Sequence stratigraphy and platform to basin margin facies transition of the Lower Cretaceous Dariyan Formation (northeastern Arabian Plate, Zagros fold-thrust belt, Iran)


Authors: Moosavizadeh SMA, Mahboubi A, Moussavi-Harami R, Kavoosi MA, Schlagintweit F

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 90, issue 1; pages: 145 - 172; Received 2 February 2013; Accepted in revised form 27 October 2013; Online 6 January 2015

Keywords: Dariyan Formation, Aptian, Arabian Plate, Zagros, sequence stratigraphy,

full text (PDF, 6.85 MB)

Export to RIS



The Lower Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Dariyan Formation (northeastern Arabian Plate, Iran) represents the youngest sediments of the Khami group in the Zagros fold belt. This study is based on six sections located in the Izeh Zone and Interior Fars Province documenting transition from platform to a basin margin facies. Three assemblage zones based on benthic foraminifers have been identified and provide an early Aptian-early Albian age. Petrographic and microfacies analyses characterize thirteen carbonate microfacies and two mud rock lithofacies-types. The vertical and lateral facies variations observed in this study for the Dariyan Formation are in agreement with a depositional environment going from a homoclinal carbonate ramp to margin of intra-shelf basin type. Based on the identification of three sequence boundaries (SB), the Dariyan Formation sediments has been divided into three 2nd-order depositional sequences which encompasses six and five 3rd-order sequences in the margin of intra-shelf basin and the shallow platform settings, respectively. The early Aptian sea-level rise led to the extension of the carbonate platform and deposition of pelagic facies as a maximum flooding surface on margin of intra-shelf basin. In the late Aptian highstand phase, the platform was exposed as a result of glacio-eustatic mechanisms, whereas sediments continued to accumulate in the margin of intra-shelf basin. This study supports the general paleogeography of the studied area documented by previous studies and provides better insight to the interpretation of the evolution in this area and other similar basins.


Al-Fares, A.A., Bouman, M. & Jeans, P. 1998. A new look at the Lower to Middle Cretaceous stratigraphy, offshore Kuwait. GeoArabia 3, 543-560.

Al-Gamdi, N.M. 2006. Facies, sequence framework and evolution of rudist buildups, Shuaiba Formation, Saudi Arabia. 87 pp. M.Sc. thesis, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.

Afzal, J., Williams, M., Leng, M.J. & Aldridge, R.J. 2011. Dynamic response of the shallow marine benthic ecosystem to regional and pan-Tethyan environmental change at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 309, 141-160.View article

Alavi, M. 1980. Tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Zagrosides of Iran. Geology 8, 144-149.View article

Alavi, M. 1994. Tectonics of the Zagros orogenic belt of Iran: new data and interpretations. Tectonophysics 229, 211-238.View article

Alavi, M. 2004. Regional stratigraphy of the Zagros fold-thrust belt of Iran and its proforeland evolution. American Journal of Science 304, 1-20.View article

Alavi, M. 2007. Structures of the Zagros fold-thrust belt in Iran. American Journal of Science 307, 1064-1095.View article

Armella, C., Cabaleri, N.G., Cagnoni, M.C. & Panarello, H.O. 2013. Early Callovian ingression in southwestern Gondwana. Palaeoenvironmental evolution of the carbonate ramp (Calabozo Formation) in southwestern Mendoza, Neuquen basin, Argentina. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 45, 293-315.View article

Azzam, I.N. & Taher, A.K. 1995. Sequence stratigraphy and source rock potential of Aptian (Bap Member) in east offshore Abu Dhabi: A model approach to oil exploration. Proceedings of the Society of Petroleum Engineers 9th Middle East Oil Show, Paper SPE 29802, 305-317.

Bachmann, M. & Hirsch, F. 2006. Lower Cretaceous carbonate platform of the eastern Levant (Galilee and the Golan Heights): stratigraphy and second-order sea-level change. Cretaceous Research 27, 487-512.View article

Bassi, D. 2005. Larger foraminiferal and coralline algal facies in an Upper Eocene storm-influenced, shallow-water carbonate platform (Colli Berici, north-eastern Italy). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 226, 17-35.View article

Bassi, D. & Nebelsick, J.H. 2010. Components, facies and ramps: redefining Upper Oligocene shallow water carbonates using coralline red algae and larger foraminifera (Venetian area, northeast Italy). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 295, 258-280.View article

Berberian, M. & King, G. 1981. Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 18, 210-265.View article

Bordenave, M.L. & Burwood, R. 1990. Source rock distribution and maturation in the Zagros orogenic belt, Provenance of the Asmari and Sarvak reservoir oil accumulation. Organic Geochemistry 16, 369-387.View article

Bover-Arnal, T., Salas, R., Moreno-Bedmar, J.A. & Bitzer, K. 2009. Sequence stratigraphy and architecture of a late Early-Middle Aptian carbonate platform succession from the western Maestrat Basin (Iberian Chain, Spain). Sedimentary Geology 219, 280-301.View article

Burchette, T. & Wright, V. 1992. Carbonate ramp depositional systems. Sedimentary Geology 79, 3-57.View article

Calavan, C.W., Hagerty, R.M., Mitchell, J.C. & Schutter, S.R. 1992. Integrated Reservoir and Modeling of the Shuaiba Reservoir, Bu Hasan Field, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. Proceedings of the Society of Petroleum Engineers 5th Abu Dhabi Petroleum Conference, Paper SPE 24509, 299-312.

Cantalamessa, G., Di Celma, C. & Ragaini, L. 2006. Tectonic controls on sequence stacking pattern and along-strike architecture in the Pleistocene Mejillones Formation, northern Chile: implications for sequence stratigraphic models. Sedimentary Geology 183, 125-144.View article

Catuneanu, O. 2006. Principle of Sequence Stratigraphy. 386 pp. Elsevier, New York.

Catuneanu, O., Abreu, V., Bhattacharya, J., Blum, M., Dalrymple, R., Eriksson, P., Fielding, C.R., Fisher, W., Galloway, W. & Gibling, M. 2009. Towards the standardization of sequence stratigraphy. Earth-Science Reviews 92, 1-33.View article

Chatalov, A. 2013. A Triassic homoclinal ramp from the Western Tethyan realm, Western Balkanides, Bulgaria: Integrated insight with special emphasis on the Anisian outer to inner ramp facies transition. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 386, 34-58.View article

Corda, L. & Brandano, M. 2003. Aphotic zone carbonate production on a Miocene ramp, Central Apennines, Italy. Sedimentary Geology 161, 55-70.View article

Cosovic, V., Drobne, K. & Moro, A. 2004. Paleoenvironmental model for Eocene foraminiferal limestones of the Adriatic carbonate platform (Istrian Peninsula). Facies 50, 61-75.View article

Danelian, T., De Wever, P. & Azéma, J. 1997. Palaeoceanographic significance of new and revised palaeontological datings for the onset of Vigla Limestone sedimentation in the Ionian Zone of Greece. Geological Magazine 134, 869-872.View article

Davies, R.B., Casey, D.M., Horbury, A.D., Sharland, P.R. & Simmons, M.D. 2002. Early to mid-Cretaceous mixed carbonate-siliciclastic shelfal systems: examples, issues and models from the Arabian plate. GeoArabia 7, 541-598.

Dickson, J.A.D. 1966. Carbonate identification and genesis as revealed by staining. Journal of Sedimentary Research 36, 441-505.

Droste, H. 1990. Depositional cycles and source rock development in an epeiric intraplatform basin: The Hanifa Formation of the Arabian Peninsula. Sedimentary Geology 69, 281-296.View article

Dunham, R.J. 1962. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture, 108-121. In Ham, W.E. (ed.) Classification of Carbonate Rocks. American Assocciation of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 1.

Elkhazri, A., Abdallah, H., Razgallah, S., Moullade, M. & Kuhnt, W. 2012. Carbon-isotope and microfaunal stratigraphy bounding the Lower Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a in northeastern Tunisia. Cretaceous Research 39, 133-148.View article

Ellis, G. & Baumgartner, P. 1995. Austral shallow-water radiolarites - implications for the global cycling of silicon and carbon in the Mid-Cretaceous. European Union of Geosciences 8, 225.

Embry, A.F. & Klovan, J.E. 1971. A late Devonian reef tract on northeastern Banks Island, NWT. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 19, 730-781.

Frakes, L.A., Francis, J.E. & Syktus, J.I. 2005. Climate modes of the Phanerozoic. 182 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press.

Flügel, E. 2010. Microfacies of carbonate rocks: analysis, interpretation and application. 984 pp. Springer Verlag, Berlin.View article

Galloway, W.E. 1989. Genetic stratigraphic sequences in basin analysis I: architecture and genesis of flooding-surface bounded depositional units. American Assocciation of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 73, 125-142.

Ghabeishavi, A., Vaziri-Moghaddam, H., Taheri, A. & Taati, F. 2010. Microfacies and depositional environment of the Cenomanian of the Bangestan Anticline, SW Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 37, 275-285.View article

Gharsalli, R., Zouaghi, T., Soussi, M., Chebbi, R., Khomsi, S. & Bedir, M. 2013. Seismic sequence stratigraphy of Miocene deposits related to eustatic, tectonic and climatic events, Cap Bon Peninsula, northeastern Tunisia. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 345(9-10), 401-417.View article

Gorican, S., Pavsic, J. & Rozic, B. 2012. Bajocian to Tithonian age of radiolarian chert in the Tolmin basin (NW Slovenia). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183, 369-382.View article

Grotsch, J., Billing, I. & Vahrenkamp, V. 1998. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy in shallow-water carbonates: Implications for Cretaceous black-shale deposition. Sedimentology 45, 623-634.View article

Haq, B.U., Hardenbol, J. & Vail, P.R. 1988. Mesozoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and cycles of sea-level change. Society of Economic Palaeontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 42, 71-108.

Heldt, M., Lehmann, J., Bachmann, M., Negra, H. & Kuss, J. 2010. Increased terrigenous influx but no drowning: palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Tunisian carbonate platform margin during the Late Aptian. Sedimentology 57, 695-719.View article

Hu, X., Zhao, K., Yilmaz, I.O. & Li, Y. 2012. Stratigraphic transition and palaeoenvironmental changes from the Aptian oceanic anoxic event 1a (OAE1a) to the oceanic red bed 1 (ORB1) in the Yenicesihlar section, central Turkey. Cretaceous Research 38, 40-51.View article

Heimhofer, U., Hochuli, P.A., Burla, S. & Weissert, H. 2007. New records of Early Cretaceous angiosperm pollen from Portuguese coastal deposits: implications for the timing of the early angiosperm radiation. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 144, 39-76.View article

Heydari, E. 2008. Tectonics versus eustatic control on supersequences of the Zagros Mountains of Iran. Tectonophysics 451, 56-70.View article

Huck, S., Rameil, N., Korbar, T., Heimhofer, U., Wieczorek, T.D. & Immenhauser, A. 2010. Latitudinally different responses of Tethyan shoal-water carbonate systems to the Early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE 1a). Sedimentology 57, 1585-1614.View article

Hughes, G. 2000. Saudi Arabian Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous agglutinated foraminiferal associations and their application for age, palaeoenvironmental interpretation, sequence stratigraphy, and carbonate reservoir architecture. Grzybowski Foundation Special Publication 7, 149-165.

Jahani, D., Peyman, F. & Jamali, A. 2009. Facies analysis and sedimentary environment of the Gadvan Formation in the Kuzeh-Kuh Anticline, Northeast of Nurabad. Journal of Sediment and Sedimentary Rock 2, 1-12.

James, G. & Wynd, J. 1965. Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian oil consortium agreement area. American Assocciation of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 49, 2182-2245.

Jenkyns, H.C. 2010. Geochemistry of oceanic anoxic events. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 11(3), Q03004.View article

Khalifa, M.A., Abu El-Ghar, M.S., Helal, S.A. & Hussein, A.W. 2013. Sequence stratigraphy of the Cenomanian Galala Formation, north Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences 89, 133-148.View article

Laya, J.C. & Tucker, M.E. 2012. Facies analysis and depositional environments of Permian carbonates of the Venezuelan Andes: Palaeogeographic implications for Northern Gondwana. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 331, 1-26.View article

Leckie, R.M., Bralower, T.J. & Cashman, R. 2002. Oceanic anoxic events and plankton evolution: Biotic response to tectonic forcing during the mid-Cretaceous. Paleoceanography 17, 10-41.View article

Lü, C., Wu, S., Yao, Y. & Fulthorpe, C.S. 2013. Development and controlling factors of Miocene carbonate platform in the Nam Con Son Basin, southwestern South China Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology 45, 55-68.View article

Mancinelli, A. 2006. Acroporella cairensis n. sp. (Dasycladales) from the Barremian of Monte Cairo (southern Latium, Italy). Facies 52, 411-416.View article

Masse, J.P. 1993. Valanginian-early Aptian carbonate platforms from Provence, southeastern France. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 56, 363-374.

Masse, J.P., Fenerci, M. & Pernarcic, E. 2003. Palaeobathymetric reconstruction of peritidal carbonates: Late Barremian, Urgonian sequences of Provence (SE France). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 200, 65-81.View article

Matthews, R.K. & Frohlich, C. 2002. Maximum flooding surfaces and sequence boundaries: comparisons between observations and orbital forcing in the Cretaceous and Jurassic (65-190 Ma). GeoArabia 7, 502-538.

Maurer, F., Al-Mehsin, K., Pierson, B.J., Eberli, G.P., Warrlich, G., Drysdale, D. & Droste, H.J. 2010. Facies characteristics and architecture of Upper Aptian Shu’aiba clinoforms in Abu Dhabi. GeoArabia 2, 445-468.

Maurer, F., van Buchem, F.S., Eberli, G.P., Pierson, B.J., Raven, M.J., Larsen, P.H., Al-Husseini, M.I. & Vincent, B. 2012. Late Aptian long-lived glacio-eustatic lowstand recorded on the Arabian Plate. Terra Nova 25(2), 87-94.View article

Medvedev, A.L., Lopatin, A.Y. & Masalkin, Y.V. 2011. Comparative characteristics of the lithological composition of the incised valley ?ll and host sediments of the Vikulovo Formation, Kamenny Area, West Siberia. Lithology and Mineral Resources 46(4), 369-381.View article

Mehay, S., Keller, C.E., Bernasconi, S.M., Weissert, H., Erba, E., Bottini, C. & Hochuli, P.A. 2009. A volcanic CO2 pulse triggered the Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a and a biocalcification crisis. Geology 37, 819-822.View article

Moosavizadeh, M.A., Mahboubi, A., Moussavi-Harami, R. & Kavoosi, M.A. 2013 (in press). Early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE 1a) in Northeastern Arabian Plate setting: an example from Dariyan Formation in Zagros fold-thrust belt, SE Iran. Arabian Journal of Geosciences.View article

Motiei, H. 1993. Treatise of geology of Iran 1. Stratigraphy of Zagros. 536 pp. Iran Geological Survey Publication, Tehran. [in Persian]

Navabpour, P., Angelier, J. & Barrier, E. 2010. Mesozoic extensional brittle tectonics of the Arabian passive margin, inverted in the Zagros collision (Iran, interior Fars), 65-96. In Leturmy, P. & Robin, C. (eds) Tectonic and Stratigraphy Evolution of Zagros and Makran during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 330.

Nazariyan, M. 2007. Microfacies, sedimentary environment and sequence stratigraphy of Dariyan Formation in Sivand and Dashtak sections. 147 pp. M.Sc. thesis, Islamic Azad University, Tehran.

Palma, R.M., Lopez-Gomez, J. & Piethe, R.D. 2007. Oxfordian ramp system (La Manga Formation) in the Bardas Blancas area (Mendoza Province) Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Facies and depositional sequences. Sedimentary Geology 195, 113-134.View article

Payros, A. & Pujalte, V. 2008. Calciclastic submarine fans: An integrated overview. Earth-Science Reviews 86, 203-246.View article

Payros, A., Pujalte, V., Tosquella, J. & Orue-Etxebarria, X. 2010. The Eocene storm-dominated foralgal ramp of the western Pyrenees (Urbasa-Andia Formation): An analogue of future shallow-marine carbonate systems? Sedimentary Geology 228, 184-204.View article

Penney, S.J. & Racey, A. 2004. Ecology of extant nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera: applications in palaeoenvironmental analysis. Earth-Science Reviews 67, 219-265.View article

Pérez-López, A. & Pérez-Valera, F. 2012. Tempestite facies models for the epicontinental Triassic carbonates of the Betic Cordillera (southern Spain). Sedimentology 59(2), 646-678.View article

Peyman, F., Jahani, D., Jamali, A.M. & Kavoosi, M.A. 2010. Eustasy and tectonic control on facies and sedimentary environment of Upper Khami deposits in East and West Kazerun fault, SW Iran. International Applied Geological Congress, Department of Geology, Islamic Azad University - Mashad Branch, Iran, 26-28 April, 1509-1514.

Piryaei, A., Reijmer, J., Borgomano, J. & van Buchem, F. 2011. Late Cretaceous tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Bandar Abbas area, Fars region, southern Iran. Journal of Petroleum Geology 34(2), 157-180.View article

Piryaei, A., Reijmer, J.J.G., van Buchem, F.S.P., Yazdi-Moghadam, M., Sadouni, J. & Danelian, T. 2010. The influence of Late Cretaceous tectonic processes on sedimentation patterns along the northeastern Arabian plate margin (Fars Province, SW Iran), 211-251. In Leturmy, P. & Robin, C. (eds) Tectonic and Stratigraphy Evolution of Zagros and Makran during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 330.

Pittet, B., van Buchem, F.S.P., Hillgärtner, H., Razin, P., Grötsch, J. & Droste, H. 2002. Ecological succession, palaeoenvironmental change, and depositional sequences of Barremian-Aptian shallow-water carbonates in northern Oman. Sedimentology 49, 555-581.View article

Pomar, L. 2001. Types of carbonate platforms: a genetic approach. Basin Research 13, 313-334.View article

Pomar, L., Bassant, P., Brandano, M., Ruchonnet, C. & Janson, X. 2012. Impact of carbonate producing biota on platform architecture: Insights from Miocene examples of the Mediterranean region. Earth-Science Reviews 113, 186-211.View article

Rameil, N., Immenhauser, A., Csoma, A.É. & Warrlich, G. 2012. Surfaces with a long history: the Aptian top Shu’aiba Formation unconformity, Sultanate of Oman. Sedimentology 59(1), 212-248.View article

Raven, M.J., van Buchem, F.S.P., Larsen, P.H., Surlyk, F., Steinhardt, H., Cross, D., Klem, N. & Emang, M. 2010. Late Aptian incised valleys and siliciclastic in?ll at the top of Shuaiba Formation (Block 5, o?shore Qatar). GeoArabia, Special Publication 4, 469-502.

Razin, P., Taati, F. & van Buchem, F.S.P. 2010. Sequence stratigraphy of Cenomanian-Turonian carbonate platform margins (Sarvak Formation) in the High Zagros, SW Iran: an outcrop reference model for the Arabian Plate. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 329, 187-218.View article

Read, J.F. 1985. Carbonate platform facies models. American Assocciation of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 69, 1-21.

Rodríguez-López, J.P., Meléndez, N., de Boer, P.L. & Soria, A.R. 2008. Aeolian sand sea development along the mid-Cretaceous western Tethyan margin (Spain): erg sedimentology and palaeoclimate implications. Sedimentology 55, 1253-1292.View article

Romero, J., Caus, E. & Rosell, J. 2002. A model for the palaeoenvironmental distribution of larger foraminifera based on late Middle Eocene deposits on the margin of the South Pyrenean basin (NE Spain). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 179, 43-56.View article

Rubert, Y., Jati, M., Loisy, C., Cerepi, A., Foto, G. & Muska, K. 2012. Sedimentology of resedimented carbonates: Facies and geometrical characterisation of an upper Cretaceous calciturbidite system in Albania. Sedimentary Geology 257, 63-77.View article

Saber, S.G. 2012. Depositional framework and sequence stratigraphy of the Cenomanian-Turonian rocks on the western side of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Cretaceous Research 37, 300-318.View article

Safari, F. 2007. Microbiostratigraphy of Dariyan Formation in Dashtak and Sivand sections, Fars area, and correlation with Sarvestan Well-3. 169 pp. M.Sc. thesis, Tehran University, Tehran.

Sahagian, D., Pinous, O., Olferiev, A. & Zakharov, V. 1996. Eustatic curve for the Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous based on Russian platform and Siberian stratigraphy: zonal resolution. American Assocciation of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 80, 1433-1458.

Schlager, W. 2005. Carbonate sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy. 208 pp. SEPM, Society for Sedimentary Geology, Oklahoma.

Schroeder, R., van Buchem, F., Cherchi, A., Baghbani, D., Vincent, B., Immenhauser, A. & Granier, B. 2010. Revised orbitolinid biostratigraphic zonation for the Barremian - Aptian of the eastern Arabian Plate and implications for regional stratigraphic correlations. GeoArabia Special Publication 4, 49-96.

Sedaghat, R. 1982. The sedimentology of the Upper Khami Group, Lower Cretaceous, in East Khuzestan, Southwest Iran. 304 pp. Ph.D. thesis, University of London, London.

Sepehr, M. & Cosgrove, J. 2004. Structural framework of the Zagros fold-thrust belt, Iran. Marine and Petroleum Geology 21(7), 829-843.View article

Setudehnia, A. 1976. The Paleozoic sequence at Zard Kuh and Kuh-e-Dinar. Bulletin of the Iranian Petroleum Institute 60, 16-33.

Sharland, P.R., Archer, R., Casey, D.M., Davies, R.B., Hall, S.H., Heward, A.P., Horbury, A.D. & Simmons, M.D. 2001. Arabian Plate sequence stratigraphy. GeoArabia, Special Publication 2, 1-371.

Sherkati, S. & Letouzey, J. 2004. Variation of structural style and basin evolution in the central Zagros (Izeh zone and Dezful Embayment), Iran. Marine and Petroleum Geology 21(5), 535-554.View article

Simmons, M.D. 1994. Micropalaeontological biozonation of the Kahmah Group (Early Cretaceous), central Oman Mountains, 177-219. In Simmons, M.D. (ed.) Micropalaeontology and Hydrocarbon Exploration in the Middle East. Chapman and Hall, London.

Simmons, M., Whittaker, J. & Jones, R. 2000. Orbitolinids from Cretaceous sediments of the Middle East - A revision of the FRS Henson and Associates Collection, 411-437. In Hart, M.B., Kaminski, M.A. & Smart, C.W. (eds) Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera, Grzybowski Foundation Special Publication 7.

Skelton, P.W. & Gili, E. 2012. Rudists and carbonate platforms in the Aptian: a case study on biotic interactions with ocean chemistry and climate. Sedimentology 59(1), 81-117.View article

Spengler, A.E. & Read, J.F. 2010. Sequence development on a sediment-starved, low accommodation epeiric carbonate ramp: Silurian Wabash Platform, USA mid-continent during icehouse to greenhouse transition. Sedimentary Geology 224, 84-115.View article

Tomas, S., Loser, H. & Salas, R. 2008. Low-light and nutrient-rich coral assemblages in an Upper Aptian carbonate platform of the southern Maestrat Basin (Iberian Chain, eastern Spain). Cretaceous Research 29, 509-534.View article

Vail, P., Audemard, F., Bowman, S. & Eisner, P. 1991. The stratigraphic signatures of tectonics, eustasy and sedimentology - an overview, 617-659. In Einsle, G., Ricken, W. & Seilacher, A. (eds) Cycles and Events in Stratigraphy. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

van Buchem, F.S.P., Baghbani, D., Bulot, L.G., Caron, M., Gaumet, F., Hosseini, A., Keyvani, F., Schroeder, R., Swennen, R. & Vedrenne, V. 2010. Barremian-Lower Albian sequence stratigraphy of southwest Iran (Gadvan, Dariyan and Kazhdumi formations) and its comparison with Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, Barremian-Aptian stratigraphy and hydrocarbon habitat of the eastern Arabian Plate. GeoArabia Special Publication 4, 503-548.

van Buchem, F., Pittet, B., Hillgarten, H., Grotsch, J., Al-Mansouri, A., Billing, I., Droste, H., Oterdoom, H. & van Steenwinkel, M. 2002. High-resolution sequence stratigraphic architecture of the Barremian-Aptian carbonate systems in northern Oman and the United Arab Emirates Kharaib and Shu‘aiba Formations. GeoArabia 7, 461-500.

van Wagoner, J., Mitchum, R., Campion, K. & Rahmanian, V. 1990. Siliciclastic sequence stratigraphy in well logs, cores, and outcrops: Concept of high-resolution correlation of time and facies. American Assocciation of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, Methods in Exploration 7, 55.

van Wagoner, J., Posamentier, H., Mitchum, R., Vail, P., Sarg, J., Loutit, T. & Hardenbol, J. 1988. An overview of the fundamentals of sequence stratigraphy and key de?nitions, 39-45. In Wilgus, C.K., Posamentier, H., Hastings, B.S., van Wagoner, J., Ross, C.A. & Kendall, C.G.S.C. (eds) Sea-level changes - an integrated approach. SEPM Special Publication 42.View article

Vaziri-Moghaddam, H., Kimiagari, M. & Taheri, A. 2006. Depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation in SW Iran. Facies 52, 41-51.View article

Weissert, H. & Erba, E. 2004. Volcanism, CO2 and palaeoclimate: a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous carbon and oxygen isotope record. Journal of the Geological Society 161(4), 695-702.View article

Weissert, H., Lini, A., Föllmi, K.B. & Kuhn, O. 1998. Correlation of Early Cretaceous carbon isotope stratigraphy and platform drowning events: a possible link. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 137, 189-203.View article

Wilson, J.L. 1975. Carbonate Facies in Geologic History. 471 pp. Springer, New York.View article

Witt, W. & Gökdag, H. 1994. Orbitolinid biostratigraphy of the Shuaiba Formation (Aptian), Oman-Implications for reservoir development, 221-234. In Simmons, M.D. (ed.) Micropalaeontology and Hydrocarbon Exploration in the Middle East. Chapman and Hall, London.

Yose, L.A., Ruf, A.S., Strohmenger, C.J., Schuelke, J.S., Gombos, A., Al-Hosani, I., Al-Maskary, S., Bloch, G., Al-Mehairi, Y. & Johnson, I.G. 2006. Three dimensional characterization of a heterogeneous carbonate reservoir, Lower Cretaceous, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates), 173-212. In Harris, P.M. & Weber, L.J. (eds) Giant Hydrocarbon Reservoirs of the World: From Rock to Reservoir Characterization and Modeling. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 88.

Ziegler, M.A. 2001. Late Permian to Holocene paleofacies evolution of the Arabian Plate and its hydrocarbon occurrences. GeoArabia 6, 445-504.