des Devon im Kantabrischen Gebirge (Nordspsanien). iAkademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur,i iAbhandlungen der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse 1960(7)i,i i457-559.

KUZ’MIN, A.M. 1967. The first finding of conodonts in the Lower Devonian deposits of the Central Taimyr. iUcheniye zapiski NIIGA 1967(20)i, 20-27.

LANE, H.R., MÜLLER, K.J. & ZIEGLER, W. 1979. Devonian and Carboniferous conodonts from Perak, Malaysia. iGeologica et Palaeontologica 13i, 213-226.

LANE, H.R. & ORMISTON, A.E. 1979. Siluro-Devonian biostratigraphy of the Salmontrout area, east-central Alaska. iGeologica et Palaeontologica 13i, 39-96.

LARDEUX, H. & WEYANT, M. 1993. Conodontes et tentaculites (dacryoconarides) du Calcaire de Valet en Chaudefonds (Dévonien Inférieur, Massif Armoricain, Anjou). iRevue de Micropaléontologie 36(1)i, 19-28.

LAZREQ, N. 1990. Devonian conodonts from Central Morocco. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 118i, 65-79.

LONG, J.A. & BURRETT, C.F. 1989. Early Devonian conodonts from the Kuan Tung Formation, Thailand. Systematics and biogeographic considerations. iRecords of the Australian Museum 41i, 121-133.View article

LU, J.-F. 2013. Late Emsian (Lower Devonian) conodonts from Bahe section, Tiandeng County, Guangxi. iActa Palaeontologica Sinica 52(3)i, 309-330. [in Chinese with English abstract]

LUBESEDER, S., RATH, J., RÜCKLIN, M. & MESSBACHER, R. 2010. Controls on Devonian hemi-pelagic limestone deposition analyzed on cephalopod ridge to slope sections, Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco. iFacies 56i, 295-315.View article

LUBESEDER, S., REDFERN, J. & BOUTIB, L. 2009. Mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf sedimentation - Lower Devonian sequences of the SW Anti-Atlas, Morocco. iSedimentary Geology 215i, 13-32.View article

LUPPOLD, F.W. 1984. Ein kondensiertes Unterdevon-Profil bei Wieda, SW-Harz. iNeues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 1984(4)i, 223-238.

LUPPOLD, F.W. 1987. Stratigraphie und Fazies im Steinbruch am Großen Mittelberg (SW-Harz; Devon). iNeues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 175(3)i, 295-315.

MAMEDOV, A.B. & RZHONSNITSKAYA, M.A. 1985. Devonian of the South Transcaucasus, zonal divisions boundaries of series and stages, correlation. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 75i, 135-156.

MARTÍNEZ-PÉREZ, C. 2010. iIcriodus riosii, nueva especie de conodonto en el Devónico inferior del Pirineo Central Espanol. iRevista Espanola de Paleontologia 25(2)i, 139-147.

MARTÍNEZ-PÉREZ, C. & VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. 2012. Polygnathids (Conodonta) around the lowerupper Emsian boundary from the La Guardia d’Ares section (Lower Devonian, Spanish Central Pyrenees). iBolletino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 51(3)i, 193-202.

MARTÍNEZ-PÉREZ, C. & VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. 2014. New Lower Devonian polygnathids (Conodonta) from the Spanish Central Pyrenees, with comments on the early radiation of the group. iJournal of Iberian Geology 40(1)i, 141-155.View article

MARTÍNEZ-PÉREZ, C., VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. & BOTELLA, H. 2010. iPolygnathus rosaei n. sp. (Conodonta) and its biostratigraphical correlation potential (lower Emsian, Lower Devonian) in the Spanish Central Pyrenees. iRivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 116(3)i, 273-281.

MARTÍNEZ-PÉREZ, C., VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I., NAVAS-PAREJO, P., LIAO, J.-C. & BOTELLA, H. 2011. Emsian (Lower Devonian) Polygnathids (Conodont) succession in the Spanish Central Pyrenees. iJournal of Iberian Geology 37(1)i, 45-64.

MASHKOVA, T.V. 1972. iOzarkodina steinhornensisi (Ziegler) Apparatus, its conodonts and biozone. iGeologica et Palaeontologica SB 1i, 81-90.

MASHKOVA, T.V. 1979. Conodont zones of the Lower Devonian in the U.S.S.R. iGeologica et Palaeontologica 13i, 97-102.

MASHKOVA, T.V. & APEKINA, L.S. 1980. Prazhskie polignatusy (konodonty) zony idehiscensi Sredney Asii. iPaleontologicheskii zhurnal 1980(3)i, 135-140.

MASSA, D. 1965. Observations sur les series siluro-dévoniennes des confins Algéro-Marocaines du sud (1954-1955). iNotes et Mémoires, Compagnie Francaise des Pétroles 8i, 1-187.

MAVRINSKAYA, T. & SLAVÍK, L. 2013. Correlation of Early Devonian (Lochkovian-early Pragian) conodont faunas of the South Urals (Russia). iBulletin of Geosciences 88(2)i, 283-296.View article

MAWSON, R. 1987a. Early Devonian conodont faunas from Buchan and Bindi, Victoria, Australia. iPalaeontology 30(2)i, 251-297.

MAWSON, R. 1987b. Documentation of conodont assemblages across the Early Devonian-Middle Devonian Boundary, Broken River Formation, North Queensland, Australia. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 92i, 251-273.

MAWSON, R. 1995. Early Devonian polygnathid conodont lineages with special reference to Australia. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 182i, 389-398.

MAWSON, R., JELL, J.S. & TALENT, J.A. 1985. Stage boundaries within the Devonian implications for application to Australian sequences. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 75i, 1-16.

MAWSON, R. & TALENT, J.A. 1989. Late Emsian-Givetian stratigraphy and conodont biofacies - carbonate slope and offshore shoal to sheltered lagoon and nearshore carbonate ramp - Broken River, North Queensland, Australia. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 117i, 205-259.

MAWSON, R. & TALENT, J.A. 1994. Age of an Early Devonian carbonate fan and isolated limestone clasts and megaclasts, East-Central Victoria. iProceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 106i, 31-70.

MAWSON, R. & TALENT, J.A. 2003. Conodont faunas from sequences on or marginal to the Anakie Inlier (Central Queensland, Australia) in relation to Devonian transgressions. iBulletin of Geosciences 78(4)i, 335-358.

MÜLLER, K.J. 1962. Zur systematischen Einteilung der Conodontophorida. iPalaeontologische Zeitschrift 36i, 109-117.View article

MURPHY, M.A. 2002. Pragian and basal Emsian zonal classification based on conodonts in Nevada, western North America. iStrata, Série 1 12i, 98.

MURPHY, M.A. & CEBECIOGLU, M.K. 1984. The iIcriodus steinachensisi and iI. claudiaei lineages (Devonian conodonts). iJournal of Paleontology 58(6)i, 1399-1411.

MURPHY, M.A. & MATTI, J.C. 1983. Lower Devonian conodonts (ihesperius-kindleii Zones), central Nevada. iUniversity of California Publications in Geological Sciences 123i, 1-87.

MURPHY, M.A., VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. & CARLS, P. 2004. On classification of Pridoli (Silurian)-Lochkovian (Devonian) Spathognathodontidae (conodonts). iUniversity of California, Riverside, Campus Museum Contribution 6i, 1-25.

NASEHI, E. 1997. Early to Middle Devonian conodonts from Central Iran. iGeosciences, Quarterly Journal 6i, 78-87.

OLIVIERI, R. & SERPAGLI, E. 1990. Latest Silurian - early Devonian conodonts from the Mason Porcus Section near Fluminimaggiore, Southwestern Sardinia. iBolletino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 29(1)i, 59-76.

ORR, W. 1971. Conodonts from Middle Devonian strata of the Michigan Basin. iIndiana Geological Survey, Bulletin 45i, 1-110.

OUANAIMI, H. & LAZREQ, N. 2008. The “Rich” group of the Drâa Basin (Lower Devonian, Anti-Atlas, Morocco) an integrated sedimentary and tectonic approach, 467-482. iIni ENNIH, N. & LIÉGEOIS, J.-P. (eds) iThe Boundaries of the West African Craton. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 297i.

PHILIP, G.M. 1965. Lower Devonian conodonts from the Tyers Area, Gippsland, Victoria. iProceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 79(1)I, 95-115.

PHILIP, G.M. 1966. Lower Devonian conodonts from the Buchan Group, eastern Victoria. iMicropaleontology 12(4)i, 441-460.View article

PHILIP, G.M. & JACKSON, J. 1967. Lower Devonian subspecies of the conodont iPolygnathus linguiformisi Hinde from southeastern Australia. iJournal of Paleontology 41(5)i, 1262-1266.

PLODOWSKI, G., BECKER, G., BROCKE, R., JANSEN, U., LAZREQ, N., SCHINDLER, E., SCHRAUT, G., WALLISSER, O.H., WEDDIGE, K. & ZIEGLER, W. 2000. The section at Jebel Issimour (NW Maider, Early to Early Middle Devonian). First results with respect to lithology and biostratigraphy. iNotes et Mémoires du Service géologique 399i, 43-48.

PYLE, L.J., ORCHARD, M.J., BARNES, C. & LANDRY, M.L. 2002. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Lower to Middle Devonian Deserters Formation (new), Road River Group, northeastern British Columbia. iCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences 40i, 99-113.View article

RAO, J. & YU, H. 1985. The Devonian system in South Xizang (Tibet). iContributions to the Geology of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau 16i, 51-73. [in Chinese]

REQUADT, H. & WEDDIGE, K. 1978. Lithostratigraphie und Conodontenfaunen der Wissenbacher Fazies und ihrer Äquivalente in der südwestlichen Lahnmulde (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). iMainzer geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen 7i, 183-237.

RICHTER, R. 1854. Thüringische Tentakuliten. iZeitschrift der Deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft 6(2)i, 275-290.

RUAN, Y.-P. & HE, G.-X. 1974. Devonian ammonoids, 238-239. iIni NANJING INSTITUTE OF GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY, ACADEMIA SINICA (ed.)i Handbook of the stratigraphy and paleontology in Southwest China. iScience Press, Beijing.

RUZHENTSEV, S.V. 2001. The Variscan belt of south Mongolia and Dzungaria, 61-94. iIni DERGUNOV, A.B. (ed.) iTectonics, magmatism, and metallogeny of Mongoliai. Routledge, London.

RUZHENTSEV, V.E. 1957. Filogeneticheskaya sistema paleozoyskikh ammonoidey. iByulleten’ Moskovskogo obshchestva, Otdel geologicheskiy 31(2)i, 49-64.

RYTINA, M., BECKER, R.T., ABOUSSALAM, Z.S., HARTENFELS, S., HELLING, S., STICHLING, S. & WARD, D. 2013. The allochthonous Silurian-Devonian in olisthostromes at “The Southern Variscan Front” (Tinerhir region, SE Morocco) - preliminary data, 11-21. iIni BECKER, R.T., EL HASSANI, A. & TAHIRI, A. (eds) iInternational Field Symposium “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana”, Field Guidebook, Document de l’Institut Scientifique 27i.

RZHONSNITSKAYA, M.A., TIMOFEEVA, O.B. & GAGIEV, M.H. 1990. Konodonty srednego devona Salaira, 46-57. iIni KHALYMBADZHA, V.G. (ed.) iKonodonty eifel’skogo yarusa SSSR. iIzdatel’stvo Kazanskogo universiteta, Kazan.

SANZ-LÓPEZ, J. 2002. Devonian and Lower Carboniferous rocks from the Cadi nappe (eastern Pyrenees). iCuadernos del Museo Geominero 1i, 419-438.

SAVAGE, N.M. 1977. Lower Devonian conodonts from the Gazelle Formation, Klamath Mountains, northern California. iJournal of Paleontology 51(1)i, 57-62.

SAVAGE, N.M., BLODGETT, R.B. & JAEGER, H. 1985. Conodonts and associated graptolites from the late Early Devonian of east-central Alaska and western Yukon Territory. iCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences 22(12)i, 1880-1883.View article

SAYDAM-DEMIRAY, D.G. & CAPKINOGLU, S. 2012. Conodont fauna and biostratigraphy of the Early-Middle Devonian units in Beykoz, Sile and Kurtdogmus areas, Istanbul, Turkey. iBulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, Foreign Edition 145i, 1-21.

SCHÖNLAUB, H.P. 1985. Devonian conodonts from section Oberbuchach II in the Carnic Alps (Austria). iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 75i, 353-374.

SCHULZE, R. 1968. Die Conodonten aus dem Palaeozoikum der mittleren Karawanken (Seeberggebiet). iNeues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 130i, 133-245.

SENGLAUB, M. & EBERT, J.R. 2002. The Carlisle Center Formation A new look, 8-9. iIni iSUNY College at Oneonta, Student Research Dayi, www.oneonta.comDevonian1-lower-devonian.

SLAVÍK, L. 2001. Lower Devonian conodonts from the Karlík Valley and Na Branzovech sections in the Barrandian area, Czech Republic, and their significance for Pragian conodont zonation. iActa Geologica Polonica 51(3)i, 253-271.

SLAVÍK, L. 2004a. The Pragian-Emsian conodont successions of the Barrandian area search of an alternative to the GSSP polygnathid-based correlation concept. iGeobios 37i, 454-470.View article

SLAVÍK, L. 2004b. A new conodont zonation of the Pragian Stage (Lower Devonian) in the stratotype area (Barrandian, central Bohemia). iNewsletters on Stratigraphy 40(1-2)i, 39-71.View article

SLAVÍK, L. & HLADIL, J. 2004. LochkovianPragian GSSP revisited evidence about conodont taxa and their stratigraphic distribution. iNewsletters on Stratigraphy 40(3)i, 137-153.View article

SLAVÍK, L., VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I., HLADIL, J. & CARLS, P. 2007. Early Pragian conodont-based correlations between the Barrandian area and the Spanish Central Pyrenees. iGeological Journal 42i, 499-512.View article

SLOAN, T.R., TALENT, J.A., MAWSON, R., SIMPSON, A.J., BROCK, G.A., ENGELBRETSEN, M.J., JELL, J.S., AUNG, A.K., PFAFFENRITTER, C., TROTTER, J. & WITHNALL, I.W. 1995. Conodont data from Silurian-Middle Devonian carbonate fans, debris flows, allochthonous blocks and adjacent autochthonous platform margins Broken River and Camel Creek areas, north Queensland, Australia. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 182i, 1-77.

SOMMA, R., NAVAS-PAREJO, P., MARTÍN-ALGARRA, A., RODRÍGUEZ-CANERO, R., PERRONE, V. & MARTÍNEZ-PÉREZ, C. 2013. Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Longi-Taormina Unit (Peloritanian Mountains, southern Italy). iStratigraphy 10(3)i, 127-152.

SNIGIREVA, M.P. 1975. Novye konodonty iz srednedevonskikh otlozheniy Severnogo Urala. iPaleontologicheskii zhurnal 1975(4)i,i i24-31.

SNIGIREVA, M.P. & NASEDKINA, V.A. 1995. Conodonts from Early and Middle Devonian type sections on the eastern slope of the Urals. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 182i, 447-450.

SOBOLEV, N.N., KARATAJUTE-TALIMAA, V.N. & VALIUKEVICIUS, Y.Y. 1988. Conodonts and vertebrates from the Zlobin Horizon and the iFavosites regularissimusi Zone (Lower Devonian) of Taimyr, Siberia, USSR. iCanadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 14(3)i,i i535-539.

SORENTINO, L. 1989. Conodont assemblages spanning the Lochkovian-Pragian (Early Devonian) Boundary at Eurimbla, Central New South Wales. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 117i, 81-115.

STAUFFER, C.R. 1940. Conodonts from the Devonian and associated clays of Minnesota. iJournal of Paleontology 14i, 417-435.

STEINMANN, G. & DÖDERLEIN, L. 1890. iElemente der Paläontologiei. 848 pp. Engelmann, Leipzig.

STICHLING, S. 2013. iBiostrom-Abfolgen am Nordrand des Maider (S-Marokko) Mikrofazies, Paläoökologie und Stratigraphiei. 87 pp. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster.

SUTTNER, T.J. 2007. Conodont stratigraphy, facies-related distribution patterns and stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) of the uppermost Silurian to Lower Devonian Seewarte Section (Carnic Alps, Carinthia, Austria). iAbhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 59i, 1-111.

TALENT, J.A., GAETANI, M., MAWSON, R., MOLLOY, P.D., CONAGHAN, P.J., LEHNERT, O. & TROTTER, J.A. 1999. Early Ordovician and Devonian conodonts from the western Karakorum and Hindu Kush, northernmost Pakistan. iRivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 105(2)i, 201-230.

TALENT, J.A. & MAWSON, R. 1994. Conodonts in relation to age and environmental framework of the Burdekin Basin (Mid-Devonian), North-Eastern Australia. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 168i, 61-81.

TALENT, J.A. & MAWSON, R. 1999. North-eastern Molong Arch and adjacent Hill End Trough (Eastern Australia) mid-Paleozoic conodont data and implications. iAbhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 54i, 49-105.

TELFORD, P.G. 1975. Lower and Middle Devonian conodonts from the Broken River Embayment, North Queensland, Australia. iSpecial Papers in Palaeontology 15i, 1-96.

TRUYOLS-MASSONI, M. 1998. La Edad de las Capas con iMimosphinctesi en el Devónico de la Cordillera Cantabrica (NW de Espana). iTrabajos de Geologia 21i, 377-384.

UYENO, T.T. & KLAPPER, G. 1980. Summary of conodont biostratigraphy of the Blue Fiord and Bird Fiord formations (Lower-Middle Devonian) at the type and adjacent areas, southwestern Ellesmere Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. iGeological Survey of Canada, Papers 80(1c)i, 81-93.

VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. 1994. Conodontos del Lochkoviense y Praguiense (Devónico Inferior) del Pirineo Central espanol. iMemorias del Museo Paleontológico de la Universidad de Zaragoza 5i, 1-178.

VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. 1997. Can iPolygnathus pireneaei be the index of a standard conodont Zone iNewsletters on Stratigraphy 35(3)i, 173-179.

VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. 2002. Lochkovian and Pragian Conodonts from Segre 1 (Central Spanish Pyrenees). iCuadernos del Museo Geominero 1i, 403-417.

VAN ADRICHEM BOOGAERT, H.A. 1967. Devonian and Lower Carboniferous conodonts of the Cantabrian Mountains (Spain) and their stratigraphic application. iLeidse Geologische Mededelingen 39i, 129-192.

VODRÁŽKOVÁ, S., KLAPPER, G. & MURPHY, M.A. 2011. Early Middle Devonian conodont faunas (Eifelian, icostatus-kockelianusi zones) from the Roberts Mountains and adjacent areas in central Nevada. iBulletin of Geosciences 86(4)i, 737-764.View article

WALLISER, O.H. 1972. Conodont apparatuses in the Silurian. iGeologica et Palaeontologica SB1i, 75-80.

WALLISER, O.H. 1991. Section Jebel Mech Irdane (Mapsheet Erfoud, NH-30-XX-2), 25-47. iIni WALLISER, O.H. (ed.) iMorocco 1991, Field Meeting of the Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, International Union of Gelological Sciences, Nov. 28 - Dec. 5, 1991, Guide-Booki. Göttingen.

WALLISER, O.H. 1997. Comments on the revision of the Emsian stage. iSDS Newsletter 14i, 10-11.

WANG, C.-Y. & ZIEGLER, W. 1983. Devonian conodont biostratigraphy of Guangxi, South China, and the correlation with Europe. iGeologica et Palaeontologica 17i, 75-107.

WEBSTER, G., BECKER, R.T. & MAPLES, C.G. 2005. Biostratigraphy, paleoecology, and taxonomy of Devonian (Emsian and Famennian) crinoids from southeastern Morocco. iJournal of Paleontology 79(6)i, 1052-1071.View article

WEDDIGE, K. 1977. Die Conodonten der Eifel-Stufe im Typusgebiet und in benachbarten Faziesgebieten. iSenckenbergiana lethaea 58(4-5)i, 271-419.

WEDDIGE, K. 2003. Nomenclatorical note. iRevista Espanola de Micropalentología 35(3)i, 383.

WEDDIGE, K. & REQUADT, H. 1985. Conodonten des Ober-Emsium aus dem Gebiet der Unteren Lahn (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). iSenckenbergiana lethaea 66(3-5)i, 347-381.

WEDDIGE, K. & ZIEGLER, W. 1977. Correlation of LowerMiddle Devonian Boundary Beds. iNewsletters on Stratigraphy 6(2)i, 67-84.

WITTEKINDT, H. 1966. Zur Conodontenchronologie des Mitteldevons. iFortschritte in der Geologie von Rheinland und Westfalen 9i, 621-646.

XIONG, J. 1980. Conodonts, 82-100, 150-154. iIni XIAN, S. iet ali. iNandan typical stratigraphy and palaeontology of Devonian, in South Chinai. Guizhou Peoples Press, Guiyang. [in Chinese]

YOLKIN, E.A., BAKHAREV, N.K., IZOKH, N.G., GRATSIANOVA, R.T., KIPRIYANOVA, T.P. & OBUT, O.T. 2005. iDevonian sequences of Salair, Rudny & Gorny Altai. International Conference “Devonian Terrestrial and Marine Environments From Continent to Shelf” (IGCP 499 Project SDS joint field meeting), Field Excursion Guidebooki. 79 pp. Publishing House of SB RAS “Geo” Branch, Novosibirsk.

YOLKIN, E.A. & IZOKH, N.G. 1988. Zonalnye vidy konodontov v tipovykh vykhodakh telengitskogo nadgorizonta (devon; Salair), 3-17. iIni YOLKIN, E.A. & KANYGIN, A. (eds) iFauna i stratigrafiya paleozoya Srednei Sibiri i Uralai. Nauka, Novosibirsk.

YOLKIN, E.A., IZOKH, N.G., WEDDIGE, K., ERINA, V., VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. & APEKINA, L.S. 2011. Eognathodid and polygnathid lineages from the Kitab State Geological Reserve sections (Zeravshan-Gissar mountainous area, Uzbekistan) as the bases for improvements of the Pragian-Emsian standard conodont zonation. iNews on Paleontology and Stratigraphy, Supplement to Geologiya i Geofizika 52(15)i, 37-47.

YOLKIN, E.A., KIM, A.I. & TALENT, J.A. (eds) 2008. iDevonian sequences of the Kitab Reserve area. Field Excursion Guidebook, International Conference “Global Alignments of Lower Devonian Carbonate and Clastic Sequences” (SDSIGCP 499 Project joint field meeting), Kitab State Geological Reserve, Uzbekistan, August 25 - September 3, 2008i. 99 pp. Publishing House of SB RAS “Geo” Branch, Novosibirsk.

YOLKIN, E.A., KIM, A.I., WEDDIGE, K., TALENT, J.A. & HOUSE, M.R. 1998. Definition of the PragianEmsian Stage Boundary. iEpisodes 20i, 235-240.

YOLKIN, E.A., WEDDIGE, K., IZOKH, N.G. & ERINA, M.V. 1994. New Emsian conodont zonation (Lower Devonian). iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 168i, 139-157.

ZIEGLER, W. 1956. Unterdevonische Conodonten, insbesondere aus dem Schönauer und dem iZorgensisi-Kalk. iNotizblätter des hessischen Landesamtes für Bodenforschung 84i, 93-106.

ZIEGLER, W. 1971. Conodont stratigraphy of the European Devonian, 227-284. iIni SWEET, W.C. & BERGSTRÖM, S.M. (eds) iSymposium on conodont biostratigraphyi. iGeological Society of America, Memoirs 127i.

ZIEGLER, W. (ed.) 1975. iCatalogue of conodontsi. iVol. 2i. 404 pp. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart.

ZIEGLER, W. & LINDSTRÖM, M. 1971. Über iPanderodusi Ethington, 1959, und iNeopanderodusi n. g. (Conodonta) aus dem Devon. iNeues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 1971(10)i, 628-640.

ZIEGLER, W. & WANG, C.-Y. 1985. Sihongshan Section, a regional reference section for the Lower-Middle and Middle-Upper Devonian Boundaries in East Asia. iCourier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 75i, 17-38.