First evidence for the Homerian (late Wenlock, Silurian) positive carbon isotope excursion from peri-Gondwana: new data from the Barrandian (Perunica)


Authors: Frýda J, Frýdová B

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 89, issue 3; pages: 617 - 634; Received 29 November 2013; Accepted in revised form 19 February 2014; Online 20 March 2014

Keywords: Silurian, Homerian carbon isotope excursion, Peri-Gondwana, Perunica, Barrandian area, Kozel Limestone Member,

full text (PDF, 6.28 MB)

Export to RIS



The Homerian (late Wenlock, Silurian) carbon isotope excursion is documented for the first time from peri-Gondwana based on new data from the Barrandian (Perunica). It is also the first time that this excursion has been found outside of the palaeoplates that subsequently formed the supercontinent Laurussia (i.e., Laurentia, Baltica and Avalonia). The typical two-peaked Homerian δ13C excursion is documented from a highly fossiliferous shallow-water limestone succession formally established here as the Kozel Limestone Member of the Motol Formation. Application of δ13C chemostratigraphy considerably improves the stratigraphic resolution within the Kozel Limestone Member and enables more precise dating of its very diverse fauna. The present data reveal recovery of benthic communities after a series of mid-Homerian extinction events (i.e., the Mulde conodont and the end lundgreni graptolite bioevents) started much earlier than has been hitherto described from other world occurrences.


BARRANDE, J. 1852-1881. Systeme silurien du Centre de la Boheme. Privately published, Prague & Paris.

BECK, J.H. & STROTHER, P.K. 2001. Silurian spores and cryptospores from the Arisaig Group, Nova Scotia, Canada. Palynology 25, 127-177.View article

BECK, J.H. & STROTHER, P.K. 2008. Spores and cryptospores from a Silurian section near Allenport, Pennsylvania. Journal of Paleontology 82(5), 857-883.View article

BOUČEK, B. 1933. Monographie der obersilurischen Graptoliten aus der Familie Cyrtograptidae. Travaux de l’Institut de Géologie et de Paléontologie de l’Université Charles a Praha (Prague) 1, 1-84.

BOUČEK, B. 1934. Bemerkungen zur Stratigraphie des böhmischen Gotlandien und seinen Faziesverhältnissen. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Palaeontologie, Abteilung B 11, 477-494.

BOUČEK, B. 1953. Biostratigraphy, development and correlation of the Želkovice and Motol Beds of the Silurian of Bohemia. Sborník Ústředního ústavu geologického, Oddíl paleontologický 20, 421-484.

BUGGISCH, W. & MANN, U. 2004. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of Lochkovian to Eifelian limestones from the Devonian of central and southern Europe. International Journal of Earth Sciences 93, 521-541.View article

BURGESS, N.D. & RICHARDSON, J. B. 1991. Silurian cryptospores and miospores from the type Wenlock area, Shropshire, England. Palaeontology 34, 601-628.

BURGESS, N.D. & RICHARDSON, J.B. 1995. Late Wenlock to early Pridoli cryptospores and miospores from south and southwest Wales, Great Britain. Palaeontographica 236, 1-44.

CALNER, M. 2008. Silurian global events - at the tipping point of climate change, 21-58. In ASHRAF, M.T. (ed.) Mass extinctions. Springer-Verlag, Berlin & Heidelberg.View article

CALNER, M. & JEPPSSON, L. 2003. Carbonate platform evolution and conodont stratigraphy during the middle Silurian Mulde Event, Gotland, Sweden. Geological Magazine 140(2), 173-203.View article

CALNER, M., KOZŁOWSKA, A., MASIAK, M. & SCHMITZ, B. 2006. A shoreline to deep basin correlation chart for the middle Silurian coupled extinction-stable isotopic event. GFF 128, 79-84.View article

CALNER, M., LEHNERT, O. & JEPPSSON, L. 2012. New chemostratigraphic data through the Mulde Event interval (Silurian, Wenlock), Gotland, Sweden. GFF 134, 65-67.View article

CORFIELD, R.M., SIVETER, D.J., CARTLIDGE, J.E. & MCKERROW, W.S. 1992. Carbon isotope excursion near the Wenlock-Ludlow (Silurian) boundary in the Anglo-Welsh area. Geology 20, 371-374.View article

CORRADINI, C. & CORRIGA, M.G. 2012. A Přídolí-Lochkovian conodont zonation in Sardinia and the Carnic Alps: implications for a global zonation scheme. Bulletin of Geosciences 87(4), 635-650.View article

CRAMER, B.D., BRETT, C.E., MELCHIN, M.J., MÄNNIK, P., KLEFFNER, M.A., MCLAUGHLIN, P.I., LLOYDELL, D.K., MUNNECKE, A., JEPPSSON, L., CORRADINI, C., BRUNTON, F.R. & SALTZMAN, M.R. 2011. Revised correlation of Silurian provincial series of North America with global and regional chronostratigraphic and ?13Ccarb chemostratigraphy. Lethaia 44, 185-202.View article

CRAMER, B.D., CONDON, D.J., SÖDERLUND, U., MARSHALL, C., WORTON, G.J., THOMAS, A.T., CALNER, M., RAY, D.C., PERRIER, V., BOOMER, I., PATCHETT, P.J. & JEPPSSON, L. 2012. U-Pb (zircon) age constraints on the timing and duration of Wenlock Silurian) paleocommunity collapse and recovery during the “Big Crisis”. Geological Society of America Bulletin 124, 11-12, 1841-1857.View article

CRAMER, B.D., KLEFFNER, M.A., BRETT, C.E., MCLAUGHLIN, P.I., JEPPSSON, L., MUNNECKE, A. & SAMTLEBEN, C. 2010. Paleobiogeography, high-resolution stratigraphy, and the future of Paleozoic biostratigraphy: Fine-scale diachroneity of the Wenlock (Silurian) conodont Kockelella walliseri. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 294, 232-241.View article

CRAMER, B.D., KLEFFNER, M.A. & SALTZMAN, M.R. 2006. The late Wenlock Mulde positive carbon isotope excursion in North America. GFF 128(2), 85-90.View article

CRAMER, B.D., LOYDELL, D.K., SAMTLEBEN, C., MUNNECKE, A., KALJO, D., MÄNNIK, P., MARTMA, T., JEPPSSON, L., KLEFFNER, M.A., BARRICK, J.E., JOHNSON, C.A., EMSBO, P., JOACHIMSKI, M.M., BICKERT, T. & SALTZMAN, M.R. 2010. Testing the limits of Paleozoic chronostratigraphic correlation via high-resolution (< 500,000 yrs) integrated conodont, graptolite, and carbon isotope (?13Ccarb) biochemostratigraphy across the Llandovery-Wenlock boundary: Is a unified Phanerozoic timescale achievable? Geological Society of America Bulletin 122, 1700-1716.View article

DUFKA, P. 1995. Upper Wenlock miospores and cryptospores derived from a Silurian volcanic island in the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Bohemia). Journal of Micropalaeontology 14, 67-79.View article

FIALA, F. 1970. Silurian and Devonian diabases of the Barrandian Basin. Journal of Geological Sciences, Geology 17, 7-71.

FRÝDA, J. & MANDA, Š. 2013. A long-lasting steady period of isotopically heavy carbon in the late Silurian ocean: evolution of the ?13C record and its significance for an integrated ?13C, graptolite and conodont stratigraphy. Bulletin of Geosciences 88(2), 463-482.View article

GOCKE, M., LEHNERT, O. & FRÝDA, J. 2013. Facies development across the Late Silurian Lau Event based on temperate carbonates of the Prague Basin (Czech Republic). Facies 59(3), 611-630.View article

GUTIÉRREZ-MARCO, J.C., LENZ, A.C., ROBARDET, M. & PI&CCEDIL;ARRA, J.M. 1996. Wenlock-Ludlow graptolite biostratigraphy and extinction: a reassessment from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 33, 656-663.View article

HAVLÍČEK, V. 1995. New data on the distribution of brachiopods in the Motol and lowest Kopanina formations (Wenlock, lower Ludlow, Prague Basin, Bohemia). Věstník Českého geologického ústavu 70(4), 47-63.

HAVLÍČEK, V., HORNÝ, R., CHLUPÁČ, I. & ŠNAJDR, M. 1958. Průvodce ke geologickým exkursím do Barrandienu. Sbírka geologických průvodců 1. 157 pp. Nakladatelství ČSAV, Praha.

HAVLÍČEK, V. & ŠTORCH, P. 1990. Silurian brachiopods and benthic communities in the Prague Basin (Czechoslovakia). Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 48, 1-275.

HAVLÍČEK, V. & ŠTORCH, P. 1999. Silurian and Lochkovian communities of the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Czechoslovakia), 200-228. In BOUCOT, A.J. & LAWSON, J.D. (eds) Final report, project Ecostratigraphy. Paleocommunities: A case study from the Silurian and Lower Devonian. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

HEJNA, M. 2012. Lomy a vápenice v srdci Českého krasu. 92 pp. Envidea o.s., Praha.

HLADÍKOVÁ, J., HLADIL, J. & KŘÍBEK, B. 1997. Carbon and oxygen isotope record across Pridoli to Givetian stage boundaries in the Barrandian basin (Czech Republic). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 132, 225-241.View article

HORNÝ, R. 1954. Předběžná zpráva o výzkumu facií středočeského západního siluru. Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 29, 32-38.

HORNÝ, R. 1955a. Base vrstev kopaninských eß 1 na jihozápadním okraji vulkanické facie (Kosov u Berouna). Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 30, 81-86.

HORNÝ, R. 1955b. Předběžná zpráva o výzkumu vrstev budňanských eß ve východním Barrandienu. Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 30, 127-136.

HORNÝ, R. 1955c. Studie o vrstvách budňanských v západní části Barrandienu. Sborník Ústředního ústavu geologického, Oddíl geologický 21, 315-447.

HORNÝ, R. 1960. Stratigraphy and tectonics of the western closures of the Silurian-Devonian synclinorium in the Barrandian area. Sborník Ústředního ústavu geologického, Oddělení geologické 1, 495-524.

HORNÝ, R. 1962. Das mittel böhmische Silur. Geologie 11(8), 873-916.

HORNÝ, R. 1965. Tectonic structure and development of the Silurian between Beroun and Tachlovice. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 10(2), 147-156.

HORNÝ, R. 1971. Problémy na hranici stupňů wenlock a budňan (silur, Iiteňské a kopaninské souvrství). Časopis Národního muzea, Oddíl přírodovědný 140 (1/2), 25-35.

JAEGER, H. 1959. Graptolithen und Stratigraphie des jüngsten Thüringer Silurs. Abhandlungen der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Klasse für Chemie, Geologie und Biologie 2, 1-197.

JAEGER, H. 1991. New standard graptolite zonal sequence after the ‘Big Crisis’ at the Wenlockian/Ludlowian boundary (Silurian). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 182, 303-354.View article

JEPPSSON, L. 1998. Silurian oceanic events: Summary of general characteristics, 239-257. In LANDING, E. & JOHNSON, M.E. (eds) Silurian Cycles: Linkages of Dynamic Stratigraphy with Atmospheric, Oceanic and Tectonic Changes. New York State Museum Bulletin 491.

JEPPSSON, L., ALDRIDGE, R.J. & DORNING, K.J. 1995. Wenlock (Silurian) oceanic episodes and events. Journal of the Geological Society of London 152, 487-498.View article

JEPPSSON, L. & CALNER, M. 2003. The Silurian Mulde Event and a scenario for secundo-secundo events. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Earth Sciences 93, 135-154.

JEPPSSON, L., ERIKSSON, M.E. & CALNER, M. 2006. A latest Llandovery to latest Ludlow high-resolution biostratigraphy based on the Silurian of Gotland - A summary. GFF 128, 109-114.View article

JEPPSSON, L., TALENT, J.A., MAWSON, R., SIMPSON, A.J., ANDREW, A., CALNER, M., WHITFORD, D., TROTTER, J.A., SANDSTRÖM, O. & CALDON, H.J. 2007. High-resolution Late Silurian correlations between Gotland, Sweden, and the Broken River region, NE Australia: lithologies, conodonts and isotopes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 245, 115-137.View article

JOHNSON, M.E. 2006. Relationship of Silurian sea-level fluctuations to oceanic episodes and events. GFF 128, 115-121.View article

KALJO, D., BOUCOT, A.J., CORFIELD, R.M., KOREN’, T.N., KŘÍŽ, J., LE HÉRRISÉ, A., MÄNNIK, P., MÄRS, T., NESTOR, V., SHAVER, R.H., SIVETER, D.J. & VIIRA, V. 1996. Silurian bio-events, 173-224. In WALLISER, O.H. (ed.) Global Events and Events Stratigraphy in the Phanerozoic. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.View article

KALJO, D., GRYTSENKO, V., MARTMA, T. & MOTUS, M.-A. 2007. Three global carbon isotope shifts in the Silurian of Podolia (Ukraine): Stratigraphical implications. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 56, 205-220.View article

KALJO, D., KIIPLI, T. & MARTMA, T. 1997. Carbon isotope event markers through the Wenlock-Pridoli sequence at Ohesaare (Estonia) and Priekule (Latvia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 132, 211-223.View article

KALJO, D. & MARTMA, T. 2006. Application of carbon isotope stratigraphy to dating the Baltic Silurian rocks. GFF 128(2), 123-129.View article

KALJO, D., MARTMA, T., MÄNNIK, P. & VIIRA, V. 2003. Implications of Gondwana glaciations in the Baltic late Ordovician and Silurian and a carbon isotopic test of environmental cyclicity. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 174, 59-66.View article

KODYM, O., BOUČEK, B. & ŠULC, J. 1931. Guide to the geological excursion to the neighbourhood of Beroun, Koněprusy and Budňany. Knihovna Státního geologického ústavu Československé republiky 15, 1-83.

KOREN’, T.N. 1991. The lundgreni extinction event in central Asia and its bearing on graptolite biochronology within the Homerian. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology 40, 74-78.

KŘÍŽ, J. 1975. Revision of the Lower Silurian stratigraphy in Central Bohemia. Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického 50, 275-282.

KŘÍŽ, J. 1984. Silur, 20-31. In KOVANDA, J. (ed.) Vysvětlivky k základní geologické mapě ČSSR, 1:25 000, Rudná. Ústřední ústav geologický, Praha.

KŘÍŽ, J. 1991. The Silurian of the Prague Basin (Bohemia) - tectonic, eustatic and volcanic controls on facies and faunal development. Special Papers in Palaeontology 44, 179-203.

KŘÍŽ, J. 1992. Silurian field excursions: Prague Basin (Barrandian), Bohemia. National Museum Wales, Geological Series 13, 1-111.

KŘÍŽ, J., 1998. Silurian, 79-101. In CHLUPÁČ, I., HAVLÍČEK, V., KŘÍŽ, J., KUKAL, Z. & ŠTORCH, P. Paleozoic of the Barrandian (Cambrian to Devonian). Český geologický ústav, Praha.

KŘÍŽ, J., DUFKA, P., JAEGER, H. & SCHÖNLAUB, H.P. 1993. The Wenlock/Ludlow Boundary in the Prague Basin (Bohemia). Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt A 136(4), 809-839.

KOZŁOWSKA-DAWIDZIUK, A., LENZ, A. & ŠTORCH, P. 2001. Upper Wenlock and Lower Ludlow (Silurian), post-extinction graptolites, Všeradice section, Barrandian Area, Czech Republic. Journal of Palaeontology 75, 147-164.View article

LEHNERT, O., FRÝDA, J., BUGGISCH, W. & MANDA, Š. 2003. A first report of the Ludlovian Lau event from the Prague Basin (Barrandian, Czech Republic). Serie Correlación Geológica 18, 139-144.

LEHNERT, O., FRÝDA, J., BUGGISCH, W., MUNNECKE, A., NÜTZEL, A., KŘÍŽ, J. & MANDA, Š. 2007. δ13C record across the Ludlow Lau Event: new data from mid palaeo-latitudes of northern peri-Gondwana (Prague Basin, Czech Republic). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 245, 227-244.View article

LENZ, A.C. 1993. Late Wenlock-Ludlow (Silurian) extinction, evolution, and biostratigraphy: Perspectives from Arctic Canada: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30, 491-498.View article

LENZ, A.C. & KOZŁOWSKA-DAWIDZIUK, A. 2001. Upper Wenlock (Silurian) graptolites from Arctic Canada: Pre-extinction, lundgreni biozone fauna. Palaeontographica Canadiana 20, 1-61.

LENZ, A.C. & KOZŁOWSKA-DAWIDZIUK, A. 2002. Late Wenlock and early Ludlow graptolite extinction, evolution and diversification: A reassessment. Special Papers in Palaeontology 67, 171-183.

LENZ, A.C. & MELCHIN, M.J. 1989. Monograptus spiralis and its phylogenetic relationship to early cyrtograptids. Journal of Paleontology 63, 341-348. View article

LENZ, A.C., NOBLE, P.J., MASIAK, M., POULSON, S.R. & KOZŁOWSKA-DAWIDZIUK, A. 2006. The lundgreni Extinction Event: integration of paleontological and geochemical data from Arctic Canada. GFF 128(2), 153-158.View article

LOYDELL, D.K. 1998. Early Silurian sea-level changes. Geological Magazine 135, 447-471.View article

LOYDELL, D.K. 2007. Early Silurian positive ?13C excursions and their relationship to glaciations, sea-level changes and extinction events. Geological Journal 42(5), 531-546.View article

LOYDELL, D.K. 2012. Graptolite biozone correlation charts. Geological Magazine 149, 124-132.View article

LOYDELL, D.K. & FRÝDA, J. 2007. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of the upper Telychian and lower Sheinwoodian (Llandovery-Wenlock, Silurian) of the Banwy River section, Wales. Geological Magazine 144, 1015-1019.View article

LOYDELL, D.K. & FRÝDA, J. 2011. At what stratigraphical level is the mid Ludfordian (Ludlow, Silurian) positive carbon isotope excursion in the type Ludlow area, Shropshire, England? Bulletin of Geosciences 86(2), 197-208.View article

LOYDELL, D.K., MÄNNIK, P. & NESTOR, V. 2003. Integrated biostratigraphy of the lower Silurian of the Aizpute-41 core, Latvia. Geological Magazine 140, 205-229.View article

LOYDELL, D.K., NESTOR, V. & MÄNNIK, P. 2010. Integrated biostratigraphy of the lower Silurian of the Kolka-54 core, Latvia. Geological Magazine 147, 253-280.View article

MANDA, Š. 1996. Cyrtograptus lundgreni Zone in the southwestern part of the Svatý Jan Volcanic Centre (Wenlock, Prague Basin). Věstník Českého geologického ústavu 71(4), 369-374.

MANDA, Š. 2007. New Silurian nautiloids Phragmoceras Broderip, 1839, and Tubiferoceras Hedström, 1917, from the Prague Basin (Bohemia). Bulletin of Geosciences 82(2), 119-131.View article

MANDA, Š. & FRÝDA, J. 2010. Silurian-Devonian boundary events and their influence on cephalopod evolution: evolutionary significance of cephalopod egg size during mass extinctions. Bulletin of Geosciences 85(3), 513-540.View article

MANDA, Š., ŠTORCH, P., SLAVÍK, L., FRÝDA, J., KŘÍŽ, J. & TASÁRYOVÁ, Z. 2012. Graptolite, conodont and sedimentary record through the late Ludlow Kozlowskii Event (Silurian) in shale dominated succession of Bohemia. Geological Magazine 149(3), 507-531.View article

MARSHALL, C., THOMAS, A.T., BOOMER, I. & RAY, D.C. 2012. High resolution ?13C stratigraphy of the Homerian (Wenlock) of the English Midlands and Wenlock Edge. Bulletin of Geosciences 87(4), 669-679.View article

MURPHY, M.A., VALENZUELA-RÍOS, J.I. & CARLS, P. 2004. On classi?cation of Pridoli (Silurian) - Lochkovian (Devonian) Spathognathodontidae (Conodonts). University of California, Riverside, Campus Museum Contribution 6, 1-25.

MUNNECKE, A., SAMTLEBEN, C. & BICKERT, T. 2003. The Ireviken Event in the lower Silurian of Gotland, Sweden - relation to similar Palaeozoic and Proterozoic events. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 195, 99-124.View article

NOBLE, P.J., LENZ, A.C., HOLMDEN, C., MASIAK, M., ZIMMERMAN, M.K., POULSON, S.R. & KOZŁOWSKA, A. 2012. Isotope geochemistry and plankton response to the Ireviken (Earliest Wenlock) and Cyrtograptus lundgreni Extinction Events, Cape Phillips Formation, Arctic Canada, 631-652. In TALENT, J.A. (ed.) Earth and Life - Global Biodiversity, Extinction Intervals and Biogeographic Perturbations Through Time. Series: International Year of Planet Earth. 1100 pp. Springer. View article

NOBLE, P.J., ZIMMERMAN, M.K., HOLMDEN, C. & LENZ, A.C. 2005. Early Silurian (Wenlockian) ?13C profiles from the Cape Phillips Formation, Arctic Canada and their relation to biotic events. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 42, 1419-1430.View article

PERNER, J. 1903-1911. Recherches paléontologiques. Volume 4, Gastéropodes. In Barrande, J. Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme. Prague.

PERNER, J. & KODYM, O. 1919. O rozčlenění svrchního siluru v Čechách. Časopis Musea Království českého 93, 6-24.

PITTAU, P., COTZA, F., CRISTINI, S., DEL RIO, M. & LOI, M. 2006. Palaeontologic and biogeochemical characterization of the C. lundgreni Event in the black shales of eastern mid-Sardinia. Lethaia 39, 111-127.View article

PORĘBSKA, E., KOZŁOWSKA-DAWIDZIUK, A. & MASIAK, M. 2004. The lundgreni event in the Silurian of the East European platform, Poland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 213, 271-294.View article

RAY, D.C., THOMAS, A.T. & MARSHALL, C. 2011a. The Much Wenlock Limestone Formation: The Nature Conservancy Council Cutting, Wren’s Nest Hill, Dudley, 121-129. In RAY, D.C. (ed.) Siluria Revisited: A Field Guide: International Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy, Field Meeting, 2011, Ludlow, England. International Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy.

RAY, D.C., THOMAS, A.T. & MARSHALL, C. 2011b. Latest Homerian obrution deposits: Upper Quarried Limestone Member, Quarry Trench, Mons Hill, Dudley, 130-135. In RAY, D.C. (ed.) Siluria Revisited: A Field Guide: International Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy, Field Meeting, 2011, Ludlow, England. International Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy.

SADLER, P.M. 2012. Integrating carbon isotope excursions into automated stratigraphic correlation: an example from the Silurian of Baltica. Bulletin of Geosciences 87(4), 681-694.View article

SALTZMAN, M.R. 2001. Silurian ?13C stratigraphy: a view from North America. Geology 29, 671-674.View article

SAMTLEBEN, C., MUNNECKE, A., BICKERT, T. & PATZOLD, J. 1996. The Silurian of Gotland (Sweden): facies interpretation based on stable isotopes in brachiopod shells. Geologische Rundschau 85, 278-292.View article

STEEMANS, P., PETUS, E., BREUER, P., MAULLER-MENDLOWICZ, P. & GERRIENNE, P. 2012. Palaeozoic innovations in the micro and megafossil plant record: from the earliest plant spores to the earliest seeds, 437-477. In TALENT, A.J. (ed.) Earth and Life - Global Biodiversity, Extinction Intervals and Biogeographic Perturbations Through Time, International Year of Planet Earth. 1100 pp. Springer.View article

SVOBODA, J. & PRANTL, F. 1953. O stratigrafii a tektonice staršího paleozoika mezi Srbskem a Sv. Janem pod Skalou. Sborník Ústředního ústavu geologického 22, 205-276.

ŠTORCH, P. 1987. Silur, 31-41. In CHLUPÁČ, I. (ed.) Vysvětlivky k základní geologické mapě ČSSR, 1:25 000, Beroun. Ústřední ústav geologický, Praha.

ŠTORCH, P. 1994. Graptolite biostratigraphy of the Lower Silurian (Llandovery and Wenlock) of Bohemia. Geological Journal 29, 137-165.View article

ŠTORCH, P. 1995. Biotic crises and post-crisis recoveries recorded by graptolite faunas of the Barrandian area, Czech Republic. Geolines 3, 59-70.

ŠTORCH, P. 1998. Volcanism, 149-164. In CHLUPÁČ, I., HAVLÍČEK, V., KŘÍŽ, J., KUKAL, Z. & ŠTORCH, P. Palaeozoic of the Barrandian (Cambrian to Devonian). Český geologický ústav, Praha.

ŠTORCH, P. & FRÝDA, J. 2009. Carbon isotope data and graptolite record in the lower Silurian (Llandovery) of northern peri-Gondwana - exemplified by Barrandian area, Czech Republic, 347-348. In CORRIGA, M.G. & PIRAS, S. (eds) Time and Life in the Silurian: A multidisciplinary approach. Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy Field Meeting 2009, Abstracts. Supplemento al Bolletino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 48(1), Rendiconti della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 3.

ŠTORCH, P. & FRÝDA, J. 2012. Late Aeronian graptolite sedgwickii Event, associated carbon isotope excursion and facies changes in the Prague Synform (Barrandian, Bohemia). Geological Magazine 149(6), 1089-1106.View article

STRICANNE, L., MUNNECKE, A. & PROSS, J. 2006. Assessing mechanisms of environmental change: palynological signals across the late Ludlow (Silurian) positive isotope excursion (?13C, ?18O) on Gotland, Sweden. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 230, 1-31.View article

SUTTNER, T.J. 2007. Conodont stratigraphy, facies-related distribution patterns and stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) of the uppermost Silurian to lower Devonian Seewarte section (Carnic Alps, Carinthia, Austria). Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 59, 1-111.

TORSVIK, T.H. 2009. BugPlates: Linking Biogeography and Palaeogeography. Available from: (accessed 4 December 2012).

TUREK, V. 1990. Comments to upper Wenlock zonal subdivisions in the Silurian of Central Bohemia. Poznámky k zonálnímu členění svrchního wenlocku ve středočeském siluru. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 35(4), 337-353.

WENZEL, B. & JOACHIMSKI, M.M. 1996. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of Silurian brachiopods (Gotland/Sweden): palaeoceanographic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 122(1), 143-166.View article

WILLIAMS, M. & ZALASIEWICZ, J. 2004. The Wenlock Cyrtograptus species of the Builth Wells District, central Wales. Palaeontology 47(2), 223-263.View article

ŽELÍZKO, J.V. 1904. Notiz über die Korallen des mittelböhmischen Obersilur aus dem Fundorte “V Kozle”. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-königlichen geologischen Reichsanstalt 13, 304-307.