Viséan Lithostrotionidae (Rugosa) from Zonguldak and Bartın (NW Turkey)


Authors: Denayer J

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 89, issue 4; pages: 737 - 771; Received 27 December 2013; Accepted in revised form 21 January 2014; Online 9 September 2014

Keywords: Lower Carboniferous, Viséan, Pontides, Turkey, rugose corals, Lithostrotion, Siphonodendron, Nemistium,

full text (PDF, 5.55 MB)

Export to RIS



In Northwestern Turkey, the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) Yılanlı Formation is composed of variegated shallow- water limestone containing rugose corals, tabulate corals and brachiopods. Six sections were sampled in the Zonguldak and Bartın areas, from east to west, there are Süzek, Topluca, Gökgöl, Kokaksu, Ulutam and Kisla sections. Among the rugose corals, a rich and diversified assemblage of Lithostrotionidae has been collected. The latter contains the species: Nemistium cf. affine, Siphonodendron ondulosum, S. martini, S. irregulare, S. pauciradiale, S. asiaticum, S. rallii sp. nov., S. scaleberense, S. kleffense, S. aff. kleffense, Lithostrotion araneum, L. vorticale, L. sp. and L. potii sp. nov. During the Moliniacian it is proposed that subcerioid colonies of S. ondulosum gave rise to cerioid colonies of Lithostrotion potii sp. nov., the latter constituting the oldest species of the genus previously considered to be Livian to Warnantian in age. This discovery led to an emendation of the phyletic lineage of the Lithostrotionidae. The biostratigraphy based on rugose corals indicates a Moliniacian (early Viséan) and Warnantian (late Viséan) age of the deposits with the absence of the intervening Livian (middle Viséan).


Aretz, M. 2002. Rugose corals and associated microfossils from the Brigantian (Mississippian) of Castelsec (Montagne Noire, southern France). Geobios 35, 187-200.View article

Aretz, M. 2010. Rugose corals from the upper Viséan (Carboniferous) of the Jerada Massif (NE Morocco): taxonomy, biostratigraphy, facies and palaeobiogeography. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 84, 323-344.View article

Aretz, M. 2011. Corals form the Carboniferous of central Sahara (Algeria): the collection “Marie Legrand-Blain”. Geodiversitas 33, 581-624.View article

Aretz, M., Denayer, J. & Mottequin, B. 2013. Preliminary data on Viséan (Carboniferous) corals and brachiopods from the strata between the Djebel Begaa and the Gara el Itima (Eastern Tafilalt, Morocco), 87-94. In Becker, R.T., El Hassani, A. & Tahiri, A. (eds) International Field Symposium “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of Northern Gondwana”. Document de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat 27.

Aretz, M. & Herbig, H.-G. 2010. Corals from the Upper Viséan of the southern Azrou-Khenifra Basin (Carboniferous, central Moroccan Meseta), 294-305. In Kossovaya, O. & Somerville, I. (eds) Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Saint-Petersbourg, Russia. Palaeoworld 19.

Aretz, M. & Nudds, J. 2005. The coral fauna of the Holkerian/Asbian boundary stratotype section (Carboniferous) at Little Asby Scar (Cumbria, England) and implications for the boundary. Stratigraphy 2(2), 167-190.

Bamber, E.W. 1966. Type Lithostrotionid corals from the Mississippian of Western Canada. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Canada 135, 1-28.

Bykova, M.S. 1966. Carboniferous corals of Western Kazakhstan. 159 pp. Works of the Palaeontological Institute, Academy of Sciences of USSR, Moscow. [in Russian]

Charles, F. 1933. Contribution a l’étude des terrains paléozoiques de l’Anatolie du Nord-Ouest (Asie mineure). Mémoires in 4° de la Société géologique de Belgique 7, 54-152.

Conil, R., Poty, E., Simakov, K.V. & Streel, M. 1982. Foraminiferes, spores et coraux du Famennien supérieur et du Dinantien du massif de l’Omolon (Extreme-Orient soviétique). Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique 105, 145-160.

Cózar, P., Somerville, I.D., Aretz, M. & Herbig, H.-G. 2005. Biostratigraphic dating of the Bricklieve Limestone Formation (NW-Ireland) using foraminifers, calcareous algae and rugose corals. Irish Journal of Earth Sciences 23, 1-23.View article

Denayer, J. 2011. Dorlodotia and related genera (Rugosa) from the Viséan (Mississipian; Carboniferous) of Zonguldak and Bartin (North-Western Turkey). Palaeontology 54, 1435-1454.View article

Denayer, J. 2012. Corals of the upper Viséan microbial-sponge-bryozoan-coral bioherm and related strata of Kongul Yayla (Taurides, S Turkey), 317-328. In Denayer, J., Aretz, M. & Poty, E. (eds) Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Liege, Belgium, 2011. Geologica Belgica 15(4).

Denayer, J., Poty, E. & Aretz, M. 2011. Uppermost Devonian and Dinantian rugose corals from Southern Belgium and surrounding areas, 151-201. In Aretz, M. & Poty, E. (eds) 11th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Liege, 19-29 August, 2011, Field-Guides, Kölner Forum für Palaöntologie und Geologie 20.

Dîl, N. & Konyali, Y. 1978. Carboniferous of Zonguldak area, IUGS Subcommission on Carboniferous stratigraphy, Field Excursion on the Carboniferous of Turkey Guidebook. 25 pp. Ankara.

Dîl, N., Termier, G., Termier, H. & Vachard, D. 1976. Contribution a l’étude stratigraphique et paléontologique du Viséen supérieur et du Namurien inférieur du Bassin Houiller de Zonguldak (nord-ouest de la Turquie). Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique 99, 401-449.

Dobroljubova, T.A. 1958. Lower Carboniferous colonial tetracorals from the Russian Platform. Works of the Palaeontological Institute, Academy of Sciences of USSR 70, 1-226. [in Russian]

Dobroljubova, T.A., Kabakovitsh, N.V. & Sayutina, T.A. 1966. Lower Carboniferous corals of the Kuznetsk Basin. Trudy Academy of Sciences Ukraina USSR 111, 1-92. [in Russian]

Erentöz, C. 1966. Contribution a la stratigraphie de la Turquie. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey (MTA Bulletin) 66-1, 2-22.

Fan, Y. 1978. Rugose corals, 149-209. In Chengdu Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (ed.) The paleontological atlas of southwest China, Sichuan. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. [in Chinese]

Fan, Y., Yu, X., He, Y., Pan, Y., Li, X., Wang, F., Tang, D., Chen, S., Zhao, P. & Liu, J. 2003. The Late Palaeozoic rugose corals of Xizang (Tibet) and adjacent regions and their palaeobiogeography. 679 pp. Hunan Science and Technology Press, Beijing.

Fedorowski, J. 1971. Aulophyllidae (Tetracoralla) from the Upper Viséan of Sudetes and Holy Cross Mountains. Palaeontologica Polonica 15, 203-217.

Fedorowski, J. 2008. Early Carboniferous Chinese and Australian “Siphonodendron” (Anthozoa, Rugosa): ecological and geographical influence on taxonomy. Geologos 14(1), 3-17.

Fedorowski, J. & Bamber, E.W. 2007. Remarks on lithostrotionid phylogeny in western North America and W Europe, 251-273. In Hubmann, B. & Piller, W.E. (eds) Fossil Corals and Sponges, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Graz, 2003. Schrifenreihe der Erdwissenschaftlichen Kommissionen 17.

Fleming, J. 1828. A history of British animals. 565 pp. Bell & Bradfute Ed., Edinburgh.

Fomitchev, V.D. 1931. New data on Lower Carboniferous corals of the Kuznetsk Basin. Transactions of the Geological and Prospecting Service of USSR 49, 1-49. [in Russian]

Fontaine, H., Suteethorn, V. & Jongkanjanasoontorn, Y. 1991. Carbonifeorus corals of Thailand. Committee for coordination of joint prospecting for mineral resources in Asian offshore areas 22, 1-82.

Göncüoglu, M.C., Dirik, K. & Kozlu, H. 1997. Pre-alpine and alpine terranes in Turkey: explanatory notes to the terrane map of Turkey. Annales géologiques des Pays Helleniques 37, 515-536.

Görür, N. & Tüysüz, O. 2001. Cretaceous to Miocene palaeogeographic evolution of Turkey: implications for hydrocarbon potential. Journal of Petroleum Geology 24, 119-146.View article

Gorsky, I. 1938. Carboniferous corals from Novaya Zemlya, 1-221. In Nalivkin, D.V. (ed.) Paleontology of the Soviet Arctic, part II. Chief administration of the Northern Sea route Arctic Institute of the USSR. [in Russian]

Gorsky, I. 1978. Middle Carboniferous corals of the Western Slope of Urals. 222 pp. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. [in Russian]

Hance, L., Hou, H.-F. & Vachard, D. 2011. Upper Famennian to Viséan Foraminifers and some carbonate Microproblematica from South China. 359 pp. Geological Publishing House, Beijing.

Hance, L., Poty, E. & Devuyst, F.-X. 2001. Stratigraphie séquentielle du Dinantien type (Belgique) et corrélation avec le Nord de la France (Boulonnais, Avesnois). Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 172, 411-426.View article

Herbig, H.-G. 1986. Rugosa und Heterocorallia aus Obervisé-Geröllen der Marbella-Formation (Betische Kordilliere, Südspanien). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 60, 189-225.View article

Hill, D. 1934. The Lower Carboniferous corals of Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 45(12), 63-115.

Hill, D. 1938-1941. A monograph on the Carboniferous rugose corals of Scotland. Palaeontographical Society 1938-1941, 1-213.

Hill, D. 1981. Coelenterata; Supplement 1, Rugosa and Tabulata, 1-762. In Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Geological Society of America & University of Kansas, Boulder & Lawrence.

Hoşgörmez, H. 2007. Origin and secondary alteration of coalbed and adjacent rock gases in the Zonguldak Basin, western Black Sea, Turkey. Geochemical Journal 41, 201-211.View article

Howel, E.J. 1938. Rugose corals from the Mid-Avonian Limestones of West Glamorgan. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History 11(1), 1-22.View article

Ivanowski, A.B. 1967. Study on Lower Carboniferous rugose corals. 97 pp. Works of the Palaeontological Institute, Academy of Sciences of USSR, Moscow. [in Russian]

Javaux, E. 1994. Paleoecology of rugose corals in the Neffe Formation (Middle Viséan) of Belgium. Courier Forschunginstitut Senckenberg 172, 127-139.

Jull, R.K. 1965. Corallum increase in Lithostrotion. Palaeontology 8(2), 204-225.

Jull, R.K. 1974. The Rugose Corals Lithostrotion and Orionastraea from Lower Carboniferous (Viséan) beds in Queensland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 85, 57-76.

Kalvoda, J. 2002. Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous Foraminiferal Fauna: Zonations, evolutionary trends, paleobiogeography and tectonic implications. 213 pp. Masaryk University Press, Brno.

Kalvoda, J. 2003. Carboniferous foraminifera paleobiogeography in Turkey and its implications for plate tectonic reconstructions. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 109(2), 255-266.

Kato, M. 1971. J. Fleming’s species of British Lower Carboniferous corals. Transaction and Proceedings of the Paleontological Society of Japan 81, 1-10.

Khoa, N.D. 1977. Carboniferous Rugosa and Heterocorallia from boreholes in the Lublin region (Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 22, 301-404.

Lewis, H.P. 1935. The Lower Carboniferous corals of Nova Scotia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 16, 118-142.View article

Lin, B. & Rodriguez, S. 1993. Estudio de los corales rugosos del Carbonifero inferior de Mahai, Provincia de Qinghai, Noroeste de China. Boletín del Real Societad Espanola de Historia Natural (seccíon Geología) 88(1/4), 17-55.

Lin, W., Wang, X., Poty, E. & Aretz, M. 2012. Late Viséan to Early Serpukhovian rugose corals from the Yashui Section, Guizhou, South China, 329-339. In Denayer, J., Aretz, M. & Poty, E. (eds) Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Liege, Belgium. Geologica Belgica 15(4).

Mamet, B.L. 1973. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Lower Carboniferous Trakya and Heybeliada Formations, Istanbul region, Istanbul, 137-143. In Kaya, O. (ed.) Paleozoic of Istanbul. Ege Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Kitaplar Serisi 40.

McCoy, F. 1844. A synopsis of the characters of the Carboniferous limestone fossils of Ireland. 207 pp. University Press, Dublin.View article

McCoy, F. 1849. On some new genera of Palaeozoic Corals and Foraminifera. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, serie 2(3), 1-20, 119-136.

McCoy, F. 1851. Description of the British Palaeozoic fossils in the Geological Museum of the University of Cambridge. 502 pp. University Press, Cambridge.

Milne-Edwards, H. & Haime, J. 1850-1855. A monograph of the British fossil corals. 1-71 pp. (1850), 147-210 pp. (1852), 211-244 pp. (1853), 245-299 pp. (1855). Palaeontographic Society Monograph, London.

Milne-Edwards, H. & Haime, J. 1851. Monographie des Polypiérites fossiles des terrains paléozoiques, précédée d’un tableau général de la classification des Polypes. Archives du Musée d’Histoire naturelle de Paris 5, 1-502.

Minato, M. 1955. Japanese Carboniferous and Permian corals. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series IV: Geology and Mineralogy 9-2, 1-202.

Mitchell, M. 1989. Biostratigraphy of Viséan (Dinantian) rugose coral faunas of Britain. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 47, 233-247.View article

Moix, P., Beccaletto, L., Kozur, H.W., Hochard, C., Rosselet, F. & Stampfli, G.M. 2008. A new classification of the Turkish terranes and sutures and its implication for the paleotectonic history of the region. Tectonophysics 451, 7-39.View article

Nudds, J.R. 1979. Coloniality in the Lithostrotionidae (Rugosa). Biology and systematics of colonial organisms, 173-192. In Larwood, G. & Rosen, B.R. (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms. Academic Press, London.

Nudds, J.R. 1993. Siphonodendron and Dorlodotia: paedomorphic evolution in Carboniferous rugose corals? Courrier Forschunginstitut Seckenberg 164, 127-130.

Nudds, J.R. 1999. A new Carboniferous rugose coral genus from northern England. Palaeontology 42, 223-229.View article

Nudds, J.R. & Somerville, I.D. 1987. Two new species of Siphonodendron (Rugosa) from the Viséan of the British Isles. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 46, 293-300.View article

Ogar, V. 2008. New species of lithostrotionid (rugose coral) from the Lower Viséan of Tian-Shan. Ukrainian Geologist Magazine 2008(3), 92-97.

Ogar, V. 2010. New data on the Carboniferous corals of the Donets Basin, 284-293. In Kossovaya, O. & Somerville, I. (eds) Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera. Palaeoworld 19(4).

Okay, A.I. 2008. Geology of Turkey: a synopsis. Anschnitt 21, 19-42.

Okay, A.I., Satir, M. & Siebel, W. 2006. Pre-Alpide Palaeozoic and Mesozoic orogenic events in the Eastern Mediterranean region, 389-405. In Gee, D.G. & Stephenson, R.A. (eds) European Lithosphere Dynamics. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 32.

Okuyucu, C., Vachard, D. & Göncüoglu, M.C. 2013. Refinements in biostratigraphy of the foraminiferal zone MFZ11 (late early Viséan, Mississippian) in the Cebeciköy Limestone (Istanbul Terrane, NW Turkey) and palaeogeographic implications. Bulletin of Geosciences 88(3), 621-645.View article

Onoprienko, Y. 1976. Early Carboniferous colonial rugose corals from the North-East of USSR, 5-34. In Gramm, M.N. (ed.) Morphology and systematics of Soviet Far-East Fossil Invertebrates. Institute of Biology and Pedology Far-East Science Center, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Vladivostok.

d’Orbigny, A. 1850. Prodrôme de paléontologie stratigraphique universelle des animaux mollusques et rayonnés. 349 pp. Ed. Masson, Paris.

d’Orbigny, A. 1852. Cours élémentaire de paléontologie et de géologie stratigraphique. 382 pp. Ed. Masson, Paris.

Özgül, N. 2012. Stratigraphy and some structural features of the Istanbul Palaeozoic. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 21, 817-866.

Paeckelmann, W. 1938. Neue Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Geologie, Paläontologie und Petrographie der Umgegend von Konstantinopel. Abhandlungen Preussisches Geologisches Landesamtes 186, 202.

Parkinson, J. 1808. Organic remains of a former world. 286 pp. J. Robson, London.

Perret, M.-F. & Semenoff-Tian-Chansky, P. 1971. Coralliaires des calcaires carboniferes d’Ardengost (Hautes-Pyrénées). Bulletin de la Société d’histoire naturelle de Toulouse 107(3-4), 567-594.

Phillips, J. 1836. Illustration of the geology of Yorkshire, part II: the Mountain Limestome district. 253 pp. Ed. Murray, London.

Pickett, J. 1966. Lower Carboniferous coral faunas from the New England District of New South Wales. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of New South Wales, Palaeontology 15, 1-38.

Poty, E. 1975a. Contribution a l’étude des genres Lithostrotion et Siphonodendron du Viséen moyen belge. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique 98-1, 75-90.

Poty, E. 1975b. Un nouveau Tétracoralliaire du Viséen moyen de la Belgique: Corphalia mosae gen. et sp. nov. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique 98, 111-121.

Poty, E. 1981. Recherches sur les Tétracoralliaires et les Hétérocoralliaires du Viséen de la Belgique. Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 35-1, 1-161.

Poty, E. 1984. An evolutionary pattern for the W European Lithostrotionidae. Palaeontographica Americana 54, 465-469.

Poty, E. 1993. Heterochronic processes in some Lower Carboniferous rugose corals. Courier Forschunginstitut Senckenberg 164, 141-152.

Poty, E. 2002. Stratigraphy and paleobiogeography of Carboniferous rugose corals of Nova Scotia, 580-587. In Hills, L.V., Henderson, C.M. & Bamber, E.W. (eds) Carboniferous and Permian of the World. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists 19.

Poty, E. 2010. Morphological limitation to the diversification of the rugose and tabulate corals, 389-400. In Kossovaya, O. & Somerville, I.D. (eds) Proceedings of the 10th International Symosium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Saint-Petersburg, 2007. Palaeoworld 19.

Poty, E., Aretz, M. & Hance, L. 2013a. Belgian substages as a basis for an international division of the Tournaisian and Viséan. Geological Magazine 151(2), 229-243.View article

Poty, E., Aretz, M. & Xu, S. 2011. A comparison of Mississippian colonial rugose corals from Western Europe and South China, 135-136. In Aretz, M., Delculée, S., Denayer, J. & Poty, E. (eds) 11th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Liege, Belgium, Abstract volume. Kölner Forum für Geologie und Paläontologie 19.

Poty, E., Devuyst, F.-X. & Hance, L. 2006. Upper Devonian and Mississippian foraminiferal and rugose coral zonations of Belgium and northern France: a tool for Eurasian correlations. Geological Magazine 143, 829-857.View article

Poty, E. & Hance, L. 2006. Livian. Geologica Belgica 9(1-2), 133-138.

Poty, E., Hance, L., Lees, A. & Hennebert, M. 2001. Dinantian lithostratigraphic units (Belgium). Geologica Belgica 4, 69-94.

Poty, E. & Hannay, D. 1994. Stratigraphy of rugose corals in the Dinantian of the Boulonnais (France). Mémoires de l’Institut géologique de l’Université catholique de Louvain 35, 51-82.

Poty, E., Mottequin, B. & Denayer, J. 2013b. An attempt of time calibration of the Lower Tournaisian (Hastarian substage) based on orbitally forced sequences, 105-107. In El Hassani, M., Becker, R.T. & Tahiri, A. (eds) Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, International Field Symposium: “The Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northern Gondwana”, Ouarzazate, Morocco. Document de l’Institut de Rabat 26.

Ralli, G. 1895. Le Bassin Houiller d’Héraclée. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique 23, 151-267.

Rodríguez, S., Hernando, J.M. & Rodríguez-Curt, L. 2002. Estudio de los corales lithostrotiónidos del Viseense (Misisipiense) de la Unidad de la Sierra del Castillo (Córdoba, Espana). Revista Espanola de Paleontología 17, 13-36.

Rodríguez, S. & Said, I. 2009. Descriptión de los corales rugosos del Viseense superior de Pennaroya-Pueblonuevo (Cordoba) y El Casar (Badajoz). Coloquios de Paleontología 59, 7-27.

Rodríguez, S. & Somerville, I. 2007. Comparisons of rugose corals from the Upper Viséan of SW Spain and Ireland: implications for improved resolution in late Mississippian coral biostratigraphy, 275-305. In Hubmann, B. & Piller, W.E. (eds) Fossil Corals and Sponges, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Graz, 2003. Schrifenreihe der Erdwissenschaftlichen Kommissionen 17.

Rodríguez, S., Somerville, I.D., Said, I. & Cózar, P. 2012. Late Viseéan coral fringing reef at Tiouinine (Morocco): implications for the role of rugose corals as building organisms in the Mississippian. Geological Journal 47, 462-476.View article

Rodríguez, S., Somerville, I., Said, I. & Cozar, P. 2013. Mississippian-like rugose corals from a Bashkirian biostrome in the Tindouf Basin, S. Morocco. Spanish Journal of Palaeontology 28(2), 255-284.

Said, I., Berkhli, M. & Rodriguez, S. 2007. Preliminary data on the coral distribution in the Upper Viséan (Mississippian) succession from Adarouch area (NE Central Morroco), 353-363. In Hubmann, B. & Piller, W.E. (eds) Fossil Corals and Sponges, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Graz, 2003, Schrifenreihe der Erdwissenschaftlichen Kommissionen 17.

Said, I., Somerville, I., Rodríguez, S. & Cozar, P. 2013. Mississippian coral assemblages from the Khenifra area, central Morocco: biostratigraphy, biofacies, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography. Gondwana Research 23, 367-379.View article

Sando, W.J. 1965. Revision of some Paleozoic Coral species from the Western United States. Geological Survey Professional Paper 503-E, 1-38.

Sando, W.J. 1970. Corals, 257-343. In McKee, D. & Gutschnick, R. (eds) History of Redwall Limestone of Northern Arizona. Geological Society of America Bulletin 114.

Sando, W.J. 1990. Global Mississippian coral zonation. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 130, 173-187.

Schindewolf, O.H. 1928. Prinzipienfragen der biologischen Systematik. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 9, 122-169.View article

Scrutton, C.T. 1983. New offset-associated structures in some Carboniferous rugose corals. Lethaia 16, 129-144.View article

Semenoff-Tian-Chansky, P. 1985. Corals, 374-381. In Wagner, R.H., Winkler-Prins, C.F. & Granados, L.F. (eds) The Carboniferous of the world, II: Australia, Indian subcontinent, South Africa, South America and North Africa, Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana Empresa nacional adaro de investigaciones mineras.

Semenoff-Tian-Chansky, P. & Nudds, J. 1979. Revision de quelques especes de Lithostrotion des îles britanniques décrites par Milne-Edwards & Haime (Tétracoralliaires carboniferes). Bulletin du Muséum national d’histoire naturelle de Paris, section C3, 245-283.

Smith, S. 1916. Aulina rotiformis, gen. et sp. nov., Phillipsastraa hennahi (Lonsdale), and Orionastraea, gen. nov. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 72(1-4), 280-307.View article

Smith, S. 1928. The Carboniferous coral Nemistium edmondsi, gen. et sp. nov. Annals and Magazine of the Natural History Society 10, 112-120.View article

Somerville, I.D. & Rodríguez, S. 2007. Rugose coral associations from the Upper Viséan of Ireland, Britain and SW Spain, 329-351. In Hubmann, B. & Piller, W.E. (eds) Fossil Corals and Sponges. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Graz, 2003. Schriftenreihe der Erdwissenschaftlichen Kommissionen 17.

Somerville, I.D., Rodríguez, S., Said, I. & Cozar, P. 2012. Mississippian coral assemblages from Tabainout mud-mound complex, Khenifra area, Central Morocco, 308-316. In Denayer, J., Aretz, M. & Poty, E. (eds) Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Liege, Belgium Geologica Belgica 15(4).

Somerville, I.D. & Strank, A.R.E. 1984. Discovery of Arundian and Holkerian faunas from a Dinantian platform succession in North Wales. Geological Journal 19(2), 85-104.View article

Stampfli, G., Von Raumer, J.F. & Borel, G.D. 2002. Paleozoic evolution of pre-Variscan terranes: From Gondwana to the Variscan collision, 263-280. In Martinez-Catalan, J.R., Hatcher, D.R.J., Arenas, R. & Diaz-Garcia, F. (eds) Variscan-Appalachian dynamics: the building of the Late Paleozoic basement. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 364.

Stuckenberg, A. 1904. Anthozoen und Bryozoen des unteren Kohlenkalkes on Central-Russland. Mémoire du Commité géologique, Saint-Pétersbourg 14, 1-109.

Thomson, J. & Nicholson, H.A. 1876. Contribution to the study of the chief generic types of the Palaeozoic corals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 4, 305-309 and 424-429.

Tokay, M. 1954. Géologie de la Région de Bartin (Zonguldak - Turquie du Nord). Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey (MTA Bulletin) 46-47, 46-63.

Ünsalaner-Kiragli, C. 1958. Lower Carboniferous corals from Turkey. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 3, 53-58.

Vassiljuk, N.P. 1960. Lower Carboniferous corals of the Donets Basin. Trudy Academy of Sciences Ukraina USSR, Stratigraphy and Palaeontology 13, 1-179.

Verrill, A.E. 1865. Classification of Polyps. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History 16, 191-197.

Volkova, M.S. 1941. Corals from the Carboniferous of central Kazakhstan. Materialy po geologii i poleznym iskopaemym vostochnogo Kazakhstana 11, 1-119.

Vuillemin, C. 1990. Les Tétracoralliaires (Rugosa) du Carbonifere inférieur du Massif Armoricain (France). 167 pp. Editions du CNRS, Paris.

Webb, G.E. 1990. Lower Carboniferous coral fauna of the Rockhampton Group, East-Central Queensland. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists 10, 1-167.

Webb, G.E. 1994. Paralelism, non-biotic data and phylogeny reconstruction in paleobiology. Lethaia 27, 185-192.View article

Weyer, D. 2000. Korallen im Unterkarbon Deutschlands. Abhandlungen und Berichte für Naturkunde 23, 57-91.

Wright, V.P. & Vanstone, S.D. 2001. Onset of Late Paleozoic glacio-eustasy and evolving climates of low latitude areas: a synthesis of current understanding. Journal of the Geological Society 158, 579-582.View article

Wu, W.S. & Zhao, J. 1989. Carboniferous and early Permian Rugosa from western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, SW China. Palaeontologica Sinica 177(24), 1-224.

Yabe, H. & Hayasaka, I. 1915. Palaeozoic corals form Japan, Korea and China. Journal of the Geological Society of Tokyo 22, 55-70, 79-109, 127-142.

Yabe, H. & Hayasaka, I. 1920. Paleontology of southern China. 221 pp. Tokyo Geographical Society, Tokyo.

Yü, C.C. 1933. Lower carboniferous Corals of China. Palaeontologia Sinica 12, 1-211.

Yü, C.C. 1937. The Fenginian Corals of South China. Memoirs of the National Research Institute of Geology 16, 1-111.

Yü, C.C., Lin, Y.D. & Fan, Y.N. 1962. Permo-Carboniferous rugose corals from the Qinghai and Xinjiang, China, 13-35. Scientific articles for the commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the Changchun Geological College. Changchun.