Tracing the Eocene–Oligocene transition: a case study from North Bohemia

 

Authors: Kvaček Z, Teodoridis V, Mach K, Přikryl T, Dvořák Z

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 89, issue 1; pages: 21 - 66; Received 28 January 2013; Accepted in revised form 10 October 2013; Online 12 December 2013

Keywords: flora, fauna, climate, vegetation, late Eocene, early Oligocene, boundary,

full text (PDF, 6.34 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

Geology and palaeontology of the Roudniky area, situated between the Most Basin and the Česke středohoři Mountains in North Bohemia, the Czech Republic, is treated in detail. The volcano-sedimentary structure underlying the basin with the included fossiliferous layers is newly interpreted as a maar-diatreme. The radiometric age of the basalts was determined to 35.± 0.9 Ma and 37.1 ± 0.9 Ma – late Eocene, Priabonian. The fish fauna consists of amiids characteristic of other adjacent late Eocene sites while the co-occurring macroflora includes many elements that are typical of the Oligocene. Closest relations are to the fauna and flora of the Větruše Hill at Usti nad Labem. Based on palaeoclimatic estimates the major turnover from subtropical to warm-temperate climatic regimes in North Bohemia appears to have initiated in the late Eocene by an increase of seasonality and the resulting vegetation change from the evergreen to mixed mesophytic forest types well before the maximum temperature drop of mean annual temperature at ca 33.5 Ma.

References

Adams, R.P. 2008. Junipers of the World. The genus Juniperus. 2nd ed. 402 pp. Trafford publishing, Victoria, British Columbia.

Agassiz, L. 1833-1844. Recherches sur les Poissons Fossiles. 1420 pp. Petitpierre, Neuchatel.

Akhmetiev, M., Walther, H. & Kvaček, Z. 2009. Mid-latitude Palaeogene floras of Eurasia bound to volcanic settings and palaeoclimatic events - experience obtained from the Far East of Russia (Sikhote-Alin’) and Central Europe (Bohemian Massif). Acta Musei nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 65(3-4), 61-129.

Bellon, H., Bůžek, Č., Gaudant, J., Kvaček, Z. & Walther, H. 1998. The České středohoří magmatic complex in Northern Bohemia 40K-40Ar ages for volcanism and biostratigraphy of the Cenozoic freshwater formations. Newsletters on Stratigraphy 36, 77-103.View article

Bevelander, G. 1934. The Gills of Amia calva Specialized for Respiration in an Oxygen Deficient Habitat. Copeia 1934, 123-127.View article

Böhme, M. 2007. Revision of the cyprinids from the Early Oligocene of the České středohoří Mountains, and the phylogenetic relationships of Protothymallus Laube 1901 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Gobioninae). Acta Musei nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 63, 175-194.

Bonaparte, C.L. 1831-1832. Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli animali vertebrati. Prospetto del sistema generale d’Ittiologia. Giornale Arcadico di Scienze Lettere ed Arti 52, 155-189.

Bonaparte, C.L. 1846. Catalogo metodico dei pesci europei. Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani, Napoli, Part 2, 1-95.View article

Brongniart, A. 1828. Notice sur les plantes d’Armissan pres Narbonne. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique, Série 1, 15, 43-51.

Bronn, H.G. 1838. Lethaea geognostica 2. 543-1346 pp. E. Schweizerbart’s Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart.

Brown, R.W. 1935. Miocene leaves, fruits and seeds of Cercidiphyllum. Journal of Paleontology 13, 485-499.

Budantsev, L.Y. & Golovneva, L.B. 2009. Fossil flora of Arctic II. Paleogene Flora of Spitsbergen. 400 pp. Marafon, Sankt Peterburg.

Bůžek, Č. 1967. Paleontologické výzkumy terciéru na území M-3-53-A Ústí nad Labem. MS Geofond, P 19929/16, Praha.

Bůžek, Č. 1971. Tertiary flora from the northern part of the Pětipsy area (North-Bohemian Basin). Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 36(1), 1-118.

Bůžek, Č. 1990. Výsledky provedeného výzkumu ÚÚG Praha, Paleontologie terciéru, 8-21. In Vácha, J., Martinovská, I., Zelenka, O., Berka, S. & Havrlík, S. (eds) Výpočet zásob hnědého uhlí lomu Chabařovice II. MS VGP Osek.

Bůžek, Č. 1991. Paleontologické výzkumy terciéru na území listu Ústí nad Labem. Zprávy o geologických výzkumech v roce 1989, 29-31.

Bůžek, Č., Čtyroký, P., Fejfar, O. & Kvaček, Z. 1987. Přínos paleontologie pro poznání severočeské pánve, 70-87. In Brus, Z., Elznic, A., Hurník, S. & Zelenka, O. (eds) Geologie oblasti, XXVI. celostátní konference ČSMG. Most.

Bůžek, Č., Fejfar, O., Konzalová, M., & Kvaček, Z. 1990. Floristic changes around Stehlin’s Grande Coupure, 167-181. In Knobloch, E. & Kvaček, Z. (eds) Proceedings of the Symposium Palaeofloristic and Palaeoclimatic changes in the Cretaceous and Tertiary, Prague 1989. Geological Survey, Prague.

Bůžek, Č., Holý, F. & Kvaček, Z. 1967. Eine bemerkenswerte Art der Familie Platanaceae Lindl. (1836) im nordböhmischen Tertiär. Monatsberichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 9, 203-215.

Bůžek, Č., Holý, F. & Kvaček, Z. 1968. Die Gattung Doliostrobus Marion und ihr Vorkommen im nordböhmischen Tertiär. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B 123, 153-172.

Bůžek, Č., Holý, F. & Kvaček, Z. 1976. Tertiary flora from Volcagenic Series at Markvartice and Veselíčko near Česká Kamenice (České středohoří Mts.). Sborník Ústředního ústavu geologického, Paleontologie 18, 69-132.

Čadek, J., Čadková, Z. & Dušek, P. 1990. Výsledky provedeného výzkumu ÚÚG Praha, Geochemický výzkum, 75-105. In Vácha, J., Martinovská, I., Zelenka, O., Berka, S. & Havrlík, S. (eds) Výpočet zásob hnědého uhlí lomu Chabařovice II. MS VGP Osek.

Cajz, V. 1990. Výsledky provedeného výzkumu ÚÚG Praha, Podpánevní vulkanický komplex, 31-37. In Vácha, J., Martinovská, I., Zelenka, O., Berka, S. & Havrlík, S. (eds) Výpočet zásob hnědého uhlí lomu Chabařovice II. MS VGP Osek.

Cajz, V. 1999. The České středohoří Mts.: Volcanostratigraphy and geochemistry. Geolines 9, 21-28.

Cajz, V. 2000. Proposal of lithostratigraphy for the České středohoří Mts. volcanics. Věstník Českého geologického ústavu 75(1), 7-16.

Chang, M. & Chen, Y.Y. 2000. Late Mesozoic and Tertiary ichthyofaunas from China and some puzzling patterns of distribution. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 38(3), 161-175.

Collinson, M.E. 1980. Recent and Tertiary seeds of the Nymphaeaceae sensu lato with a revision of Brasenia ovula (Brongn.) Reid et Chandler. Annals of Botany 46, 603-612.View article

Collinson, M.E. 1992. Vegetational and floristic changes around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in western and Central Europe, 437-450. In Prothero, D.R. & Berggren, W.A. (eds) Eocene-Oligocene climatic and biotic evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Collinson, M.E., Manchester, S.R., Wilde, V. & Hayes, P. 2010. Fruit and seed floras from exceptionally preserved biotas in the European Paleogene. Bulletin of Geosciences 85(1), 155-162.View article

Domácí, L. 1977. Litostratigrafie třetihorních sedimentů v hnědouhelné severočeské pánvi. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 1975(1), 75-80.

Eldrett, J.S., Greenwood, D.R., Hardin, I.C. & Huber, M. 2009. Increased seasonality through the Eocene to Oligocene transition in northern high latitudes. Nature 459, 969-973.View article

Ettingshausen, C. v. 1853. Die fossile Flora von Häring in Tirol. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt 2(2), 1-118.

Ettingshausen, C. v. 1868. Die fossile Flora des Tertiärbeckens von Bilin, II. Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 28, 191-242.

Ettingshausen, C. v. 1869. Die fossile Flora des Tertiärbeckens von Bilin, III. Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 29, 1-110.

Frankenhäuser, H. & Wilde, V. 1995. Stachelspitzige Blätter aus dem Mitteleozän von Eckfeld (Eifel). Abhandlungen des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden 41, 97-115.

Gaudant, J. 1988. L’ichthyofaune Éocéne de Messel et du Geiseltal (Allemagne): essai d’approche paléobiogéographique. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 107, 355-367.

Gaudant, J. 2008. Complements to the anatomical knowledge of Cyclurus macrocephalus Reuss (Pisces, Actinopterygii) from the Eocene of Kučlín, Bohemia, Czech Republic. Acta Musei nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 64, 3-7.

Gaudant, J. 2012. An attempt at the palaeontological history of the European mudminnows (Pisces, Teleostei, Umbridae). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 263, 93-109.View article

Gaudant, J. & Meunier, F. 2004. Un test pour déterminer la position systématique du genre Thaumaturus Reuss (poisson téléostéen): l’approche paléohistologique. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 252, 79-93.

Geyer, F. & Mann, H. 1939a. Beiträge zur Atmung der Fische I. Die Atmung des Ungarischen Hundsfisches (Umbra lacustris Grossinger). Zoologischer Anzeiger 127, 234-245.

Geyer, F. & Mann, H. 1939b. Beiträge zur Atmung der Fische II. Weiteres zur Atmung des Ungarischen Hundsfisches (Umbra lacustris Grossinger). Zoologischer Anzeiger 127, 305-312.

Graham, A. 1999. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of North American vegetation north of Mexico. 350 pp. Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford.

Grande, L. & Bemis, W.E. 1998. A comprehensive phylogenetic study of amiid fishes (Amiidae) based on comparative skeletal anatomy. An empirical search for interconnected patterns of natural history. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir 4, 1-681.View article

Guo, S.X., Kvaček, Z., Manchester, S. R. & Zhou, Z.K. 2012. Foliage and seed cones of the extinct genus Ditaxocladus (Cupressaceae) from the Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene of Asia and North America. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B, 288(5-6), 135-159.View article

Guo, S.X. & Zhou, Z.K. 1992. The megafossil legumes from China, 207-223. In Herendeen, P.S. & Dilcher, D.L. Advances in legume systematics, part. 4. Fossil record. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Hably, L. 1985. Catalogue of the Hungarian Cenozoic leaf-flora. Studia Botanica Hungarica 18, 5-58.

Hay, O. 1929. Second bibliography and catalogue of the fossil Vertebrata of North America. Publications of the Carnegie Institute of Washington 390, 1-2003.

He, J., Chen, W., Xie, Z. & Hu, D. 1998. Types of the evergreen broad-leaved forest and their community species diversity in Longqishan Nature Reserve, Fujian Province. Chinese Journal of Ecology 1998, 17(3), 1-6.

Heer, O. 1853. Übersicht der Tertiärflora der Schweiz. Mitteilungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaften 3(7), 88-153.

Heer, O. 1856. Flora Tertiaria Helvetiae II. 110 pp. J. Wurster et comp., Winterthur.

Heer, O. 1859. Flora Tertiaria Helvetiae III. 378 pp. J. Wurster et comp., Winterthur.

Heer, O. 1869. Miozäne baltische Flora. Beiträge zur Naturkunden Preussens 2, 1-104.

Holý, F., Kvaček, Z. & Teodoridis, V. 2012. A review of the Early Miocene mastixioid flora of the Kristina mine at Hrádek nad Nisou in North Bohemia (the Czech Republic). Acta Musei nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 68(3-4), 53-118.

Hren, M.T., Sheldon, N.D., Grimes, S.T., Collinson, M.E., Hooker, J.J., Bugler, M. & Lohmann, K.C. 2013. Terrestrial cooling in Northern Europe during the Eocene-Oligocene transition. PNAS Early Edition.View article

Jiránek, J. et al. 1990. Základní geologická mapa ČSFR 1 : 25 000 list 02-322 Krupka. Ústřední ústav geologický, Praha.

Judd, W.S., Campbell, C.S., Kellogg, E.A., Stevens, P.F. & Donoghue, M.J. 2002. Plant systematics. A phylogenetic approach. Second Edition. 576 pp. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Katz, M.E., Miller, K.G., Wright, J.D., Wade, B.S., Browning, J.V., Cramer, B.S. & Rosenthal, Y. 2008. Stepwise transition from the Eocene greenhouse to the Oligocene icehouse. Nature Geoscience 1, 329-334.View article

Kirchheimer, F. 1937. Paläobotanische Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Alters deutscher Braunkohlenschichten. II. Braunkohle 36, 893-931.

Knobloch, E. 1961. Die oberoligozäne Flora des Pirskenberges bei Šluknov in Nord-Böhmen. Sborník Ústředního ústavu geologického, Paleontologie 26, 241-315.

Knobloch, E., Konzalová, M. & Kvaček, Z. 1996. Die obereozäne Flora der Staré Sedlo - Schichtenfolge in Böhmen (Mitteleuropa). Rozpravy Českého geologického ústavu 49, 1-260.

Knobloch, E. & Kvaček, Z. 1976. Miozäne Blätterfloren vom Westrand der Böhmischen Masse. Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 42, 1-31.

Konzalová, M. 1989. Mikropaleontologický (palynologický) výzkum sedimentů vulkanického komplexu na jižním okraji severočeské pánve u Modlan. Zprávy o geologických výzkumech v roce 1987, 72-74.

Konzalová, M. 2003. Volcanosedimentary complex of the České středohoří and Doupovské hory Mts. in palynological records. Geolines 15, 52-59.

Kotlaba, F. 1963. Tertiary plants from three localities in southern Slovakia. Sborník Národního muzea, Řada B 19, 53-72.

Kovar-Eder, J., Jechorek, H., Kvaček, Z. & Parashiv, V. 2008. The Integrated Plant Record: an essential tool for reconstructing Neogene zonal vegetation in Europe. Palaios 23, 97-111.View article

Kramer, J.A. in Scopoli, J.A. 1777. Introductio ad historiam naturalem, sistens genera lapidum, plantarum et animalium hactenus detecta, caracteribus essentialibus donata, in tribus divisa, subinde ad leges naturae. 506 pp. Prague.

Kunzmann, L. 1999. Koniferen der Oberkreide und ihre Relikte im Tertiär Europas. Abhandlungen des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden 45, 5-135.

Kunzmann, L., Kvaček, Z., Mai, D.H. & Walther, H. 2009. The genus Taxodium (Cupressaceae) in the Palaeogene and Neogene of Central Europe. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 153, 153-183.View article

Kvaček, Z. 1971. Fossil Lauraceae in the stratigraphy on the North Bohemian Tertiary. Sborník geologických věd, Paleontologie 13, 47-86.

Kvaček, Z. 1984. Tertiary taxads of NW Bohemia. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 1982(4), 471-491.

Kvaček, Z. 1989. Fosilní Tetraclinis Mast. (Cupressaceae). Časopis Národního muzea, Řada přírodovědná 155, 45-54.

Kvaček, Z. 2002a. A new juniper from the Palaeogene of Central Europe. Feddes Repertorium 113, 492-502.View article

Kvaček, Z. 2002b. Late Eocene landscape, ecosystems and climate in north Bohemia with particular reference to the locality Kučlín near Bílina. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey 77, 217-236.

Kvaček, Z. 2004a. Revisions to the Early Oligocene flora of Flörsheim (Mainz Basin, Germany) based on epidermal anatomy. Senckenbergiana lethaea 84(1/2), 1-73.

Kvaček, Z. 2004b. Early Miocene records of Craigia (Malvaceae s. l.) in the Most Basin, North Bohemia - whole plant approach. Journal of Czech Geological Society 49(3-4), 161-171.

Kvaček, Z. 2010. Forest flora and vegetation of the European early Palaeogene - a review. Bulletin of Geosciences 85(1), 3-16.View article

Kvaček, Z., Böhme, M., Dvořák, Z., Konzalová, M., Mach, K., Prokop, J. & Rajchl, M. 2004. Early Miocene freshwater and swamp ecosystems of the Most Basin (north Bohemia) with particular reference to the Bílina Mine section. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 49(1-2), 1-40.

Kvaček, Z., Bůžek, Č. & Manchester, S.R. 1991. Fossil fruits of Pteleaecarpum Weyland - tiliaceous, not sapindaceous. Botanical Gazette 152, 522-523.View article

Kvaček, Z. & Manchester, S.R. 2004. Vegetative and reproductive structure of the extinct Platanus neptuni from the Tertiary of Europe and relationships within the Platanaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 244, 1-29.View article

Kvaček, Z., Manchester, S.R. & Schorn, H.E. 2000. Cones, seeds, and foliage of Tetraclinis salicornioides (Cupressaceae) from the Oligocene and Miocene of western North America: a geographic extension of the European Tertiary species. International Journal of Plant Sciences 161(2), 331-344.View article

Kvaček, Z. & Teodoridis, V. 2007. Tertiary macrofloras of the Bohemian Massif: a review with correlations within Boreal and Central Europe. Bulletin of Geosciences 82(4), 383-408.View article

Kvaček, Z. & Teodoridis, V. 2011. The Late Eocene flora of Kučlín near Bílina in North Bohemia revisited. Acta Musei nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 37(3-4), 83-144.

Kvaček, Z. & Walther, H. 1981. Studium über “Quercus” cruciata Al. Braun und analoge Blattformen aus dem Tertiär Europas. Acta Palaeobotanica 21(2), 77-100.

Kvaček, Z. & Walther, H. 1998. The Oligocene volcanic flora of Kundratice near Litoměřice, České středohoří volcanic complex (Czech Republic) - a review. Acta Musei nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 54, 1-42.

Kvaček, Z. & Walther, H. 2001. The Oligocene of Central Europa and the development of forest vegetation in space and time based on megafossils. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B 259, 125-149.

Kvaček, Z. & Walther, H. 2003. Reconstruction of vegetation and landscape development during the volcanic activity in the České středohoří Mountains. Geolines, Hibsch Special Volume 15, 60-64.

Kvaček, Z. & Walther, H. 2004. Oligocene flora of Bechlejovice at Děčín from the neovolcanic area of the České středohoří Mountains, Czech Republic. Acta Musei nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 60, 9-60.

Kvaček, Z. & Walther, H. 2012. European Tertiary Fagaceae with chinquapin-like foligae and leaf epidermal characteristics Feddes Repertorium 121(7-8, 2010), 248-267.

Li, Z.Y. & Shi, L. 2007. Plants of Mount Emei. 492 pp. Beijing Science & Technology Press, Beijing.

Lorenz, V. 2003. Maar-diatreme volcanoes, their formation, and their setting in hard-rock or soft-rock environments. Geolines 15, 72-83.

Mag, M. 1992. Petrologie vulkanitů. In Vácha, J., Martinovská, I., Zelenka, O., Berka, S. & Havrlík, S. (eds) Výpočet zásob hnědého uhlí lomu Chabařovice II. MS VGP Osek.

Mai, D.H. 1963. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Tertiärflora von Seifhennersdorf (Sachsen). Jahrbuch des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden 1963, 39-114.

Mai, D.H. 1988. New Nymphealean fossils from the Tertiary of central Europe. Tertiary Research 9(1-4), 87-96.

Mai, D.H. 1995. Tertiäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europeas. 691 pp. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, Stuttgart, New York.

Mai, D.H. & Walther, H. 1978. Die Floren der Haselbacher Serie im Weisselster-Becken (Bezirk Leipzig, DDR). Abhandlungen des Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden 28, 1-200.

Mai, D.H. & Walther, H. 1985. Die obereozänen Floren des Weisselsterbeckens und seiner Randgebiete. Abhandlungen des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden 33, 1-260.

Mai, D.H. & Walther, H. 2000. Die Fundstellen eozäner Floren des Weisselster-Beckens und seiner Randgebiete. Altenburger naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 13, 1-59.

Martini, E. 1965. Die Fischfauna von Sieblos/Rhön(Oligozän). 2 : Fischreste aus Koproliten. Senckenbergiana lethaea 46a, 307-314.

Micklich, N. 1988. Ergänzungen zur Morphologie und Systematik der Gattung Bilinia Obrhelová, 1971 (Pisces, Percoidei). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 62(3/4), 297-317.View article

Micklich, N. 1990. Ein neuer Percoide (Pisces, Perciformes) aus den tertiären Süßwasser-Diatomiten von Kuclin in Böhmen. Senckenbergiana lethaea 70(1/3), 199-208.

Micklich, N. & Böhme, M. 1997. Wolfsbarsch-Funde (Perciformes, Moronidae) aus den Süßwasser-Diatomiten von Kuclín (Böhmen) nebst Anmerkungen zur taxonomischen Stellung von „Percalepidota aus den Süßwasser-Kalken von Öhningen (Baden). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 71(1/2), 117-128.View article

Miller, I.M., Brandon, M.T. & Hickey, L.J. 2006. Using leaf margin analysis to estimate the mid-Cretaceous (Albian) paleolatitude of the Baja BC block. EPSL 245, 95-114.View article

Mosbrugger, V. & Utescher, T. 1997. The coexistence approach - a method for quantitative reconstructions of Tertiary terrestrial palaeoclimate data using plant fossils. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 134, 61-86.View article

Mosbrugger, V., Utescher, T. & Dilcher, D.L. 2005. Cenozoic continental climatic evolution of Central Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 14964-14969. View article

Nelson, J.S. 1994. Fishes of the World. Third edition. 600 pp. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Obrhelová, N. 1971. Über einen Serranid (Pisces) aus dem nordböhmischen Süßwassertertiär. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 16(4), 371-387.

Obrhelová, N. 1975. Osteologischer Bau von Thaumaturus furcatus Reuss, 1844 (Pisces) aus dem nordböhmischen Süsswassertertiär (Kučlín bei Bílina). Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 20(3), 273-290.

Obrhelová, N. 1976. Eine neue Percoiden-Art (Pisces) aus dem nordböhmischen Süßwassertertiär. Bemerkungen zur Gattung Bilinia Obrhelova, 1971. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii 21(3), 233-256.

Obrhelová, N. 1978. Die Gattung Umbra Walbaum (Pisces) im Nordböhmischen Tertiär Entwicklungsgeschichte der Esocoidei Berg im Lichte der funktionalen Analyse. Sborník Národního muzea v Praze 34, 119-169.

Obrhelová, N. 1990. Fische des Nordböhmischen Braunkohlenbeckens. Sborník Národního muzea v Praze 46, 1-35.

Obrhelová, N. & Obrhel, J. 1987. Paläoichthyologie und Paläoökologie des kontinentalen Tertiärs und Quatärs der ČSSR. Zeitschrift für geologische Wissenschaften 15, 709-731.

Přikryl, T. 2008. Sea bass fish Morone sp. (Teleostei) from North Bohemian Paleogene (Tertiary, Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences 83(1), 117-122.View article

Přikryl, T. 2011. Lepidological review on the fish fauna of the Kučlín locality (Upper Eocene, Czech Republic). Acta Musei nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 67, 149-156.

Radoň, M. 2001. Výzkum terciérních paleontologických lokalit v Českém středohoří. 380 pp. Závěrečná zpráva programového projektu Ministerstva kultury České republiky, Regionální muzeum v Teplicích.

Radoň, M., Kvaček, Z. & Walther, H. 2006. Oligocene megafossil plant remains and environment from the newly recovered locality of the Holý Kluk hill near Proboštov (České středohoří Mountains, Czech Republic). Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 47, 95-124.

Reid, E.M. & Chandler, M.E.J. 1926. Catalogue of Cainozoic plants in the Department of Geology. I. The Bembridge flora. 206 pp. British Museum (Natural History), London.View article

Reveal, J.L. 2012. An outline of a classification system for extant flowering plants. Phytoneuron 2012(37), 1-221.

Roth-Nebelsick, A., Utescher, T., Mosbrugger, V., Diester-Haass, L. & Walther, H. 2004. Changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate from the Late Eocene to Early Miocene: palaeobotanical reconstruction based on fossil floras from Saxony, Germany. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 205(1-2), 43-67.View article

Saporta, G. de 1890. Revue des travaux de paléontologie végétale parus en 1888 ou dans le cours des années présédantes. Revue Générale de Botanique 2, 176-192, 225-239.

Saporta, G. de & Marion, A.F. 1876. Recherches sur les végétaux fossils de Meximieux. Archives du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1, 131-335.

Schultze, H.P. 1966. Morphologische Untersuchungen an Schuppen mesozoischer Actinopterygier (Übergang von Ganoid- zu Rundschuppen). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 126, 232-314.

Spicer, R.A., Valdes, P.J., Spicer, T.E.V., Craggs, H.J., Srivastava, G., Mehrotra, R.C. & Yang, J. 2009. New development is CLAMP: calibration using global gridded meteorological data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 283, 91-98.View article

Stur, D. 1867. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora der Süßwasserquarzite, der Congerien- und Cerithien- Schichten im Wiener und ungarischen Becken. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Reichsanstalt 17(1), 77-188.

Su, T., Xing, Y.W., Liu, Y.S, Jacques, F.M.B., Chen, W.Y., Huang, Y.J. & Zhou, Z.K. 2010. Leaf margin analysis: a new equation from humid to mesic forests in China. Palaios 25, 234-238.View article

Tang, C.Q., Li, T. & Zhu, X. 2007. Structure and regeneration dynamics of free subtropical midmontane moist evergreen broad-leaved forests in southwestern China with special reference to bamboo in the forest understories. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37, 2701-2714.View article

Tang, C.Q. & Ohsawa, M. 1997. Zonal transition of evergreen, deciduous and coniferous forests along the altitudinal gradient on a humid subtropical mountain, Mt. Emei, Sichuan, China. Plant Ecology 133, 63-78.View article

Teodoridis, V. Kovar-Eder, J., Marek, P., Kvaček, Z. & Mazouch, P. 2011a. The Integrated Plant Record vegetation analysis - a new on-line application. Acta Musei nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 37(3-4), 159-165.

Teodoridis, V., Kovar-Eder, J. & Mazouch, P. 2011b. The IPR-vegetation analysis applied to modern vegetation in SE China and Japan. Palaios 26(10), 623-638.View article

Teodoridis, V., Kvaček, Z., Zhu, H. & Mazouch, P. 2012. Vegetational and environmental analysis of the mid-latitudinal European Eocene sites and their possible analogues in Southeastern Asia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 333-334, 40-58.View article

Teodoridis, V., Mazouch, P. Spicer, R.A. & Uhl, D. 2011c. Refining CLAMP - investigations towards improving the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 299(1-2), 39-48.View article

Unger, F. 1841-1847. Chloris protogaea 1-10. 149 pp. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.

Unger, F. 1850. Genera et species plantarum fossilium. 627 pp. W. Braunmüller, Vindobonae.

Utescher, T., Mosbrugger, V. & Ashraf, A.R. 2000. Terrestrial climate evolution in Northwest Germany over the last 25 million years. Palaios 15, 430-449.View article

Vácha, J., Martinovská, I., Zelenka, O., Berka, S. & Havrlík, S. 1992. Výpočet zásob hnědého uhlí lomu Chabařovice II.Textová část. MS VGP Osek.

Walther, H. 1972. Studien über tertiäre Acer Mitteleuropas. Abhandlungen des Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden 19, 1-309.

Walther, H. 1998. Die Tertiärflora von Hammerunterwiesenthal (Freistaat Sachsen). Abhandlungen des Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden 43-44, 239-364.

Walther, H. 1999. Die Tertiärflora von Kleinsaubernitz bei Bautzen. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B 249, 61-174.

Walther, H. & Kvaček, Z. 2007. Early Oligocene flora of Seifhennersdorf (Saxony). Acta Musei nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 63(2-4), 85-174.

Weyland, H. 1943. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der rheinischen Tertiärflora VI. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B 87, 96-136.

Weyland, H. & Kilpper, K. 1963. Kritische Untersuchungen zur Kutikularanalyse Tertiärer Blätter. VI. Weitere Dikotyledonen aus der Rheinischen Braunkohle. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B 113, 93-116.

Wilder, B.G. 1878. On the respiration of Amia. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 26, 306-313.

Wilf, P. 1997. When are leaves good thermometers? A new case for leaf margin analysis. Paleobiology 23, 373-390.View article

Wolfe, J.A. 1979. Temperature parameters of the humid to mesic forests of eastern Asia and their relation to forests of other regions of the Northern Hemisphere and Australasia. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1106, 1-37.

Wolfe, J.A. & Schorn, H. 1990. Taxonomic revision of the Spermatopsida of the Oligocene Creede Flora, Southern Colorado. United States Geological Survey Bulletin 1923, 1-40.

Wolfe, J.A. & Spicer, R.A. 1999. Fossil leaf character states: multivariate analysis, 233-239. In Jones, T.P. & Rowe, N.P. (eds) Fossil Plants and Spores: Modern Techniques. Geological Society, London.

Wuttke, M., Přikryl, T., Ratnikov, V.Y., Dvořák, Z. & Roček, Z. 2012. Generic diversity and distributional dynamics of the Palaeobatrachidae (Amphibia: Anura). Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 92(2), 367-395.View article

Yang, J., Spicer, R.A., Spicer, T.E.V. & Li, C.S. 2011. ‘CLAMP Online’: a new web-based palaeoclimate tool and its application to the terrestrial Paleogene and Neogene of North America. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 91, 163-183.View article

Zachos, J.C., Dickens, G.R. & Zeebe, R.E. 2008. An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature 451(17), 279-283.View article

Zachos, J.C., Pegani, M., Stone, L., Thomas, E. & Billups, K. 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climates 65 Ma to present. Science 292, 686-693.View article

Zanazzi, A., Kohn, M.J., MacFadden, B.J. & Terry, D.O. Jr. 2007. Large temperature drop across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in central North America. Nature 445, 639-642.View article