Stable platform and dynamic oceanic palaeogeography

 

Authors: Boucot AJ

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 90, issue 1; pages: 133 - 143; Received 17 July 2014; Accepted in revised form 15 November 2014; Online 8 January 2015

Keywords: Permian oceanic palaeogeography, post-Permian movements from mid-Panthalassa sources, bedded oceanic chert records,

full text (PDF, 1.38 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

Tropical-subtropical fossils (certain fusuline foraminifera, certain radiolaria, certain bivalves, certain corals) of Permian and Jurassic age now occur in Northern Pacific Asian and North American marginal areas. Their presence indicates original locations in tropical-subtropical, warm water “central” Panthalassa from which they were transported and accreted to cooler water areas. This information, palaeontological and lithological is the basis for the conclusions made here.

References

Aberhan, M. 1998. Paleobiogeographic patterns of pectinoid bivalves and the Early Jurassic tectonic evolution of western Canadian terranes. Palaios 13, 129-148.View article

Aberhan, M. 1999. Terrane history of the Canadian Cordillera: estimating amounts of latitudinal displacement and rotation of Wrangellia and Stikinia. Geological Magazine 136, 481-492.View article

Aberhan, M. & Muster, H. 1997. Palaeobiology of Early Jurassic bakevellid bivalves from western Canada. Palaeontology 40, 799-818.

Adachi, M., Yamamogto, K. & Sugisaki, R. 1986. Depositional environment of Permian chert from North Island, New Zealand. Sediments Down-Under, 12th International Sedimentological Congress (Canberra), p. 2.

Aita, Y. & Grant-Mackie, J.A. 1992. Late Jurassic Radiolaria from the Kowhai Point Siltstone, Murihiku Terrane, North Island, New Zealand. 373-382. In Ishizaki, K. & Saito, T. (eds) Centenary of Japanese Micropaleontology. Terra Scientific Publishing Company, Tokyo.

Aita, Y. & Spörli, K.B. 2007. Geological framework for the pelagic Permian/Triassic oceanic sequence of Arrow Rocks, Waipapa terrane, Northland, New Zealand. The Oceanic Permian/Triassic boundary sequence at Arrow Rocks (Oruatemanu), Northland, New Zealand. GNS Science Monograph 24, 1-16.

Amiscaray, E.A. 1987. Permian fusulinids and other microfossils from northwestern Palawan. Report No. 2, IGCP Project 224, Pre-Jurassic Evolution of eastern Asia, 85-104.

Baumgartner, P.O. 1987. Age and genesis of Tethyan Jurassic radiolarites. Eclogae geologicae Helvetiae 80, 831-879.

Belasky, P. & Stevens, C.H. 2006. Permian faunas of westernmost North America: Paleogeographic constraints on the Permian positions of Cordilleran terranes. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 46, 71-80.

Blodgett, R.B. 2009. Report on day trip (5/16/07) to visit Mesozoic rocks exposed in Port Graham and near Seldovia. Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Preliminary Interpretive Report 2009(8), 109-116.

Blodgett, R.B., Boucot, A.J., Rohr, D.M. & Pedder, A.E.H. 2010. The Alexander Terrane - a displaced fragment of northeast Russia - Evidence from Silurian-Middle Devonian megafossils and stratigraphy. Memoir of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists 39, 325-341.

Blodgett, R.B. & Isozaki, Y. 2013. The Alaticonchidae, giant Permian Tethyan bivalve family, and the first occurrence in Alaska (McHugh Complex of the Chugach Terrane) and the Western Hemisphere. Alaska Geology 43(8), 5-8.

Bostwick, D.A. & Nestell, M.K. 1967. Permian Tethyan fusulinid faunas of the northwestern United States, 93-102. In Ager, C.G. & Adams, D.V. (eds) Aspects of Tethyan Biogeography. The Systematics Association, Publication No. 7, London.

Boucot, A.J., Chen, X. & Scotese, C.R. 2013. Phanerozoic paleoclimate: An atlas of lithologic indicators of climate. 348 pp. SEPM, Tulsa. View article

Carter, E.S., Cameron, B.E.B. & Smith, B.L. 1988. Lower and Middle Jurassic radiolarian biostratigraphy and systematic paleontology, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 386, 1-109.View article

Chedija, I.O. 1981. On some criteria of Lepidolina species (family Neoschwagerinidae). Voprosy mikropaleontologii 24, 60-75.

Cheng, Y.-N. 1989. Upper Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic radiolarian assemblages from the Busuanga Islands, North Palawan Block, Philippines. Bulletin of National Museum of Natural Science 1, 129-175.

Cheng, Y.-N. 1992. Upper Jurassic Pantanelliidae (Pantanelliinae Pessagno, 1977 and Vallupinae Pessagno & Macleod, 1987) from the Busuanga Islands, Philippines. Bulletin of National Museum of Natural Sciences 3, 1-49.

Cordey, F. 1986. Radiolarian ages from the Cache Creek and Bridge River complexes and from chert pebbles in Cretaceous conglomerates, southwestern British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research, Part A, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 86-1A, 595-602.View article

Cordey, F. 1998. Radiolaires des complexes d’accrétion de la Cordillere Canadienne (Columbie-Britannique). Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 509, 1-209.

Cordey, F., Gordey, S.P. & Orchard, M.J. 1991. New biostratigraphic data from the northern Cache Creek terrane, Teslin Map area, southern Yukon. Current Research, Part E, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 91-1E, 67-76.

Cordey, F., Mortimer, N., DeWever, P. & Monger, J.W.H. 1987. Significance of Jurassic radiolarians from the Cache Creek terrane, British Columbia. Geology 15, 1151-1154.View article

Cordey, F. & Schiarizza, P. 1993. Long-lived Panthalassic remnant: the Bridge River accretionary complex, Canadian Cordillera. Geology 21, 263-266.View article

Danborenea, S.E. & Mancenido, M.O. 1979. On the palaeogeographic distribution of the pectinid genus Weyla (Bivalvia, Lower Jurasssic). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 27, 85-102.View article

Davydov, V.I., Belasky, P. & Karavayeva, N.I. 1996. Permian fusulinids from the Koryak terrane, Northeastern Russia, and their paleobiogeographic affinity. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 26, 213-243.View article

Douglass, R.C. 1967. Permian Tethyan fusulinids from California. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 593-A, A1-A13.

Duffield, W.A. & Sharp, R.V. 1975. Geology of the Sierra Foothills Melange and adjacent areas, Amador County, California. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 827, 1-30.

Faure, M. & Ishida, K. 1990. The Mid-Upper Jurassic olistostrome of the west Philippines: a distinctive key-marker for the North Palawan block. Journal of Southeast Asian Sciences 4, 61-67.View article

Gota, H., Maruoka, K. & Ishi, K. 1986. Lepidolina Columbiana (Permian fusulinid) from British Columbia, Canada. Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, N.S. 143, 422-434.

Gursky, H.-J. & Schmidt-Effing, R. 1983. Sedimentology of radiolarites within the Nicoya Ophiolite Complex, Costa Rica, Central America, 127-142. In Iijima, A., Hein, J.R. & Siever, R. (eds) Developments in Sedimentology 36. Siliceous deposits in the Pacific Region. Elsevier.View article

Han, J.-X. 1985. Early Permian fusulinids from the Nadanhada Range. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 24, 680-687.

Hori, R. 1990. Lower Jurassic radiolarian zones of SW Japan. Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, N.S. 159, 562-586.

Imlay, R.W. 1952. Correlation of the Jurassic Formations of North America, exclusive of Canada. Geological Society of America Bulletin 63, 963-992.View article

Isozaki, Y. 2006. Guadalupian (Middle Permian) giant bivalve Alatoconchidae from the mid-Panthalassan paleo-atoll complex in Kyushu, Japan: a unique community associated with Tethyan fusulines and corals. Proceedings of the Japanese Academy, Series B 82, 25-31.View article

Isozaki, Y. & Aljinović, D. 2009. End-Guadalupian extinction of the Permian gigantic bivalve Alatoconchidae: End of gigantism in tropical seas by cooling. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 284, 11-21.View article

Isozaki, Y., Amiscaray, E.A. & Rillon, A. 1988. Permian, Triassic and Jurassic bedded radiolarian cherts in North Palawan Block, Philippines: Evidence of late Mesozoic subduction-accretion. International Symposium on the Pre-Jurassic Evolution of Eastern Asia. Report No. 3 of the IGCP project 224, Pre-Jurassic evolution of eastern Asia, 99-115.

Isozaki, Y. & Matsuda, T. 1985. Early Jurassic radiolarians from bedded chert in Kamiaso, Mino Belt, Central Japan. Earth Science Journal of the Association for Geological Collaboration in Japan 39(6), 429-442.

Jones, D.L., Silberling, N.J., Csejtey, B., Jr., Nelson, W.H. & Blome, C.D. 1980. Age and structural significance of ophiolitic and adjoining rocks in the Upper Chulitna District, South-central Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1121-A, 1-21.

Kachanov, Y.I. 1984. A Permian coral (Waagenophyllidae) from the Koryak Highlands. Paleontological Journal 1, 95-98.

Kasuya, A., Isozaki, Y. & Igo, H. 2012. Constraining paleo-latitude of a biogeographic boundary in mid-Panthalassa: Fusuline province shift on the Late Guadalupian (Permian) migrating seamount. Gondwana Research 21, 611-623.View article

Kemkin, I.V. & Khanchuk, A.I. 1994. Jurassic accretionary prism in the southern Sikhote Alin. Geology of the Pacific Ocean 10(5), 831-846.

Kiessling, W. 1999. Late Jurassic radiolarians from the Antarctic Peninsula. Micropaleontology 45, Supplement 1, 1-96.View article

Kiessling, W. & Flügel, E. 2000. Late Paleozoic and Late Triassic limestones from North Palawan Block (Philippines): Microfacies and paleogeographical implications. Facies 43, 39-78.View article

Kiessling, W. & Scasso, R. 1996. Ecological perspectives on Late Jurassic radiolarian faunas from the Antarctic Peninsula, 317-326. In Riccardi, A.C. (ed.) Advances in Jurassic Research 1/2. Transtec, Zurich.

Kirschvink, J.L. & Isozaki, Y. 2007. Extending the sensitivity of paleomagnetic techniques: Magnetostratigraphy of weakly-magnetized, organic-rich black limestone from the Permian of Japan. Abstracts, American Geophysical Union Fall meeting (2007), GP 43B-1223, 1-2.

Kishida, Y. & Hisada, K. 1985. Late Triassic to Early Jurassic Radiolarian Assemblages from the Ueno-mura area, Kanto Mountains, Central Japan. Memoirs of the Osaka Kyoiku University, Ser. III, 34(2), 103-129.

Kobayashi, F. 1999. Tethyan uppermost Permian (Dzhulfian and Dorashamian) foraminiferal faunas and their paleogeographic and tectonic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 150, 279-307.View article

Kobayashi, F., Ross, C.A. & Ross, J.R.P. 2007. Age and generic assignment of Yabeina columbina (Guadalupian Fusulinacea) in southern British Columbia. Journal of Paleontology 81, 238-253.View article

Kojima, S. 1989. Mesozoic terrane accretion in Northeast China, Sikhote-Alin and Japan regions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 69, 213-232.View article

Kojima, S. & Kametaka, M. 2000. Jurassic accretionary complexes in East Asia. Memoirs of the Geological Society of Japan 55, 61-72.

Kojima, S., Kemkin, I.V., Kametaka, M. & Ando, A. 2000. A correlation of accretionary complexes of southern Sikhote-Alin of Russia and the Inner Zone of Southwest Japan. Geoscience Journal 4(3), 175-185.View article

Kojima, S. & Mizutani, S. 1987. Triassic and Jurassic Radiolaria from the Nadanhada Range, Northeast China. Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, N.S. 148, 256-275.

Kojima, S., Wakita, K., Okamura, Y., Natal’in, B.A., Zyabrev, S.V., Zhang, Q.L. & Shao, J.A. 1991. Mesozoic radiolarians from the Khabarovsk complex, eastern USSR: their significance in relation to the Mino terrane, central Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 97(7), 549-551.View article

Leong, K.M. 1975. New ages from radiolarian cherts of the Chert-Spilite Formation, Sabah. Warta Geologi 1, 96-95.

Leven, E.J. & Grant-Mackie, J.A. 1997. Permian fusulinid Foraminifera from Wherowhero Point, Orua Bay, Northland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 40, 473-486.View article

Matsuda, I. & Isozaki, Y. 1991. Well documentd travel history of Mesozoic pelagic chert in Japan from remote ocean to subduction zone. Tectonics 10, 475-499.View article

McCarthy, A.J., Jasin, B. & Haile, N.S. 2001. Middle Jurassic radiolarian chert, Indarung, Padang District, and its implications for the tectonic evolution of western Sumatra, Indonesia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 19, 31-44.View article

Mizutani, S. & Kido, S. 1983. Radiolarians in Middle Jurassic siliceous shale from Kamiaso, Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, N.S. 132, 253-262.

Mizutani, S. & Kojima, S. 1992. Mesozoic radiolarian biostratigraphy of Japan and collage tectonics along the eastern continental margin of Asia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 96, 3-22.View article

Mizutani, S., Kojima, S., Shao, J.A. & Zhang, Q.L. 1986. Mesozoic radiolarians from the Nadanhada Area, Northeast China. Proceedings of the Japan Academy of Science, Series B, 327-340.View article

Mizutani, S., Shao, J. & Zhang, Q. 1990. The Nadanhada Terrane in relation to Mesozoic tectonics on continental margins of East Asia. Acta Geologica Sinica 3, 15-29.

Montgomery, H. & Kerr, A.C. 2009. Rethinking the origins of the red chert of La Désirade, French West Indies. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 328, 457-467.View article

Montgomery, H. & Pessagno, E.A., Jr. 1994. Paleogeography of Jurassic fragments in the Caribbean. Tectonics 13, 725-732.View article

Montgomery, H., Pessagno, E.A., Jr. & Munoz, I.M. 1992. Jurassic (Tithonian) Radiolaria from La Désirade (Lesser Antilles): Preliminary paleontological and tectonic implications. Tectonics 11, 1426-1437.View article

Muller, S.W. & Ferguson, H.G. 1939. Mesozoic stratigraphy of the Hawthorne and Tonopah Quadrangles, Nevada. Geological Society of America Bulletin 50, 1573-1624.View article

Nestell, M.K. & Stevens, C.H. 2013. Mixed Tethyan and McCloud Belt rugose corals and fusulinids in an Upper Triassic conglomerate, Central Oregon. Journal of Paleontology 87, 909-921.View article

Orchard, M.J., Cordey, F., Rui, L., Bamber, L.W., Mamet, B., Struik, L.C., Sano, H. & Taylor, H.J. 2001. Biostratigraphic and biogeographic constraints on the Carboniferous to Jurassic Cache Creek terrane in central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38, 551-578.View article

Orchard, M.J. & Danner, W.R. 1991. Paleontology of the Cache Creek Terrane, 169-186. In Smith, P.L. (ed.) A field guide to the paleontology of southwestern Canada. First Canadian Paleontology Conference. University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Ota, A. & Isozaki, Y. 2006. Fusuline biotic turnover across the Guadalupian-Lopingian (Middle-Upper Permian) boundary in mid-oceanic carbonate buildups: Biostratigraphy of accreted limestone in Japan. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 26, 353-368.View article

Pessagno, E.A. & Blome, C.D. 1986. Faunal affinities and tectogenesis of Mesozoic rocks in the Blue Mountains Province of eastern Oregon and western Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1435, 65-93.

Pessagno, E.A., Jr., Cantú-Chapa, A., Hull, D.M., Kelldorf, M., Longoria, J.F., Martin, C., Meng, X., Montgomery, H., Fucugauchi, J.U. & Ogg, J.G. 1999. Stratigraphic evidence for Northwest to Southeast tectonic transport of Jurassic Terranes in central Mexico and the Caribbean (Western Cuba), 123-150. In Mann, P. (ed.) Caribbean Basins: Sedimentary Basins of the World 4. Elsevier.

Pessagno, E.A., Jr., Finch, W. & Abbott, P.L. 1979. Upper Triassic Radiolaria from The San Hipólito Formation, Baja California. Micropaleontology 25, 160-197.View article

Pessagno, E.A., Jr. & Hull, D.M. 2002. Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Radiolaria from the Sula Islands (East Indies): Their taxonomic, biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic, and paleobiogeographic significance. Micropaleontology 48(3), 229-256.

Pessagno, E.A., Jr., Longoria, J.F., MacLeod, N. & Six, W.M. 1987. Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian-Upper Tithonian) Pantanellidae from the Taman Formation, East-Central Mexico: Tectonostratigraphic, Chronostratigraphic, and Phylogenetic implications. Cushman Foundation Special Publication 23, 1-51.

Pessagno, E.A., Jr. & Martin, C. 2003. Tectonostratigraphic evidence for the origin of the Gulf of Mexico. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 78, 5-8.

Pessagno, E.A., Jr. & Whalen, P.A. 1982. Lower and Middle Jurassic Radiolaria (multicyrtid Nassellariina) from California, east-central Oregon and the Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C. Micropaleontology 28, 111-169.View article

Pessagno, E.A., Jr., Whalen, P.A. & Yeh, K.-Y. 1986. Jurassic Nasselleriina (Radiolaria) from North American Geologic Terranes. Bulletins of American Paleontology 91(326), 1-75.

Ross, C.A. 1985. Permian Fusulinaceans, 167-185. In Scholle, P.A., Peryt, T.M. & Ulmer-Scholle, D.S. (eds) The Permian of Northern Pangea, volume 1. Springer-Verlag.

Sanderson, G.A. 1966. Presence of Carboniferous in west Sarawak. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 50, 578-580.

Scholz, A., Aberhan, M. & González-León, C.M. 2008. Early Jurassic bivalves of the Antimonio terrane (Sonora, NW Mexico): Taxonomy, biogeography, and paleogeographic implications. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 442, 269-312.View article

Sey, I.I. & Kalachova, E.D. 1983. Ob invazhyakh teticheskikh ammonitov v Borealnie Pozdneoorskie Basseini Vostoka SSSR. Mezozoi Sovetskoi Arktiki, 61-72. Nauka, Novosibirsk.

Shi, G.R. 2006. The marine Permian of East and Northeast Asia: an overview of biostratigraphy, palaeobiogeography and palaeogeographical implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 26, 175-206.View article

Sosnina, M.N. 1960. Mikrofaunisticheskie zony karbona i permi Sikhote-Alinya. Mezhdunarodnyi geologicheskii kongress, XXI sessiya. Doklady sovetskikh geologov, Problema 6, 65-68.

Sokolov, S.D. 1990. Exotic complexes (terranes) in the Koryak Highlands. International Geology Review 32, 117-127.View article

Spörli, K.B. & Aita, Y. 1988. Field trip guide to Waipapa basement rocks, Kawakawa Bay, Auckland. Geological Society of New Zealand Miscellaneous Publication 39, 1-27.

Spörli, K.B., Aita, Y. & Gibson, G.W. 1989. Juxtaposition of Tethyan and non-Tethyan Mesozoic radiolarian faunas in melanges, Waipapa terrane, North Island, New Zealand. Geology 17, 753-756.View article

Spörli, K.B., Aita, Y., Hori, R.S. & Takemura, A. 2007b. Results of multidisciplinary studies of the Permian/Triassic ocean floor sequence (Waipapa Terrane), at Arrow Rocks, Northland, New Zealand. GNS Science Monograph 24, 219-229.

Spörli, K.B. & Gregory, M.R. 1980. Significance of Tethyan fusulinid limestones of New Zealand. First International Gondwana Symposium, Wellington, New Zealand, 223-229.

Spörli, K.B., Takemura, A. & Hori, R.S. (eds) 2007a. The oceanic Permian/Triassic boundary sequence at Arrow Rocks (Oruatemanu), Northland, New Zealand. GNS Science Monograph 24, 1-229.

Stevens, C.H. 1977. Permian depositional provinces and tectonics, Western United States, 113-135. In Stewart, J.H., Stevens, C.H. & Fritsche, A.E. (eds) Paleozoic Paleogeography of the Western United States, Pacific Coast Paleogeographic Symposium 1. Pacific Section of the S.E.P.M., Los Angeles.

Stevens, C.H., Davydov, V.I. & Bradley, D. 1997. Permian Tethyan fusulinina from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Journal of Paleontology 71, 985-999.View article

Suzuki, N., Kojima, J., Kano, H., Yamakita, S, Misaki, A., Ehirio, M., Otoh, S., Kurihara, T. & Aoyama, M. 2005. Permian radiolarian fauna from the chert in the Khabarovsk Complex, Far East Russia, and the age of each lithologic unit in the Khabarovsk Complex. Journal of Paleontology 79, 687-701.View article

Tan, D.N.K. 1978. Lower Cretaceous age for the chert in the Lupar Valley, West Sarawak. Warta Geologi 4, 173-176.

Tikhomirova, L.B. 1988. Radiolarians of the Far East. Newsletter Stratigraphy 19, 67-77.View article

Tilman, S.M., Bialobzheskii, A.D. & Chekhov, A.D. 1982. Tektonika i istoriya razvitiya Koryakskoi geosinklinalnoi sistemy, 5-30. In Pushcharovskii, Y.M. & Tilman, S.M. (ed.) Ocherki tektoniki Koriakskogo nagoria. Nauka, Moskva.

Tumanda, F.P. 1991. Permian radiolaria from Busuanga Island, Palawan, Philippines. Journal of the Geological Society of the Philippines 49(3), 119-193.

Udchachon, M., Burrett, C., Thassanapak, H., Chonglakmani, C., Campbell, H. & Feng, Q. 2014. Depositional setting and paleoenvironment of the alatoconchid-bearing Middle Permian carbonate ramp sequence in the Indochina Terrane. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 87, 37-55.View article

Ujiié, H. & Oba, T. 1991. Geology and Permo-Jurassic Radiolaria of the Iheya Zone, innermost belt of the Okinawa Islands region, middle Ryukyu Island Arc, Japan. Bulletin of the College of Science, University of the Ryukus 52, 53-89.

Vishnevskaya, V.S. 1992. Significance of Mesozoic radiolarians for tectonostratigraphy in Pacific rim terranes of the former USSR. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 96, 23-39.View article

Vishnevskaya, V.S. 1994. The Permian radiolarians of Northeastern Russia. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 2(4), 359-364.

Vishnevskaya, V.S. & Filatova, N. 1994. Mesozoic terranes of the northwest Pacific continental margin (Russia): Radiolarian ages and sedimentary environments. The Island Arc 3, 199-220.View article

Vishnevskaya, V.S., Filatova, N.I. & Dvoryankin, A.I. 1991. Novye dannye o Oorskikh otlozheniniyakh Gori Semiglavoi (Koryakskoe Nagore). Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR, Seriya geologicheskaya 4, 21-30.

Wakita, K. 2000. Cretaceous accretionary-collision complexes in central Indonesia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 18, 739-749.View article

Wakita, K., Kojima, S. & Tsukada, K. 2001. Middle Mesozoic accretionary complex of the Mino Terrane, and Paleozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Hida Marginal Belt. ISRGA Field Workshop (FW-C1), 165-235.

Wakita, K. & Metcalfe, I. 2005. Ocean plate stratigraphy in East and Southeast Asia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 24, 679-702.View article

Wakita, K., Miyazaki, K., Zulkarnain, I., Sopaheluwakan, J. & Sanyoto, P. 1998. Tectonic implications of new age data for the Meratus Complex of south Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Island Arc 7, 202-222.View article

Wakita, K., Munasri & Bambang, W. 1994. Cretaceous radiolarians from the Luk-Ulo Melange Complex in the Karangsambung area, central Java, Indonesia. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences 9, 29-41.View article

Wakita, K., Munasri, Sopaheluwakan, J., Zulkarnain, I. & Miyazaki, K. 1994. Early Cretaceous tectonic events implied in the time-lag between the age of radiolarian chert and its metamorphic basement in the Bantimala area, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Island Arc 3, 90-102.View article

Whalen, P. & Carter, E.S. 2002. Pliensbachian (Lower Jurassic) radiolarians from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Micropaleontology, Supplement 1, 87-151.

Whalen, P.A. & Pessagno, E.A., Jr. 1984. Lower Jurassic Radiolaria, San Hipolito Formation, Vizcaino Peninsula, Baja California Sur. Geology of the Baja California Peninsula, Pacific Section of the S.E.P.M. 39, 53-65.

Yancey, T.E. 1979. Permian positions of the Northern Hemisphere continents as determined from marine biotic provinces, 239-247. In Gray, J. & Boucot, A.J. (eds) Historical Biogeography, Plate Tectonics and the Changing Environment. Oregon State University Press.

Yang, Q. & Mizutani, S. 1991. Radiolaria from the Nadanhada Terrane, Northeast China. Journal of Earth Sciences, Nagoya University 38, 49-78.

Yao, A. 1982. Middle Triassic to Early Jurassic radiolarians from the Inuyama Area, Central Japan. Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University 23(4), 53-70.

Yao, A. 1983. Paleozoic and Mesozoic radiolarians from Southwest Japan, 361-376. In Ijima, A. et al. (eds) Siliceous deposits in the Pacific region. Elsevier.

Yao, A., Matsuda, T. & Isozaki, Y. 1980. Triassic and Jurassic radiolarians from the Inuyama Area, Central Japan. Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University 23(4), 135-154.

Yeh, K.-Y. & Yang, Q. 2006. Radiolarian assemblages from T-J boundary strata, Nadanhada Terrane, NE China. Acta Micropalaeontographica Sinica 23, 317-360.

Zamoras, L.R. & Matsuoka, A. 2000. Early Late Jurassic radiolarians from the clastic unit in Busuanga Island, North Palawan, Philippines. Science Reports of Niigata University, Series E (Geology) 15, 91-109.

Zamoras, L.R. & Matsuoka, A. 2001. Malampaya Sound Group: a Jurassic-early Cretaceous accretionary complex in Busuanga Island, North Palawan Block (Philippines). Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 107, 316-336.View article

Zhang, Q.-N. 1990. Triassic and Jurassic Radiolaria fauna in Nadanhada Range, Northeast China. Shenyang di Zhi kuang chan yan jiu suo suio kan (Bulletin of the Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences) 21, 157-191.

Zyabrev, S. & Matsuoka, A. 1999. Late Jurassic (Tithonian) radiolarians from a clastic unit of the Khabarovsk Complex (Russian Far East): Significance for subduction accretion timing and terrane correlation. The Island Arc 8, 30-37.View article