Carbon isotope stratigraphy and ammonite biochronostratigraphy across the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary in the western Iberian margin

 

Authors: Duarte LV, Comas-Rengifo MJ, Silva RL, Paredes R, Goy A

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 89, issue 4; pages: 719 - 736; Received 5 August 2013; Accepted in revised form 19 March 2014; Online 8 July 2014

Keywords: carbon isotopes, ammonite biochronostratigraphy, organic- rich marly limestone, Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary, Portugal,

full text (PDF, 3.75 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

Here, we present an integrated stratigraphical study across the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian interval cropping out into the Portuguese reference section of S. Pedro de Moel (Lusitanian Basin). Characterized by marl-limestone alternations of the Água de Madeiros Formation (subdivided into Polvoeira and Praia da Pedra Lisa members), this succession is particularly dominated by organic-rich facies (black shales) and contains a diverse fauna of benthic and nektonic macrofossils. This stratigraphic and sedimentary setting is the basis for a high-resolution carbon isotope study, constrained by new ammonite biochronostratigraphic determinations and other palaeontological data. The new ammonite collections characterize the Oxynotum and Raricostatum chronozones and the Raricostatum, Macdonnelli and Aplanatum subchronozones, and accurately identify the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary in this western Iberian margin setting. Carbon isotope measurements were made from bulk carbonate (δ13Ccarb) from 351 samples, representing the Oxynotum to earliest Jamesoni (early Taylori) Chronozone intervals. The carbon isotope values exhibited a large range, varying between +2.85‰ in the Oxynotum Subchronozone to very negative values observed in some limestone beds from the Raricostatum Subchronozone (lowest reaching -6.7‰), a variation clearly controlled by lithological and facies changes. Despite these strong anomalous isotopically light values (below -2‰), which are clearly associated with organic matter degradation and early diagenesis, the δ13Ccarb curve shows a long-term negative trend across the Oxynotum to the early Taylori Subchronozone interval. This tendency is reversed around 5 m above the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary, and the δ13Ccarb values become positive correlative with an absence of organic matter and argillaceous sediments in the limestone beds of Praia da Pedra Lisa Member. Although the δ13C data recorded across the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian of the Lusitanian Basin had been controlled by internal depositional conditions, the general evolution of carbon isotopes agrees with the trend recognized in other basins.

References

Alves, T.M., Gawthorpe, R.L., Hunt, D.W. & Monteiro, J.H. 2002. Jurassic tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Northern Lusitanian Basin (offshore Portugal). Marine and Petroleum Geology 19, 727-754.View article

Antunes, M.T., Rocha, R.B. & Wenz, S. 1981. Faunule ichtyologique du Lias inférieur de Sao Pedro de Moel, Portugal. Ciencias da Terra 6, 101-116.

Armendáriz, M., Rosales, I., Bádenas, B., Aurell, M., García-Ramos, J.C. & Pinuela, L. 2012. High resolution chemostratigraphic records from Lower Pliensbachian belemnites: Palaeoclimatic perturbations, organic facies and water mass exchange (Asturian Basin, northern Spain). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 333-334, 178-191.View article

Azeredo, A.C., Duarte, L.V., Henriques, M.H. & Manuppella, G. 2003. Da dinâmica continental no Triásico aos mares do Jurássico Inferior e Médio. 43 pp. Cadernos de Geologia de Portugal. Instituto Geológico e Mineiro, Lisbon.

Azeredo, A.C., Silva, R.L., Duarte, L.V. & Cabral, M.C. 2010. Subtidal stromatolites from the Sinemurian of the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal). Facies 56, 211-230.View article

Blau, J. & Meister, C. 2000. Upper Sinemurian ammonite successions based on 41 faunal horizons: an attempt at worldwide correlations. GeoResearch Forum 6, 3-12.

Caswell, B.A., Coe, A.L. & Cohen, A.S. 2009. New range data for marine invertebrate species across the early Toarcian (Early Jurassic) mass extinction. Journal of the Geological Society of London 166, 859-872.View article

Choffat, P. 1903-1904. L’Infralias et le Sinémurien au Portugal. Comunicaçoes do Instituto Geológico e Mineiro Portugal 5, 49-114.

Comas-Rengifo, M.J., Duarte, L.V., Goy, A., Paredes, R. & Silva, R.L. 2013. El Sinemuriense Superior (cronozonas Oxynotum y Raricostatum) en la región de S. Pedro de Moel (Cuenca Lusitánica, Portugal), 15-19. In Duarte, L.V., Silva, R.L. & Azeredo, A.C. (eds) Fácies carbonatadas ricas em matéria orgânica do Jurássico da Bacia Lusitânica. Novos contributos paleontológicos, sedimentológicos e geoquímicos. Comunicaçoes Geológicas 100, Especial I.

Comas-Rengifo, M.J., Martínez, J.C. & Goy, A. 2010. Sinemuriense Superior en Rodiles (Asturias): Biocronoestratigrafía y biohorizontes de ammonoideos, 49-56. In Ruíz-Omenaca, J.I., Pinuela, L. & García-Ramos, L.C. (eds) Comunicaciones del V Congreso del Jurásico de Espana. Museo del Jurásico de Asturias (MUJA).

Corna, M., Dommergues, J.-L., Meister, C. & Mouterde, R. 1997. Sinemurien, 9-14. In Cariou, E. & Hantzpergue, P. (eds) Biostratigraphie du Jurassique ouest-européen et méditerranéen: zonations paralleles et distribution des invertebres et microfossiles, Groupe français d’Etude du Jurassique. Bulletin des Centres de Recherche Exploration-Production Elf-Aquitaine 17.

Correia, G., Duarte, L.V., Pereira, A. & Silva, R.L. 2012. Outcrop Spectral Gamma-Ray applications to the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian organic-rich facies of the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal). Journal of Iberian Geology 38(2), 373-388.

Dommergues, J.-L. 1987. L’évolution chez les Ammonitina du Lias moyen (Carixien, Domérien basal) en Europe occidentale. Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie Lyon 98, 1-87.

Dommergues, J.-L., Meister, C., Neige, P. & Rocha, R.B. 2004. Endemic Sinemurian (Early Jurassic) ammonites from the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal). Revue de Paléobiologie 23, 529-549.

Dommergues, J.-L., Meister, C. & Rocha, R.B. 2010. The Sinemurian ammonites of the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal): an example of complex endemic evolution. Paleodiversity 3, 59-87.

Duarte, L.V. 2007. Lithostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and depositional setting of the Pliensbachian and Toarcian series in the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal), 17-23. In Rocha, R.B. (ed.) The Peniche section (Portugal). Contributions to the definition of the Toarcian GSSP. International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy.

Duarte, L.V., Oliveira, L.C.V. & Rodrigues, R. 2007. Carbon isotopes as a sequence stratigraphic tool: examples from the Lower and Middle Toarcian marly limestones of Portugal. Boletín Geológico y Minero 118, 3-17.

Duarte, L., Perilli, N., Dino, R., Rodrigues, R. & Paredes, R. 2004a. Lower to Middle Toarcian from the Coimbra region (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal): sequence stratigraphy, calcareous nannofossils and stable-isotope evolution. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 110, 115-127.

Duarte, L.V., Silva, R.L., Duarte, C.B., Azeredo, A.C. & Comas-Rengifo, M.J. 2008. Litostratigrafia do Jurássico Inferior da regiao de S. Pedro de Moel (Bacia Lusitânica), 175-185. In Callapez, P.M., Rocha, R. B., Marques, J.F., Cunha, L.S. & Dinis, P.M. (eds) A Terra, Conflitos e Ordem. Homenagem ao Professor Ferreira Soares, Museu e Laboratório de Mineralogia e Geologia da Universidade de Coimbra.

Duarte, L.V., Silva, R.L., Mendonça Filho, J.G., Poças Ribeiro, N. & Chagas, R.B.A. 2012. High-resolution stratigraphy, palynofacies and source rock potential of the Água de Madeiros Formation (Upper Sinemurian) of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal. Journal of Petroleum Geology 35, 105-126.View article

Duarte, L.V., Silva, R.L., Oliveira, L.C.V., Comas-Rengifo, M.J. & Silva, F. 2010. Organic-rich facies in the Sinemurian and Pliensbachian of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal: Total Organic Carbon distribution and relation to transgressive-regressive facies cycles. Geologica Acta 8, 325-340.

Duarte, L.V. & Soares, A.F. 2002. Litostratigrafia das séries margo-calcárias do Jurássico Inferior da Bacia Lusitânica (Portugal). Comunicaçoes do Instituto Geológico e Mineiro 89, 135-154.

Duarte, L.V., Wright, V.P., Fernandez-López, S.F., Elmi, S., Krautter, M., Azeredo, A.C., Henriques, M.H., Rodrigues, R. & Perilli, N. 2004b. Early Jurassic carbonate evolution in the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal): facies, sequence stratigraphy and cyclicity, 45-71. In Duarte, L.V. & Henriques, M.H. (eds) Carboniferous and Jurassic Carbonate Platforms of Iberia. 23rd IAS Meeting of Sedimentology Field Trip Guide Book, Coimbra, Vol. 1.

Hesselbo, S.P., Jenkyns, H.C., Duarte, L.V. & Oliveira, L.C.V. 2007. Carbon-isotope record of the Early Jurassic (Toarcian) Oceanic Anoxic Event from fossil wood and marine carbonate (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 253, 455-470.View article

Hesselbo, S.P., Meister, C. & Gröcke, D.R. 2000. A potential global stratotype for the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary (Lower Jurassic), Robin Hood’s Bay, UK: ammonite faunas and isotope stratigraphy. Geological Magazine 137(6), 601-607.View article

Jenkyns, H.C., Jones, C.E., Gröcke, D.R., Hesselbo, S.P. & Parkinson, D.N. 2002. Chemostratigraphy of the Jurassic System: applications, limitations and implications for palaeoceanography. Journal of the Geological Society of London 159, 351-378.View article

Jenkyns, H.C. & Weedon, G. 2013. Chemostratigraphy (CaCO3, TOC, ?13Corg) of Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) black shales from the Wessex Basin, Dorset and palaeonvironmental implications. Newsletters on Stratigraphy 46(1), 1-21.View article

Korte, C. & Hesselbo, S.P. 2011. Shallow-marine carbon- and oxygen-isotope and elemental records indicate icehouse-greenhouse cycles during the Early Jurassic. Paleoceanography 26, PA4219.View article

Littler, K., Hesselbo, S.P. & Jenkyns, H.C. 2010. A carbon-isotope perturbation at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary: evidence from the Lias Group, NE England. Geological Magazine 147, 181-192.View article

Marshall, J.D. 1992. Climatic and oceanographic isotopic signalsnfrom carbonate rock record and their preservation. Geological Magazine 192, 143-160.View article

Mattioli, E., Plancq, M., Boussaha, M., Duarte, L.V. & Pittet, B. 2013. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy: new data from the Early Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin, 69-76. In Duarte, L.V., Silva, R.L. & Azeredo, A.C. (eds) Fácies carbonatadas ricas em matéria orgânica do Jurássico da Bacia Lusitânica. Novos contributos paleontológicos, sedimentológicos e geoquímicos. Comunicaçoes Geológicas 100, Especial I.

Meister, C. 2010. Worldwide ammonite correlation at the Pliensbachian Stage and Substage Boundaries (Lower Jurassic). Stratigraphy 7, 83-101.

Meister, C., Aberhan, C., Blau, J., Dommergues, J.-L., Feist-Burkhardt, S., Hailwood, E.A., Hart, M., Hesselbo, S.P., Hounslow, M.W., Hylton, M., Morton, N., Page, K. & Price, G.D. 2006. The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Pliensbachian Stage (Lower Jurassic), Wine Haven, Yorkshire, UK. Episodes 29(2), 93-106.

Meister, C., Blau, J., Dommergues, J.L., Feist-Burkhardt, S., Hart, M., Hesselbo, S.P., Hylton, M., Page, K. & Price, G. 2003. A proposal for the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Pliensbachian Stage (Lower Jurassic). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 96, 275-297.

Meister, C., Dommergues, J.-L. & Rocha, R.B. 2012. Ammonites from the Apoderoceras beds (Early Pliensbachian) in Sao Pedro de Muel (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal). Bulletin of Geosciences 87(3), 407-430.View article

Morettini, E., Santantonio, M., Bartolini, A., Cecca, F., Baumgartner, P.O. & Hunziker, J.C. 2002. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy and carbonate production during the Early-Middle Jurassic: examples from the Umbria-Marche-Sabina Apennines (central Italy). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 184, 251-273.View article

Mouterde, R. 1967a. Le Lias du Portugal. Vue d’ensemble et division en zones. Comunicaçoes dos Serviços Geológicos de Portugal 52, 209-226.

Mouterde, R. 1967b. Le Lias moyen de S. Pedro de Muel (Portugal). Comunicaçoes dos Serviços Geológicos de Portugal 52, 185-208.

Mouterde, R., Rocha, R.B. & Delance, J. 1981. Atlas des fossiles caractéristiques du Lias portugais. Ciencias da Terra 6, 49-76.

Ogg, J.G. & Hinnov, L.A. 2012. Jurassic, 731-791. In Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., Schmitz, M.D. & Ogg, G. (eds) The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Elsevier, Oxford, Amsterdam, Waltham.

Oliveira, L.C., Duarte, L.V., Lemos, V.B., Comas-Rengifo, M.J. & Perilli, N. 2007. Bioestratigrafia de nanofósseis calcários e correlaçao com as zonas de amonites do Pliensbaquiano-Toarciano basal (Jurássico inferior) de Peniche (Bacia Lusitânica, Portugal). Actas do XIX Congresso Brasileiro de Paleontologia, Búzios (Brasil), Editora Interciencia, 411-420.

Oliveira, L.C., Duarte, L.V., Silva, R.L. & Rodrigues, R. 2009. Belemnite ?18O and ?13C record of the Lusitanian Basin Pliensbachian carbonate series (Portugal). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, A969 (abstract).

Oliveira, L.C., Rodrigues, R., Duarte, L.V. & Lemos, V. 2006. Avaliaçao do potencial gerador de petróleo e interpretaçao paleoambiental com base em biomarcadores e isótopos estáveis do carbono da seçao Pliensbaquiano-Toarciano inferior (Jurássico inferior) da regiao de Peniche (Bacia Lusitânica, Portugal). Boletim de Geociencias da Petrobras 14(2), 207-234.

Page, K.N. 2003. The Lower Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 1, 23-59

Paredes, R., Comas-Rengifo, M.J. & Duarte, L.V. 2013a. Moluscos bivalves da Formaçao de Água de Madeiros (Sinemuriano Superior) da Bacia Lusitânica (Portugal), 21-27. In Duarte, L.V., Silva, R.L. & Azeredo, A.C. (eds) Fácies carbonatadas ricas em matéria orgânica do Jurássico da Bacia Lusitânica. Novos contributos paleontológicos, sedimentológicos e geoquímicos. Comunicaçoes Geológicas 100, Especial I.

Paredes, R., Comas-Rengifo, M.J., Duarte, L.V. & Goy, A. 2013b. Braquiópodes do Sinemuriano superior da regiao de S. Pedro de Moel e de Peniche (Bacia Lusitânica, Portugal), 29-35. In Duarte, L.V., Silva, R.L. & Azeredo, A.C. (eds) Fácies carbonatadas ricas em matéria orgânica do Jurássico da Bacia Lusitânica. Novos contributos paleontológicos, sedimentológicos e geoquímicos. Comunicaçoes Geológicas 100, Especial I.

Phelps, M. 1985. A refined ammonite biostratigraphy for the Middle and Upper Carixian (ibex and davoei zones, Lower Jurassic) in North-West Europe and stratigraphical details of the Carixian-Domerian boundary. Geobios 18, 321-362.View article

Pittet, B., Suan, G., Lenoir, F., Duarte, L.V. & Mattioli, E. 2014. Carbon isotope evidence for sedimentary discontinuities in the lower Toarcian of the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal): Sea level change at the onset of the Oceanic Anoxic Event. Sedimentary Geology 303, 1-14.View article

Poças Ribeiro, N., Mendonça Filho, J.G., Duarte, L.V., Silva, R.L., Mendonça, J.O. & Silva, T.F. 2013. Palynofacies and organic geochemistry of the Sinemurian carbonate deposits in the western Lusitanian Basin (Portugal): Coimbra and Água de Madeiros formations. International Journal of Coal Geology 111, 37-52.View article

Pompeckj, J.F. 1898. Note sur quelques ammonites du Sinémurien du Portugal. Comunicaçoes da Direcçao de Trabalhos Geológicos de Portugal 3, 210-238.

Pompeckj, J.F. 1906. Notes sur les Oxynoticeras du Sinémurien supérieur du Portugal et remarque sur le genre Oxynoticeras. Comunicaçoes da Direcçao de Trabalhos Geológicos de Portugal 6, 214-338.

Reggiani, L., Matiolli, E., Pittet, B., Duarte, L.V., Oliveira, L.C.V. & Comas-Rengifo, M.J. 2010. Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) calcareous nannofossils from the Peniche section (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal): a clue for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Marine Micropaleontology 75, 1-16.View article

Riding, J.B., Leng, M.J., Kender, S., Hesselbo, S.P. & Feist-Burkhardt, S. 2012. Isotopic and palynological evidence for a new Early Jurassic environmental perturbation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 374, 16-27.View article

Rosales, I., Quesada, S. & Robles, S. 2006. Geochemical arguments for identifying second-order sea-level changes in hemipelagic carbonate ramp deposits. Terra Nova 18, 233-240.View article

Schmid-Rohl, A., Rohl, H.-J., Oschmann, W., Frimmel, A. & Schwark, L. 2002. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of lower Toarcian epicontinental black shales (Posidonia Shale, SW Germany): global versus regional control. Geobios 35, 13-20.View article

Silva, R.L. 2013. Séries carbonatadas ricas em matéria orgânica do Jurássico da Bacia Lusitânica (Portugal): Sedimentologia,Geoquímica e interpretaçao paleoambiental. 250 pp. Ph.D. thesis (unpublished), University of Coimbra.

Silva, R.L., Duarte, L.V., Comas-Rengifo, M.J., Mendonça Filho, J.G. & Azeredo, A.C. 2011. Update of the carbon and oxygen isotopic records of the Early-Late Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic, ~187 Ma): Insights from the organic-rich hemipelagic series of the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal). Chemical Geology 283, 177-184.View article

Silva, R.L, Duarte, L.V. & Mendonça Filho, J.G. 2013. Optical and geochemical characterization of Upper Sinemurian (LowerJurassic) fossil wood from the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal). Geochemical Journal 47(5), 489-498.View article

Silva, R.L., Mendonça Filho, J.G., Da Silva, F.S., Duarte, L.V., Silva, T.F., Ferreira, R. & Azeredo, A.C. 2012. Can biogeochemistry aid in the palaeoenvironmental/early diagenesis reconstruction of the ~187 Ma (Pliensbachian) organic-rich hemipelagic series of the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal)? Bulletin of Geosciences 87(2), 373-382.View article

Soares, A.F., Rocha, R.B., Elmi, S., Henriques, M.H., Mouterde, R., Almeras, Y., Ruget, C., Marques, J., Duarte, L.V., Carapito, C. & Kullberg, J.C. 1993. Le sous-bassin nord-lusitanien (Portugal) du Trias au Jurassique moyen: histoire d’un “rift avorté”. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris 317, 1659-1666.

Suan, G., Mattioli, E., Pittet, B., Lecuyer, C., Sucheras-Marx, B., Duarte, L.V., Philippe, M., Reggiani, L. & Martineau, F. 2010. Secular environmental precursors to Early Toarcian (Jurassic) extreme climate changes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 290, 448-458.View article

Suan, G., Mattioli, E., Pittet, B., Mailliot, S. & Lécuyer, C. 2008a. Evidence for major environmental perturbation prior to and during the Toarcian (Early Jurassic) oceanic anoxic event from the Lusitanian Basin. Paleoceanography 23, PA1202.View article

Suan, G., Pittet, B., Bour, I., Mattioli, E., Duarte, L.V. & Mailliot, S. 2008b. Duration of the Early Toarcian carbon isotope excursion deduced from spectral analysis: Consequences for its possible causes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 267, 666-679.View article

van de Schootbrugge, B., Bailey, T.R., Rosenthal, Y., Katz, M.E., Wright, J.D., Miller, K.G., Feist-Burkhardt, S. & Falkowski, P.G. 2005. Early Jurassic climate change and the radiation of organic-walled phytoplankton in the Tethys Ocean. Paleobiology 31, 73-97.View article

von Breymann, M.T., Swart, P.K., Brass, G.W. & Berner, U. 1991. Pore-water chemistry of the Sulu and Celebes Seas: extensive diagenetic reactions at Sites 767 and 768, 203-216. In Silver, E.A., Rangin, C., von Breymann, M.T. et al. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 124. College Station, TX.View article

Wignall, P.B., Newton, R.J. & Little, C.T.S. 2005. The timing of paleoenvironmental change and cause-and-effect relationships during the Early Jurassic mass extinction in Europe. American Journal of Science 305, 1014-1032.View article

Wilson, R.C.L., Hiscott, R.N., Willis, M.G. & Gradstein, F.M. 1989. The Lusitanian Basin of west-central Portugal: Mesozoic and Tertiary tectonic, stratigraphic and subsidence history, 341-361. In Tankard, A.J. & Balkwill, H.R. (eds) Extensional Tectonics and Stratigraphy of the North Atlantic Margin, AAPG Memoir 46.