Silurian carcinosomatid eurypterids from the Prague Basin (Czech Republic)

 

Authors: Budil P, Manda Š, Tetlie OE

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 89, issue 2; pages: 257 - 267; Received 19 April 2013; Accepted in revised form 6 January 2014; Online 11 March 2014

Keywords: Eurypterida, Carcinosomatidae, Prague Basin, Wenlock, Přídolí,

full text (PDF, 4.33 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

The eurypterid record from the Prague Basin includes occasional Ludlow faunas, but in the uppermost Silurian (Přídolí) eurypterids suddenly become common in relatively deep water facies. Pterygotids clearly dominate these late Silurian faunas, whereas carcinosomatids are represented by the single species Eusarcana acrocephala, known from only a few specimens. This species is revised and its validity is discussed herein. A new eurypterid fauna found in deep water shale facies is described from the lower and middle part of the Motol Formation, Wenlock, Sheinwoodian-Homerian, Cyrtograptus murchisoni to C. lundgreni graptolite biozones, at Praha-Lochkov. It consists of common fragments of the carcinosomatid eurypterid described here as Eusarcana? sp. A and rare possible pterygotid fragments. This is the earliest evidence of carcinosomatids outside Laurentia and one of the earliest records of the group worldwide. This early occurrence outside a hypothetical Laurentian evolutionary centre is discussed with respect to the palaeobiogeography of other faunas colonising peri-Gondwanan basins after the decline of widespread early Silurian anoxia. A previous suggestion that carcinosomatids (presumed basal members of the Carcinosomatoidea) had similar distribution patterns to pterygotoids is discussed. Eurypterids migrated into the peri-Gondwanan realm from the tropical zone, but the dispersion potential of carcinosomatids into the temperate and cool water realm was probably lower than that of pterygotids. In the Prague Basin, the carcinosomatid-dominated fauna of the Wenlock age was replaced in the late Silurian by a pterygotid-dominated fauna.

References

BARRANDE, J. 1872. Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme. 1ere partie: Recherches paléontologique. Supplément au Vol. 1. Trilobites, crustacés divers et poissons. 647 pp. Published by the author, Prague & Paris.

BRADDY, S.J., SELDEN, P.A. & TRUONG, D.N. 2002. A new carcinosomatid eurypterid from the upper Silurian of northern Vietnam. Palaeontology 45, 897-915.View article

BUDIL, P., COLLETTE, J. & MANDA, Š. 2010. An unusual occurrence of the Laurentian phyllocarid crustacean Ceratiocaris papilio Salter in the lower Ludfordian (Silurian) of Bohemia (peri-Gondwana). Bulletin of Geosciences 85, 551-564.View article

BURMEISTER, H. 1843. Die Organisation der Trilobiten, aus ihren lebenden Verwandten entwickelt; nebst einer systematischen Uebersicht aller zeither beschriebenen Arten. 148 pp. Reimer, Berlin.View article

CASTER, K.E. & KJELLESVIG-WAERING, E.N. 1964. Upper Ordovician eurypterids from Ohio. Palaeontographica Americana 4, 300-358.

CHLUPÁČ, I. 1994. Pterygotid eurypterids (Arthropoda, Chelicerata) in the Silurian and Devonian of Bohemia. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 39, 147-162.

CHLUPÁČ, I. 1999. Some problematical arthropods from the Upper Ordovician Letná Formation of Bohemia. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 44, 79-90.

CHLUPÁČ, I., FERRER, E., MAGRANS, J., MANE, R. & SANZ, J. 1997. Early Devonian eurypterids with Bohemian affinities from Catalonia (NE Spain). Batalleria 7, 9-21.

CLARKE, J.M. & RUEDEMANN, R. 1912. The Eurypterida of New York. Vols 1-2. New York State Museum Memoir 14, 1-439.

CLAYPOLE, E.W. 1890. Carcinosoma newlini. American Geologist 6, 400.

COCKS, L.R.M. & TORSVIK, T.H. 2002. Earth geography from 500 to 400 million years ago: a faunal and palaeomagnetic review. Journal of the Geological Society of London 159, 631-644.View article

COCKS, L.R.M. & TORSVIK, T.H. 2006. European geography in a global context from the Vendian to the end of the Palaeozoic, 83-95. In GEE, D.G. & STEPHENSON, R.A. (eds) European lithosphere dynamics. Geological Society of London Memoir 32.

COPE, J.C.W. & KŘÍŽ, J. 2013. The Lower Palaeozoic palaeobiogeography of Bivalvia. Geological Society of London Memoirs 38, 221-241.View article

CORRADINI, C., DELRIO, M., GNOLI, M. & PITTAU, P. 2009. Minor fossil groups in the Silurian of Sardinia, 157-167. In CORRADINI, C., FERRETTI, A. & ŠTORCH, P. (eds) The Silurian of Sardinia. Rendiconti della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 3(1).

DUNLOP, J.A. & LAMSDELL, J.C. 2012. Nomenclatural notes on the eurypterid family Carcinosomatidae. Zoosystematics and Evolution 88, 19-24.View article

ERNST, A., MANDA, S. & ZÁGORŠEK, K. 2011. Cryptostome bryozoan Stictoporella simplex (Počta, 1894) from the Silurian of Bohemia. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 260, 79-85.View article

FATKA, O. & MERGL, M. 2009. The “microcontinent” Perunica: status and story 15 years after conception, 65-101. In BASSETT, M.G. (ed.) Early Palaeozoic peri-Gondwana terranes: new insights from tectonics and biogeography. Geological Society of London Special Publication 325.

GNOLI, M. 1992. Occurrence of eurypterids (Arthropoda) in the Silurian of southwestern Sardinia. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 31, 147-149.

GNOLI, M. 2003. Northern Gondwanan Siluro-Devonian palaeogeography assessed by cephalopods. Palaeontologia Electronica 5, 1-19.

GROTE, A.R. & PITT, W.H. 1875. On new species of Eusarcus and Pterygotus from the Water Lime Group at Buffalo. Buffalo Society of Natural Science, Bulletin 3, 17-20

HAVLÍČEK, V. & ŠTORCH, P. 1990. Silurian brachiopods and benthic communities in the Prague Basin (Czechoslovakia). Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 48, 1-275.

HISTON, K. 2012a. An Alpine immigrant: Phragmoceras Broderip, 1839 from the Silurian of the Carnic Alps (Austria). Geobios 45, 41-48.View article

HISTON, K. 2012b. The Silurian nautiloid-bearing strata of the Cellon Section (Carnic Alps, Austria): color variation related to events. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 367-368, 231-255.View article

ICZN (INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE) 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th edition. 306 pp. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London.

KJELLESVIG-WAERING, E.N. 1958. Some previously unknown morphological structures of Carcinosoma newlini (Claypole). Journal of Paleontology 32, 295-303.

KJELLESVIG-WAERING, E.N. 1961. The Silurian Eurypterida of the Welsh Borderland. Journal of Palaeontology 35, 789-835.

KŘÍŽ, J. 2008. A new bivalve community from the lower Ludlow of the Prague Basin (Perunica, Bohemia). Bulletin of Geosciences 83, 237-280.View article

KŘÍŽ, J., DEGARDIN, J.M., FERRETTI, A., HANSCH, W., GUTTIÉREZ-MARCO, J.C., PARIS, F., PIÇARRA D’ALMEIDA, J.M., ROBARDET, M., SCHÖNLAUB, H.P. & SERPAGLI, E. 2003. Silurian stratigraphy and paleogeography of Gondwanan and Perunican Europe. New York State Museum Bulletin 493, 105-178.

KŘÍŽ, J., JAEGER, H., PARIS, F. & SCHÖNLAUB, H.P. 1986. Přídolí - the fourth subdivision of the Silurian. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 129, 291-360.

KRS, M., PRUNER, P. & MAN, O. 2001. Tectonic and paleogeographic interpretation of the paleomagnetism of Variscan and pre-Variscan formations of the Bohemian Massif, with special reference to the Barrandian terrane. Tectonophysics 332, 93-114.View article

LAMSDELL, J.C. & BRADDY, S.J. 2010. Cope’s Rule and Romer’s theory: patterns of diversity and gigantism in eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates. Biology Letters 6(2), 265-269.View article

LAMSDELL, J.C., HOşGÖR, I. & SELDEN, P.A. 2013. A new Ordovician eurypterid (Arthropoda: Chelicerata) from southeast Turkey: evidence for a cryptic Ordovician record of Eurypterida. Gondwana Research 23, 354-366.View article

LAMSDELL, J.C. & SELDEN, P.A. 2013. Babes in the wood - a unique window into sea scorpion ontogeny. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13 (98), 1-46.

MANDA, Š. 2007. New Silurian nautiloids Phragmoceras Broderip, 1839 and Tubiferoceras Hedström, 1917 from the Prague Basin (Bohemia). Bulletin of Geosciences 82, 119-131.View article

MANDA, Š. 2008. Palaeoecology and palaeogeographic relations of the Silurian phragmoceratids (Nautiloidea, Cephalopoda) of the Prague Basin (Bohemia). Bulletin of Geosciences 83, 39-62.View article

MANDA, Š. & FRÝDA, J. 2010. Silurian-Devonian boundary events and their influence on cephalopod evolution: evolutionary significance of cephalopod egg size during mass extinctions. Bulletin of Geosciences 85, 513-540.View article

MANDA, Š. & KŘÍŽ, J. 2006. Environmental and biotic changes in subtropical isolated carbonate platforms during the late Silurian Kozlowskii Event, Prague Basin. GFF 128, 161-168.View article

MANDA, Š., ŠTORCH, P., SLAVÍK, L., FRÝDA, J., KŘÍŽ, J. & TASÁRYOVÁ, Z. 2012. The graptolite, conodont and sedimentary record through the late Ludlow Kozlowskii Event (Silurian) in the shale-dominated succession of Bohemia. Geological Magazine 149, 507-531.View article

MERGL, M. 2006. A review of Silurian discinoid brachiopods from historical British localities. Bulletin of Geosciences 81, 215-236.View article

MERGL, M. 2010. A review of Silurian discinoid brachiopods from Gotland, Sweden. Bulletin of Geosciences 85, 367-384.View article

MURCHISON, R.I. 1859. Siluria. The history of the oldest known rocks containing organic remains, with a brief sketch of the distribution of gold over the Earth. 2nd edition. 592 pp. John Murray, London.

NOVÁK, O.P. MS. Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme. Part of unpublished manuscript housed in the Department of Palaeontology of the National Museum, Prague.

PERNER, J. 1898. Rozhledy vědecké, geologie a paleontologie. Vesmír 30, 42-43.

PERTY, M. 1833. Delectus animalium articulorum, quae in itinere per Brasilia anni 1817-1820 peracta collegerunt J.B. Spix et de Martius. 205 pp. Friedrich Fleischer, Monachii.

PRANTL, F. & PŘIBYL, A. 1948. Revise různorepých (Eurypterida) z českého siluru. Rozpravy Státního geologického ústavu Československé republiky 10, 1-116.

SCOTESE, C.R. & MCKERROW, W.S. 1990. Revised world maps and introduction, 1-21. In MCKERROW, W.S. & SCOTESE, C.R. (eds) Palaeozoic palaeogeography and biogeography. Geological Society of London Memoir 12.

SEEMANN, F. 1906. Beiträge zur Gigantostrakenfauna Böhmens. Beiträge zur Paläontologie und Geologie Österreich-Ungarns und des Orients 19, 49-57.

SEMPER, M. 1898. Die Gigantostraken des älteren Böhmischen Paläozoicum. Beiträge zur Paläontologie und Geologie Österreich-Ungarns und des Orients 11, 71-88.

STAMPFLI, G.M., RAUMER, J.F. & BOREL, G.D. 2002. Paleozoic evolution of pre-Variscan terranes: from Gondwana to the Variscan collision. Geological Society of America Special Paper 364, 263-280.

ŠTORCH, P. 1994. Graptolite biostratigraphy of the lower Silurian (Llandovery and Wenlock) of Bohemia. Geological Journal 29, 137-165.View article

ŠTORCH, P. 1995. Upper Silurian (upper Ludlow) graptolites of the N. inexpectatus and N. kozlowskii biozones from Kosov Quarry near Beroun (Barrandian area, Bohemia). Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey 70, 65-89.

STORMER, L. 1934. Merostomata from the Downtonian sandstone of Ringerike, Norway. Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo. I. Matematisk-Naturvidenskapelig Klasse 10, 1-125.

STORMER, L. 1955. Merostomata, 4-41. In MOORE, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part P. Arthropoda 2. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.

STRAND, E. 1942. Miscellanea nomenclatoria zoologica et palaeontologica. X. Folia Zoologica et Hydrobiologica 11, 386-402.

TETLIE, O.E. 2004. Eurypterid phylogeny with remarks on the origin of arachnids. 320 pp. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bristol, UK.

TETLIE, O.E. 2007. Distribution and dispersal history of Eurypterida (Chelicerata). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252, 557-574.View article

TOLLERTON, V.P. 1989. Morphology, taxonomy, and classification of the Order Eurypterida Burmeister, 1843. Journal of Paleontology 63, 642-657.

TORSVIK, T.H. & COCKS, L.R.M. 2004. Earth geography from 400 to 250 Ma: a palaeomagnetic, faunal and facies review. Journal of the Geological Society of London 161, 555-572.View article

TUREK, V. & MANDA, Š. 2011. Colour pattern polymorphism in Silurian nautiloid Phragmoceras Broderip, 1839. Bulletin of Geosciences 86, 91-105.View article

TUREK, V. & MANDA, Š. 2012. “An endocochleate experiment” in the Silurian straight-shelled cephalopod Sphooceras. Bulletin of Geosciences 87, 767-813.View article

WILDE, P., BERRY, W.B.N. & QUINBY-HUNNT, M.S. 1991. Silurian oceanic and atmospheric circulation and chemistry. Special Papers in Palaeontology 44, 123-143.

WOODWARD, H. 1868. On some new species of Crustacea from the Upper Silurian rocks of Lanarkshire &c; and further observations on the structure of Pterygotus. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 24, 289-296.View article