Palynofloras and vertebrates from Muǧla-Ören region (SW Turkey) and palaeoclimate of the Middle Burdigalian-Langhian period in Turkey

 

Authors: Kayseri Özer MS, Akgün F, Mayda S, Kaya T

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 89, issue 1; pages: 137 - 162; Received 25 January 2013; Accepted in revised form 6 August 2013; Online 6 January 2014

Keywords: palynology, palaeoclimate, palaeovegetation, mammalian fossils, western Anatolia, Miocene,

full text (PDF, 4.6 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

The Miocene is the last warm episode in Earth history, and this episode was well recorded in Turkey as shown by plant distribution and inferred numerical temperature values. In this study, Ören-Kultak, Hüssamlar and Karacaağaç palynofloras from western Turkey, which are characterized by the thermophilous plants (Engelhardia, Sapotaceae, Cyrillaceae, Avicennia, Arecaceae, Palmae), are described. Age determinations of these palynofloras (middle Burdigalian-Langhian) are strengthened by the mammalian fossil record (MN4-5) and strontium isotope results. Palaeoclimate is humid and warm subtropical during the middle Burdigalian-Langhian time interval in Europe and Turkey. However, temperature difference has been observed between Europe and Turkey during this time interval and it could be explained by the palaeogeographic position of countries. Despite some discrepancies in the climatic values and palaeovegetation groups, warm climatic conditions are recorded, based on the palynofloras, in Turkey (Çayýrhan, Havza, Çan, Etili, Gönen, Bigadiç, Emet, Kirka and Kestelek, Sabuncubeli, Soma, Tire, Kuloğullarý, Bașçayýr, Hüssamlar and Karacaağaç), Greece and elsewhere in Europe throughout the middle Burdigalian-Langhian period. This warming is related to the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum period. Carbon and oxygen isotope values obtained from tooth enamel of Gomphotherium sp. from Kultak and Hüssamlar indicate similar ecological condition during the Burdigalian-Langhian time. This isotopic result and high MAPDRY value from the Kultak locality are in agreement with ecological interpretation of mammalian fossils. Besides, according to the precipitation values, central and northwestern Anatolian sites provide more rainfall during the Burdigalian-Langhian time interval than the western Anatolian sites.

References

Akgün, F. 1993. Palynological age revision of the Neogene Soma coal basin. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece 28, 151-170.

Akgün, F., Akay, E. & Erdogan, B. 2002. Terrestrial to shallow marine deposition in central Anatolia: a palynological approach. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 11, 1-7.

Akgün, F., Akkiraz, M. S., Mosbrugger, V., Bruch, A., Utescher, T., Wilde, V. & Bozcu, M. 2008. Early-Middle Miocene palynostratigraphy and palaeoclimate of the Biga Peninsula, Northwest Turkey. Terra Nostra 2, IPC-XII/IOPC-VIII Bonn, Germany Abstract Volume, p. 9.

Akgün, F. & Akyol, E. 1999. Palynostratigraphy of the coal-bearing Neogene deposits in Büyük Menderes Graben, Western Anatolia. Geobios 32, 367-383.View article

Akgün, F., Kaya, T., Forsten, A. & Atalay, Z. 2000. Biostratigraphic data (Mammalia and palynology) from the Upper Miocene Incesu Formation at Duzyayla (Hafik-Sivas, central Anatolia). Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 9, 57-67.

Akgün, F. & Kayseri, M.S. 2004. Climatic evolution and vegetational changes during the Miocene period in central Anatolia (Turkey). NECLIME Annual Meeting, Island of Crete (Greece), p. 7.

Akgün, F., Kayseri, M.S. & Akkiraz, M.S. 2004. Paleoclimatic evolution and vegetational changes from the Oligocene to Miocene in Turkey. NECLIME Annual Meeting, Island of Crete (Greece), p. 7.

Akgün, F., Kayseri, M.S. & Akkiraz, M.S. 2007. Paleoclimatic evolution and vegetational changes during the Late Oligocene-Miocene period in western and central Anatolia (Turkey). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 253, 56-106.View article

Andrews, P. & Kelley, J. 2007. Middle Miocene dispersals of apes. Folia Primatologica 78, 328-343.View article

Beaudouin, C. 2003. Effets du dernier cycle climatique sur la végétation de la basse vallée du Rhône et sur la sédimentation de la plate-forme du golfe du Lion d’apres la palynologie. 403 pp. PhD thesis, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.

Benda, L. 1971. Grundzüge einer pollenanalytischen Gliederung des türkischen Jungtertiärs (Känozoikum und Braunkohle der Türkei 4). Beihhefte zum Geologischen Jahrbuch 113, 1-46.

Benda, L., Meulenkamp, J.E. & Schmidt, R.R. 1982. Biostratigraphic correlations in the eastern Mediterranean Neogene; 6, Correlation between sporomorph, marine microfossil and mammal associations from some Miocene sections of the Ionian islands and Crete (Greece). Newsletters on Stratigraphy 11, 83-93.

Bruch, A.A., Utescher, T., Alcalde-Olivares, C., Dolakova, N., Ivanov, D. & Mosbrugger, V. 2004. Middle and Late Miocene spatial temperature patterns and gradients in Europe: preliminary results based on palaeobotanical climate reconstructions. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 249, 15-27.

Cambon, G., Suc, J.-P., Aloisi, J.-C., Giresse, P., Monaco, A., Touzani, A., Duzer, D. & Ferrier, J. 1997. Modern pollen deposition in the Rhône delta area (lagoonal and marine sediments), France. Grana 36, 105-113.View article

Casanovas-Vilar, I., Alba, D.M., Garcés, M., Robles, J.M. & Moya-Sola, S. 2011. Updated chronology for the Miocene hominoid radiation in Western Eurasia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, 5554-5559.View article

Cerdeno, E. 1996. Prosantorhinus, the small teleoceratine rhinocerotid from the Miocene of western Europe. Geobios 29, 111-124.View article

Ediger, V.Ş. 1990. Tortonian-Messinian palynomorphs from the easternmost Mediterranean region around Iskenderun, Turkey. Micropaleontology 42, 189-205.View article

Fauquette, S., Suc, J.-P., Jiménez-Moreno, G., Micheels, A., Jost, A., Favre, E., Bachiri-Taoufiq, N., Bertini, A., Clet-Pellerin, M., Diniz, F., Farjanel, G., Feddi, N. & Zheng, Z. 2007. Latitudinal climatic gradients in the Western European and Mediterranean regions from the Mid-Miocene (c. 15 Ma) to the Mid-Pliocene (c. 3.5 Ma) as quantified from pollen data, 481-502. In Williams, M., Haywood, A.M., Gregory, F.J. & Schmidt, D.N. (eds) Deep-Time Perspectives on Climate Change: Marrying the Signal from Computer Models and Biological Proxies. The Micropalaeontological Society, Special Publications. The Geological Society, London.

Fortelius, M. 1990. Rhinocerotidae from Pasalar, Middle Miocene of Anatolia (Turkey). Journal of Human Evolution 19, 489-508.View article

Gaziry, A.W. 1976. Jungtertiare Mastodonten aus Anatolien (Turkei). Geologisches Jahrbuch, Reihe B 22, 3-143.

Gemici, Y., Akgün, F. & Yilmazer, Ç. 1992. Akçaşehir (Tire-Izmir) Neojen havzasi fosil makro ve mikroflorasi. Doga, Türk Botanik Dergisi 16, 383-393.

Gemici, Y., Akyol, E., Akgün, F. & Seçmen, Ö. 1991. Soma kömür havzasi fosil makro ve mikroflorasi [Fossil macro- and micro-flora of Soma coal basin]. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration of Turkey (MTA) Bulletin 112, 161-178. [in Turkish with English abstract]

Gentry, A.W. 1990. Ruminant artiodactyls of Pasalar, Turkey. Journal of Human Evolution 19, 529-550.View article

Geraads, D. 2003. Ruminants, other than Giraffidae from the Middle Miocene hominoid locality of Candir (Turkey). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 240, 181-199.

Geraads, D., Gulec, E. & Saraç, G. 1995. Middle Miocene ruminants from Inönü, central Turkey. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaeontologie, Monatshefte 8, 462-474.

Göhlich, U.B. 1999. Order Proboscidea, 157-168. In RÖSSNER, G. & HEISSIG, K. (eds) The Miocene land mammals of Europe. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München.

Görür, N., Şengör, A.M.C., Sakinç, M., Tüysüz, O., Akkök, R., Yigitbaş, E., Oktay, F.Y., Barka, A.A., Sarica, N., Ecevitoglu, B., Demirbag, E. & Akyol, A. 1994. Cross-cutting rift systems of the Gökova region, SW Anatolia: Implications for the formation of the Aegean Sea. Bulletin of the Technical University of Istanbul 47, 275-292.

Görür, N., Şengör, A.M.C., Sakinç, M., Tüysüz, O., Akkök, R., Yigitbaş, E., Oktay, F.Y., Barka, A.A., Sarica, N., Ecevitoglu, B., Demirbag, E., Ersoy, Ş., Algan, O., Güneysu, C. & Akyol, A. 1995. Rift formation in the Gökova region, soutwest Anatolia: implications for the opening of the Aegean Sea. Geological Magazine 132, 637-650.View article

Görür, N. & Tüysüz, O. 2001. Cretaceous to Miocene palaeogeographic evolution of Turkey: Implications for hydrocarbon potential. Journal of Petroleum Geology 24, 119-146.View article

Güngör, H.Y. 1991. Ankara (Beypazari) Kömürlerinin Palinolojisi ve Paleoekolojisi. 38 pp. Licence thesis, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir.

Gürer, Ö.F. & Yilmaz, Y. 2002. Geology of the Ören and surrounding areas, SW Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 11, 1-13.

Hammer, O., Harper, D.A.T. & Ryan, P.D. 2001. PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4, 9 pp.

Harzhauser, M. & Piller, W.E. 2007. Benchmark data of a changing sea - palaeogeography, palaeobiogeography and events in the Central Paratethys during the Miocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 253, 8-31.View article

Heissig, K. 1999. Family Rhinocerotidae, 175-188. In RÖSSNER, G. & HEISSIG, K. (eds) The Miocene land mammals of Europe. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München.

Heissig, K. & Fejfar, O. 2007. The mammals from Untermiozaen of Tuchorice in Northwest Bohemia - 1. The fossils of rhinoceros (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae). Sborník Národního muzea v Praze, Řada B - přírodní vědy 63, 19-66.

Heusser, L. 1988. Pollen distribution in marine sediments on the continental margin of Northern California. Marine Geology 80, 131-147.View article

Ivanov, D.A. 1995. Palynological data about the presence of the family Symplocaceae in the Miocene of Northwestern Bulgaria. Geologica carpathica 46, 37-40.

Ivanov, D., Ashraf, A.R. & Mosbrugger, V. 2007. Late Oligocene and Miocene climate and vegetation in the Eastern Paratethys area (northeast Bulgaria), based on pollen data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 255, 342-360.View article

Ivanov, D., Ashraf, A.R., Mosbrugger, V. & Palamarev, E. 2002. Palynological evidence for Miocene climate change in the Forecarpathian Basin (Central Paratethys, NW Bulgaria). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 178, 19-37.View article

Ivanov, D., Utescher, T., Ashraf, A.R., Mosbrugger, V., Bozukov, V., Djorgova, N. & Slavomirova, E. 2012. Late Miocene palaeoclimate and ecosystem dynamics in Soutwestern Bulgaria - A study based on pollen data from the Gotse Delchev Basin. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 21, 187-211.

Ivanov, D., Utescher, T., Mosbrugger, V., Syabryaj, S., Djordjevic-Milutinovic, D. & Molchanoff, S. 2011. Miocene vegetation and climate dynamics in Eastern and Central Paratethys (Southeastern Europe). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304, 262-275.View article

Jaccard, P. 1908. Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale. Bulletin de la Société vaudoise des sciences naturelles 44, 223-270.

Kern, A., Harzhauser, M., Mandic, O., Roetzel, R., Coric, S., Bruch, A.A. & Zuschin, M. 2011. Millennial-scale vegetation dynamics in an estuary at the onset of the Miocene Climate Optimum. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304, 247-261.View article

Karayigit, A.I., Akgün, F., Gayer, R.A. & Temel, A. 1999. Quality, palynology, and palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the Ilgin lignite, Turkey. International Journal of Coal Geology 38, 219-236.View article

Kaya, T., Tuna, V. & Geraads, D. 2001. A new late Orleanian/early Astaracian mammalian fauna from Kultak (Milas-Mugla), southwestern Turkey. Geobios 34, 673-680.View article

Kayseri, M.S. 2010. Oligo-Miocene Palynology, Palaeobotany, Vertebrate, Marine Faunas, Palaeoclimatology and Palaeovegetation of the Ören Basin (North of the Gökova Gulf), Western Anatolia. PhD thesis, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir.

Kayseri, M.S. & Akgün, F. 2008. Late Burdigalian-Langhian time interval in Turkey -palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimatologic implications and correlation of Europe and Turkey. Terra Nostra 2008/2, IPC-XII/IOPC-VIII, p. 138.

Kayseri, M.S. & Akgün, F. 2010. The Late Burdigalian-Langhian time interval in Turkey and the palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimatic implications and correlation of Europe and Turkey: Late Burdigalian-Langhian palynofloras and palaeoclimatic properties of the Mugla-Milas (Kultak). Geological Bulletin of Turkey 53, 1-44.

Kayseri, M.S., Akgün, F., Kaya, T. & Mayda, S. 2006. Palynological and faunal inventions of the Oligo-Miocene period in the Mugla-Kultak region, Western Anatolia (Turkey); preliminary results. 7th European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference (Prague), p. 63.

Kayseri, M.S., Akgün, F. & Örçen, S. 2007. Stratigraphy and microfaunal data of the Oligocene and Miocene ages in the Alakilise and Kultak regions (Gökova region). NECLIME Annual Meeting (Slovakia), p. 15.

Kovach, W.L. 1988. Multivariate methods of analyzing paleoecological data, 72-104. In DiMichele, W.A. & Wing, S.L. (eds) Methods and Applications of Plant Paleoecology. The Paleontological Society, Special Publication 3.

Kovach, W.L. 1989. Comparisons of multivariate analytical techniques for use in pre-Quaternary plant paleoecology. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 60, 255-282.View article

Kohler, M. 1987. Boviden des turkischen Miozans (Kanozoikum und Braunkohlen der Turkei 28). Paleontologia i Evolucio 21, 133-246.

Mayda, S., Saraç, G. & Kavuşan, G. 2006. ‘Gomphotherium angustidens (Cuvier)’ (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from the Hancili Formation (Kalecik, Ankara): oldest Neogene Proboscidea record from Turkey. 55. Turkish Geology Symposium, Ankara, 254-255.

MAI, D.H. 1981. Entwicklung und klimatische Differenzierung der Laubwaldflora Mitteleuropas im Tertiär. Flora 171, 525-582.

MAI, D.H. 1991. Palaeofloristic changes in Europe and the confirmation of the Arcto-Tertiary-Palaeotropical geofloral concept. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 68, 29-36.View article

Meulenkamp, J.E. & Sissingh, W. 2003. Tertiary palaeogeography and tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Northern and Southern Peri-Tethys platforms and the intermediate domains of the African-Eurasian convergent plate boundary zone. Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 196, 209-228.View article

Mosbrugger, V. & Utescher, T. 1997. The coexistence approach, a method for quantitative reconstructions of Tertiary terrestrial palaeoclimate data using plant fossils. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 134, 61-86.View article

Mosbrugger, V., Utescher, T. & Dilcher, D.L. 2005. Cenozoic continental climatic evolution of Central Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(42), 14964-14969.View article

Nakoman, E. 1978. Investigation of coal deposits Tinas, Bagyaka, Bayir, Eskihisar, Sekköy and Hüsamlar in SW Turkey. 140 pp. Tübitak project, Izmir. [in Turkish]

QUADE, J., CATER, J.M.L., OJHA, T.P. & HARRISON, T.M. 1995. Paleodietary reconstruction of Miocene faunas from Paşalar, Turkey using stable carbon and oxygen isotopes of fossil tooth enamel. Journal of Human Evolution 4, 373-384. DOI 10.1006/jhev.1995.1029

Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Plana, F., Lopez-Soler, A., Tuncali, E., Toprak, S., Ocakoglu, F. & Koker, A. 1999. Coal geology and coal quality of the Miocene Mugla Basin, southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. International Journal of Coal Gelology 41, 311-332.View article

Palamarev, E. 1989. Palaeobotanical evidences of the Tertiary history and origin of the Mediterranean sclerophyll dendroflora. Plant Systematic Evolution 162, 93-107.View article

Palamarev, E. & Ivanov, D. 1998. Über einige Besonderheiten der tertiären Floren in Bulgarien und ihre Bedeutung für die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt in Europa. Acta Palaeobotanica 38, 147-165.

Palamarev, E. & Ivanov, D. 2004. Badenian vegetation of Bulgaria: biodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeoclimate. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 249, 63-69.

Palamarev, E., Ivanov, D. & Bozukov, V. 1999. Paläoflorenkomplexe im Zentralbalkanischen Raum und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte von der Wende Oligozän/Miozän bis ins Villafranchien. Flora Tertiaria Mediterranea 6(5), 1-95.

Popov, S.V., Rögl, F., Rozanov, A.Y., Steininger, F.F., Shcherba, I.G. & Kovac, M.E. 2004. Lithological-palaeogeographic maps of Paratethys. 10 Maps Late Eocene to Pliocene. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 250, 1-46.

Reigel, A., Wehmeyer, D., Meinke, K., Schwarz, G., Apostolikas, A. & Velitzelos, E. 1989. Succession of depositional environments in the Neogene basin at Aliveri, Evia (Greece). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 70, 261-273.View article

Rögl, V.F. 1998. Palaeogeographic considerations for Mediterranean and Paratethys seaways (Oligocene to Miocene). Annals of the Natural History Museum Vienna 99, 279-310.

Sickenberg, F., Becker-Platen, J.D., Benda, L., Berg, D., Engesser, B., Gaziry, W., Heissig, K., Hunermann, K.A., Sondaar, P.Y., Schmidt-Kittler, N., Staesche, K., Staesche, U., Steffens, P. & Tobien, H. 1975. Die Gliederung des höheren Jungtertiärs und Altquartärs in der Türkei nach Vertebraten und ihre Bedeutung fur die Internationale Neogen-Stratigraphie. Geologisches Jahrbuch, Reihe B 15, 1-167.

Sözbilir, H., Bozkurt, E., Winchester, J.A. & Deniz, O. 2005. Ophiolites resting above the Gediz Detachment and their tectonic significance: field and geochemical evidence from Alaşehir area, southwest Turkey. International Symposium on the Geodynamics of Eastern Mediterranean, Active Tectonics of the Aegean, p. 70.

Sternberg, L., Mulkey, S.S. & Wright, S.J. 1989. Ecological interpretation of leaf carbon isotope ratios: in?uence of respired carbon dioxide. Ecology 70, 1317-1324.View article

Stuchlik, L., Ivanov, D. & Palamarev, E. 1999. Middle and Late Miocene floristic changes in the northern and southern parts of the Central Paratethys. Acta Palaeobotanica 2, 91-397.

Suc, J.-P. & Drivaliari, A. 1991. Transport of bisaccate coniferous fossil pollen grains to coastal sediments: an example from the earliest Pliocene Orb Ria (Languedoc, Southern France). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 70, 247-253.View article

Syabryaj, S., Utescher, T. & Molchanov, S. 2007. Changes of climate and vegetation during the Miocene in the territory of Ukraine. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 253, 153-168.View article

Utescher, T., Bruch, A.A., Micheels, A., Mosbrugger, V. & Popova, S. 2011. Cenozoic climate gradients in Eurasia palaeo-perspective on future climate change? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304, 351-358.View article

Utescher, T., Erdei, B., Francois, L. & Mosbrugger, V. 2007. Studies on diversity of plant functional types in the Miocene of Western Eurasia - spatial distribution patterns in the Langhian, Sarmatian and Tortonian, and their relation to palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 253, 226-250.View article

Whateley, M.K.G. & Tuncali, E. 1995. Quality variations in the high-sulphur lignite of the Neogene Beypazari Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey. International Journal of Coal Geology 27, 131-151.View article

Venglinsky, I.V. 1975. Foraminifery biostratigrafiya miotsenovykh otlozheniy Zakarpatskovo progiba. 262 pp. Naukova dumka, Kiev. [in Russian]

Yao, Y.F., Bruch, A.A., Mosbrugger, V. & Li, C.S. 2011. Quantitative reconstruction of Miocene climate patterns and evolution in Southern China based on plant fossils. Paleogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304, 291-307.View article

Yavuz-Işik, N. 2007. Pollen analysis of coal-bearing Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Seyitömer Basin (Kütahya), Western Anatolia. Geobios 40, 701-708.View article

Yilmaz, Y., Genç, Ş.C., Gürer, Ö.F., Bozcu, M., Yilmaz, K., Karacik, Z., Altunkaynak, Ş. & Elmas, A. 2000. When did the Western Anatolia grabens begin to develop?, 353-384. In Bozkurt, E., Winchester, J.A. & Piper, J.D.A. (eds) Tectonics and Magmatism in Turkey and the Surrounding Area. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 173.

Yilmaz, Y. & Polat, A. 1998. Geology and evolution of the Thrace volcanism, Turkey. Acta Vulcanologica 10, 293-303.

Zachos, J.C., Dickens, G.R. & Zeebe, R.E. 2008. An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse gas warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature 451, 279-283.View article

Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E. & Billups, K. 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in Global Climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292, 686-693.View article