Refinements in biostratigraphy of the foraminiferal zone MFZ11 (late early Viséan, Mississippian) in the Cebeciköy Limestone (İstanbul Terrane, NW Turkey) and palaeogeographic implications


Authors: Okuyucu C, Vachard D, Göncüoğlu MC

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 88, issue 3; pages: 621 - 645; Received 10 September 2012; Accepted in revised form 15 January 2013; Online 26 April 2013

Keywords: Viséan, Turkey, İstanbul Terrane, foraminiferal zone MFZ11, biostratigraphy, foraminifers, algae incertae sedis, systematics, palaeogeography,

full text (PDF, 6.21 MB)

Export to RIS



The Cebeciköy Limestone from the Variscan flysch of the İstanbul Terrane is assigned to the foraminiferal MFZ11 zone (late early Viséan, formerly V2a). This zone is essentially the range zone of Uralodiscus rotundus. Additional bioevents are proposed for characterizing the upper part of this biozone (MFZ11B subzone): the LAD of Eoendothyranopsis and the FAD of Pararchaediscus and Conilidiscus. The majority of foraminifers and algae, belonging locally to MFZ11 are well-known, except for the following taxa: Issinella luteotubulifomis sp. nov., I. enormis sp. nov., Vicinesphaera parasqualida sp. nov., Planogloboendothyra modesta sp. nov. and Endothyra irinaeformis sp. nov. The İstanbul Terrane is connected with the southern branch of the Palaeotethys, whereas the Zonguldak Terrane is connected with the northern branch of this one.


Altiner, D. 1981. Recherches stratigraphiques et micropaléontologiques dans le Taurus Oriental au NW de Pinarbaşi (Turquie). Thesis, University of Geneva.

Altiner, D. & Özgül, N. 2001. Carboniferous and Permian of the allochthonous terranes of the Central Tauride Belt, Southern Turkey. PaleoForams 2001, International Conference of Paleozoic Benthic Foraminifera, Ankara, Guidebook, 35 pp.

Antropov, I.A. 1950. New foraminiferal species of the Late Devonian of some areas of the eastern Russian Platform. Izvestiya Kazanskogo filiala, Geologicheskiy institut 1, 21-33. [in Russian]

Bogush, O.I. 1987. Systematics of the genus Globoendothyra (foraminifers). In Elkin, E.A. & Yadrenkina, A.G. (eds) Microfauna and biostratigraphy of the Phanerozoic of Siberia. Nauka, Novosibirsk. [in Russian]

Bogush, O.I., Ivanova, R.M. & Luchinina, V.A. 1990. Calcareous algae from the late Famennian and Early Carboniferous of Urals and Siberia. Trudy Instituta Geologii i Geofiziki 745, 1-160. [in Russian]

Bozorgnia, F. 1973. Paleozoic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of central and east Alborz Mountains, Iran. 185 pp. National Iranian Oil Company, Geological Laboratories, Publication 4, Tehran.

Brenckle, P.L. 2004. Late Visean (Mississippian) calcareous microfossils from the Tarim Basin of western China. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 34(2), 144-164. View article

Brenckle, P., Gaetani, M., Angiolini, L. & Bahrammanesh, M. 2009. Refinements in biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, and paleogeography of the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) Mobarak Formation, Alborz, Iran. GeoArabia 14(3), 43-78.

Caridroit, M., Degardin, J.M., Derycke, C., Lethiers, F., Marcoux, J.,Milhau, B., Pillevuit, A. & Vachard, D. 1997. Un assemblage microfaunistique remarquable du Paléozoique supérieur de Turquie (radiolaires, conodontes, ostracodes, foraminiferes, microrestes de vertébrés). Géobios, Mémoire spécial 20, 109-115. View article

Çatal, E., Demirtaslİ, E., Dil, N., Kaya, O., Kiragli, C. & Salanci, A. 1978. Field Excursions on the Carboniferous Stratigraphy in Turkey. Guidebook, IUGS Subcommission on Carboniferous Stratigraphy, 45 pp. Ankara.

Chuvashov, B.I. 1965. Foraminifers and algae of the Late Devonian deposits from the western slope of central and southern Urals. Devonian and Permian Foraminifera of the Urals. Sbornik po stratigrafii 8(74), 3-154. Institute of Geology, Ural Branch of the USSR, Sverdlovsk. [in Russian]

Conil, R. & Groessens, E. 1974. Excursion B. International Symposium on Belgian micropaleontological limits, Namur 1974, 1-26.

Conil, R., Groessens, E., Laloux, M. & Poty, E. 1989. La limite Tournaisien/Viséen dans la région-type. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique 112(1), 177-189.

Conil, R., Groessens, E., Laloux, M., Poty, E. & Tourneur, F. 1991. Carboniferous guide foraminifera, corals and conodonts in the Franco-Belgian and Campine basins; their potential for widespread correlations. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 130, 15-30.

Conil, R., Groessens, E. & Pirlet, H. 1977. Nouvelle charte stratigraphique du Dinantien type de la Belgique. Annales de la Société géologique du Nord 96, 363-371.

Conil, R., Longerstaey, P.J. & Ramsbottom, W.H.C. 1980. Matériaux pour l’étude micropaléontologique du Dinantien de Grande-Bretagne. Mémoires de l’Institut Géologique de l’Université de Louvain 30 (dated 1979), 1-115.

Conil, R. & Lys, M. 1964. Matériaux pour l’étude micropaléontologique du Dinantien de la Belgique et de la France (Avesnois). Pt. 1, Algues et foraminiferes; Pt. 2, Foraminiferes (suite). Mémoires de l’Institut de Géologie de l’Université de Louvain 23, 1-372.

Conil, R. & Lys, M. 1968. Utilisation stratigraphique des foraminiferes du Dinantien. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique 91, 491-558.

Conil, R. & Naum, C. 1976. Les foraminiferes du Viséen moyen V2a aux environs de Dinant. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique 99, 109-142.

Davydov, V.I., Crowley, J.L., Schmitz, M. D. & Poletaev, V.I. 2010. High-precision U-Pb zircon age calibration of the global Carboniferous time scale and Milankovitch band cyclicity in the Donets Basin, eastern Ukraine. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 11(1), 1-22.View article

Devuyst, F.-X. 2006. The Tournaisian-Viséan boundary in Eurasia. Definition, biostratigraphy, sedimentology and early evolution of the genus Eoparastaffella (foraminifer). PhD thesis, Catholic University of Louvain.

Dil, N. 1975. Etude micropaléontologique du Dinantien de Gokgöl et Kokaksu (Turquie). Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique 98, 213-228.

Dil, N. 1977. Assemblages caractéristiques de Foraminiferes du Dévonien supérieur et du Dinantien de Turquie (Bassin carbonifere de Zonguldak). Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique 99(2), 373-400.

Dil, N., Termier, G., Termier, H. & Vachard, D. 1977. Contribution a l’étude stratigraphique et paléontologique du Viséen supérieur et du Namurien inférieur du bassin houiller de Zonguldak (Nord-Ouest de la Turquie). Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique 99(2), 401-449.

Dojen, C., Özgül, N., GöncüoĞlu, Y. & GöncüoĞlu, M.C. 2004. Early Devonian ostracods of Thuringian ecotype from NW Anatolia. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 12, 733-748.

Einor, O.L. 1996. The former USSR, 13-407. In Wagner, R., Winkler Prins, C.F. & Granados, L.F. (eds) The Carboniferous of the World, Instituto Tecnológico GeoMinero de Espana (IGME) & Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum 3.

Franke, W. & Engel, W. 1986. Synorogenic sedimentation in the Variscan Belt of Europe. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 8, 2(1), 25-33.

Gallagher, S.J. 1998. Controls on the distribution of calcareous foraminifera in the Lower Carboniferous of Ireland. Marine Micropaleontology 34, 187-211. View article

Ganelina, R.A. 1956. Visean foraminifers from the northwestern areas of the Submoscow Depression. Trudy VNIGRI 98, Mikrofauna SSSR 8, 61-159. [in Russian; French translation: BRGM 1626, 1-81.]

GöncüoĞlu, M.C., Boncheva, I. & GöncüoĞlu, Y. 2004. First discovery of middle Tournaisian conodonts in the griotte-type nodular pelagic limestones, İstanbul area, NW Turkey. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologica e Stratigrafia 110(2), 431-439.

GöncüoĞlu, M.C., ÇapkinoĞlu, S., Gürsu, S., Noble, P., Turhan, N., Tekin, U.K., Okuyucu, C. & GöncüoĞlu, Y. 2007. The Mississippian in the Central and Eastern Taurides (Turkey): constraints on the tectonic setting of the Tauride-Anatolide Platform. Geologica Carpathica 58, 427-442.

GöncüoĞlu, M.C., Dirik, K. & Kozlu, Y. 1997. General characteristics of pre-Alpine and Alpine Terranes in Turkey: explanatory notes to the terrane map of Turkey. Annales géologiques des pays helléniques 37, 515-536.

GöncüoĞlu, M.C. & Kozur, H. 1998. Remarks on the pre-Variscan development in Turkey. In Linnemann, U., Heuse, T., Fatka, O., Kraft, P., Brocke, R. & Erdtmann, B.T. (eds) Pre-Variscan Terrane Analysis of “Gondwanan Europa”, Proceedings, Schriften des Staatlichen Museums Mineralogie und Geologie Dresden 9.

Görür, N., Monod, O., Okay, A.I., Şengör, A.M.C., Tüysüz, O., YiĞitbas, E., Sakinç, M. & Akkök, R. 1997. Paleogeographic and tectonic position of the Carboniferous rocks of the western Pontides (Turkey) in the frame of the Variscan belt. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 168(2), 197-205.

Groessens, E., Conil, R. & Hennebert, M. 1982. Le Dinantien du sondage de Saint Ghislain, stratigraphie et paléontologie. Mémoires pour servir a l’explication des cartes géologiques et minieres de la Belgique, Mémoire 22, 1-137.

Grozdilova, L.P. & Lebedeva, N.S. 1954. Foraminifers of the Early Carboniferous and Bashkirian stage of the Middle Carboniferous of the Kolvo-Vishera Basin. Trudy VNIGRI 81, Mikrofauna SSSR 7, 4-203. [in Russian]

Güvenç, T. 1965. Etude stratigraphique et micropaléontologique du Carbonifere et du Permien des Taurus occidentaux dans l’arriere-pays d’Alanya (Turquie). PhD thesis, University of Paris.

Haas, W. 1968. Das Alt-Paläozoikum von Bithynien (Nordwest Türkei). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 131, 178-242.

Hance, L. 1988. Le Moliniacien du Synclinorium de Dinant (Belgique), de la région dinantaise a la vallée de l’Ourthe. Mémoires de l’Institut Géologique de l’Université de Louvain 33, 1-91.

Hance, L., Hou, H.F. & Vachard, D. 2011. Upper Famennian to Viséan foraminifers and some carbonate microproblematica from South China, Hunan, Guangxi and Guizhou. 359 pp. Geological Science Press, Beijing.

Hance, L., Laloux, M., Muchez, P., Groessens, E., Peeters, C. & Poty, E. 1994. An outline of the Moliniacian (Upper Tournaisian-Lower Viséan) in southern Belgium. Introduction to a field excursion in honour of Prof. Dr. Raphaël Conil - 12 October 1991. Mémoires de l’Institut Géologique de l’Université Catholique de Louvain 35, 27-50.

Hecker, M. 2002. Correlation of the Dinantian of the East European Platform and Urals with the type area (Belgium), 52-78. In Hills, L.V., Henderson, C.M. & Bamber, E.W. (eds) Carboniferous and Permian of the World. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 19.

Hecker, M. 2009. Major guide taxa for correlation of the Moscow and Donets basins Dinantian successions with the type area (Belgium), 198-201. In Puchkov, V.N. (ed.) Carboniferous type sections in Russia and potential global stratotypes, southern Urals session. Proceedings of the International Field Meeting “The historical type sections, proposed and potential GSSP of the Carboniferous in Russia”.

Ivanova, R.M. 1988. Calcareous algae of the Viséan stage of the Urals. In Chuvashov, B.I. & Puchkov, B.N. (eds) Biostratigraphy and lithology of the Late Palaeozoic of the Urals. Akademiya nauk SSSR, Uralskoe otdelenye, Sbornik nauchnykh trudov. [in Russian]

Ivanova, R.M. & Bogush, O.I. 1992. Algae as indicators of a biogeographical zonation in the Early Carboniferous of the Urals, Siberia and Northeast Russia. Facies 27, 235-244. View article

James, N.P. 1997. The cool-water carbonate depositional realm, 1-20. In James, N.J. & Clarke, J. (eds) Cool-water carbonates. SEPM, Special Publication 56. View article

Kagarmanov, A.K. & Donakova, L.M. 1990. Decisions of the regional, stratigraphical, interdepartmental conference on the Middle and Late Palaeozoic, Leningrad, 1988, Carboniferous system. 40 pp. VSEGEI, Leningrad. [in Russian]

Kalvoda, J. 1983. Preliminary zonation of the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous in Moravia. Miscellanea Micropaleontologica, a memorial volume dedicated to the 18th European Colloquium in Micropaleontology. Knihovnička Zemního plynu a nafty 4, 23-42.

Kalvoda, J. 1990. Foraminiferal zonation of the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous in Moravia (Czechoslovakia). Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae naturales 75, 71-93.

Kalvoda, J. 1999. Tournaisian-Lower Visean calcareous foraminifera: biostratigraphy and palaeogeography. Abhandlungen der geologischen Bundesanstalt 54, 135-145.

Kalvoda, J. 2002. Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous foraminiferal fauna: zonations, evolutionary events, paleobiogeography and tectonic implications. Folia, Geologia 39, 1-213.

Kalvoda, J. 2003. Carboniferous foraminiferal paleobiogeography in Turkey and its implications for plate tectonic reconstructions. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia i Stratigrafia 109(2), 255-266.

Kalvoda, J., Bábek, O., Devuyst, F.-X. & Sevastopoulo, G.D. 2011. Biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and gamma-ray spectrometry of the Tournaisian-Viséan boundary interval in the Dublin Basin. Bulletin of Geosciences 86(4), 683-706. View article

Kalvoda, J., Bábek, O., Fatka, O., Leichmann, J.,Melichar, R., Nehyba, R. & Špaček, P. 2008. Brunovistulian terrane (Bohemian Massif, Central Europe) from Late Proterozoic to Late Paleozoic: a review. International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geologische Rundschau) 97, 497-518.View article

Kalvoda, J., Leichmann, J., Bábek, O. & Melichar, R. 2003. Brunovistulian Terrane (Central Europe) and Istanbul Zone (NW Turkey): Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic tectonostratigraphic development and paleogeography. Geologica Carpathica 54, 139-152.

Kaya, O. 1969. Karbon bei Istanbul. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 1969(3), 160-173.

Kaya, O. 1971. İstanbul’un Karbonifer stratigrafisi. Turkiye Jeoloji Kurumu Bülteni 14(2), 143-199.

Kaya, O. & Mamet, B. 1971. Biostratigraphy of the Viséan Cebeciköy limestone near İstanbul, Turkey. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 1(2), 77-81. View article

Korn, D. 1997. Evolution of the Goniatitaceae and Viséan-Namurian biogeography. Acta Paleontologica Polonica 42(2), 177-199.

Kulagina, E.I., Gibshman, N.B. & Pazukhin, V.N. 2003. Foraminiferal zonal standard for the Lower Carboniferous of Russia and its correlation with the conodont zonation. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 109(2), 173-185.

Kulagina, E.I., Kochetkova, N.M. & Byvsheva, T.B. 1988. On the palaeontological characteristics of the early-middle Viséan deposits of Orenburg. In Tchibrikova, Y.V. (ed.) Biostratigraphy of the Devonian and Carboniferous of the Urals. Bashkirian Scientific Centre, Urals Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. [in Russian]

Leven, E.Y. & Okay, A.I. 1996. Foraminifera from the exotic Permo-Carboniferous limestone blocks in the Karakaya complex, northwestern Turkey. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 102(2), 139-174.

Lipina, O.A. 1955. Foraminifers of the Tournaisian stage and of the upper part of the Devonian from the Volga-Ural area and from the western slope of central Urals. Trudy Instituta Geologii, Geologichevskaya seriya 163(70), 1-96. [in Russian; French translation: BRGM 1640]

Lys, M. 1988. Biostratigraphie du Carbonifere en Mésogée (Espagne, Afrique du Nord, Régions Egéennes, Proche-Orient). Etudes micropaléontologiques (Foraminiferes) paléobiogéographie. Documents du B.R.G.M. 147, 1-315.

Malakhova, N.P. 1975a. Foraminifers from the early Viséan of the western slope of southern Urals, 5-70. In Malakhova, N.P. & Chuvashov, B.I. (eds) Foraminifery i stratigrafiya rannego vize Urala (Foraminifers and stratigraphy from the early Viséan of Urals). Trudy Instituta Geologii i Geokhimii 112. [in Russian]

Malakhova, N.P. 1975b. Foraminifers, algae and stratigraphy of the early Viséan of the western slope of southern Urals, 71-109. In Malakhova, N.P. & Chuvashov, B.I. (eds) Foraminifery i stratigrafiya rannego vize Urala (Foraminifers and stratigraphy from early Viséan of Urals). Trudy Instituta Geologii i Geokhimii 112. [in Russian]

Mamet, B. 1973. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Lower Carboniferous Trakya and Heybeliada formations, Istanbul region, Turkey. In Kaya, O. (ed.) Paleozoic of Istanbul. Ege Universitesi, Fen Fakültesi, Kitaplar Serisi 40.

Mamet, B. 1974. Une zonation par foraminiferes du Carbonifere inférieur de la Téthys Occidentale. Comptes Rendus du 7e Congres International de Stratigraphie et Géologie du Carbonifere 3, 391-408.

Mamet, B. & Roux, A. 1981. Note sur le genre Issinella (algue verte paléozoique). Revue de Micropaléontologie 23(3-4), 151-158.

Marfenkova, M.M. 1991. Marine Carboniferous from Kazakhstan; stratigraphy, zonal sequence, foraminifers. 199 pp. Gylym, Alma-Ata. [in Russian]

Meinhold, G., Reischmann, T., Kostopoulos, D., Lehnert, O., Makutov, D. & Sergeev, S. 2008. Provenance of sediments during subduction of Palaeotethys: Detrital zircon ages and olistolith analysis in Palaeozoic sediments from Chios Island, Greece. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 263, 71-91. View article

Menning, M., Alekseev, A.S., Chuvashov, B.I., Davydov, V.I., Devuyst, F.-X., Forke, H.C., Grunt, T.A., Hance, L., Heckel, P.H., Izokh, N.G., Jin, Y.G., Jones, P.J., Kotlyar, G.V., Kozur, H.W., Nemyrovska, T.I., Schneider, J.W., Wang, X.D., Weddige, K., Weyer, D. & Work, D.M. 2006. Global time scale and regional stratigraphic reference scales of Central and West Europe, East Europe, Tethys, South China, and North America as used in the Devonian-Carboniferous-Permian correlation chart (DCP 2003). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 240, 318-372.View article

Mikhno, N.M. & Balakin, G.V. 1975. Foraminifera and bryozoa from the Early Carboniferous Chatkal horizon. Izdatelstvo “Fan”, Uzbekskoy SSR, Tashkent. [in Russian]

Moix, P., Beccaletto, L., Kozur, H.W., Hochard, C., Rosselet, F. & Stampfli, G.M. 2008. A new classification of the Turkish terranes and sutures and its implication for the paleotectonic history of the region. Tectonophysics 451(1-4), 7-39. View article

Moix, P., Beccaletto, L.,Masset, O., Kozur, H.W., Dumitrica, P., Vachard, D., Martini, R. & Stampfli, G.M. 2011. Geology and correlation of Mersin Mélanges, southern Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 20, 57-98.

Noble, P.J., Tekin, U.K., Gedik, I. & Pehlivan, Ş. 2008. Middle to upper Tournasian (sic) radiolaria of the Baltalimanı Formation, Istanbul, Turkey. Journal of Paleontology 82(1), 37-56.

Okay, A.I. & Tüysüz, O. 1999. Tethyan sutures of northern Turkey, 475-515. In Durand, B., Jolivet, L., Horváth, F. & Séranne,M. (eds) The Mediterranean Basins: Tertiary extension within the Alpine Orogen. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 156.

Okay, A.I., Noble, P.J. & Tekin, U.K. 2011. Devonian radiolarian ribbon cherts from the Karakaya Complex, Northwest Turkey: Implications for the Paleo-Tethyan evolution. Comptes Rendus Palevol 10, 1-10.View article

Okuyucu, C. & Vachard, D. 2006. Late Viséan foraminifera and algae from the Cataloturan Nappe, Aladag Mountains, eastern Taurides, southern Turkey. Geobios 39, 535-554. View article

Önalan, M. 1981. İstanbul Ordovisiyen ve Silüriyen istifinin çökelme ortamları. İstanbul Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Dergisi 2, 161-177.

Özgül, N. 2012. Stratigraphy and some structural features of the İstanbul Palaeozoic. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 21, 817-866.

Özgül, N., Üner, K., AkmeŞe, İ., Bilgin, İ., Kokuz, R., Özcan, İ., Yildiz, Z., Yildirim, Ü., AkdaĞ, Ö. & Tekin, M. 2005. İstanbul il alanının genel jeoloji özellikleri. İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Planlama ve İmar Daire Baskanlığı.

Penck, W. 1919. Grundzüge der Geologie des Bosphorus. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Meereskunde an der Universität Berlin, n. s. 4, 1-71.

Pille, L. 2008. Foraminiferes et algues calcaires du Mississippien supérieur (Viséen supérieur-Serpukhovien): rôles biostratigraphique, paléoécologique et paléogéographique aux échelles locale, régionale et mondiale. PhD thesis, University of Lille 1.

Pille, L., Vachard, D., Argyriadis, I. & Aretz, M. 2010. Revision of the late Visean-Serpukhovian (Mississippian) calcareous algae, foraminifers and microproblematica from Balia Maden (NW Turkey). Geobios 43(5), 531-546. View article

Poty, E., Devuyst, F.-X. & Hance, L. 2006. Upper Devonian and Mississippian foraminiferal and rugose coral zonations of Belgium and Northern France, a tool for Eurasian correlations. Geological Magazine 143(6), 829-857. View article

Rauzer-Chernousova, D.M. 1948. Materialy k faune foraminifer kamennougolnykh otlozhenii Tsentralnogo Kazakhstana [Materials for foraminiferal fauna from the Carboniferous deposits from central Kazakhstan]. Trudy Instituta geologicheskikh nauk, Geologicheskaya seriya 66(21), 1-66. [in Russian]

Reitlinger, E.A. 1954. Devonian foraminifers from the eastern part of the Russian Platform. Paleontologicheskii sbornik VNIGRI 1, 41-51. [in Russian]

Reitlinger, E.A. 1950. Foraminifera from Middle Carboniferous deposits of the central part of the Russian Platform (excepting the family Fusulinidae). Trudy Instituta geologicheskikh nauk, Geologicheskaya seriya 126(47), 1-126. [in Russian, French translation: BRGM 1456]

Samankassou, E. 2002. Cool-water carbonates in a paleoequatorial shallow-water environment: The paradox of the Auernig cyclic sediments (Upper Pennsylvanian, Carnic Alps, Austria-Italy) and its implications. Geology 30(7), 655-658. View article

Strickland, H.E. 1840. On the geology of the Thracian Bosphorus. Transactions of the Geological Society of London 2, 5(2), 385-391.

Tchihatcheff, P. 1854. Dépôts paléozoiques de la Cappadoce et du Bosphore. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 11, 402-416.

Termier, G., Termier, H. & Vachard, D. 1977. Sur l’âge des faunes marines froides corrélatives des glaciations gondwanes du Carbonifere. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris 284, 2321-2322.

Vachard, D. 1977. Etude stratigraphique et micropaléontologique (algues et foraminiferes) du Viséen de la Montagne Noire (Hérault, France). Mémoires de l’Institut Géologique de l’Université de Louvain 29, 111-195.

Vachard, D. 1994. Révision du genre Luteotubulus Vachard, 1977 (pseudo-algae issinellide), grâce au matériel de R. Conil. Mémoires de l’Institut Géologique de l’Université Catholique de Louvain 35, 213-219.

Vachard, D. & Clément, B. 1994. L’Hastarien (ex-Tournaisien inférieur et moyen) a algues et foraminiferes de la Zone Pélagonienne (Attique, Grece). Revue de Micropaléontologie37(4), 289-319.

Vachard, D. & Cózar, P. 2010. An attempt of classification of the Palaeozoic incertae sedis Algospongia. Revista Espanola de Micropaleontología 42(2), 129-241.

Vachard, D., Pille, L., Aretz, M., Herbig, H.G. & Cózar, P. 2006. Eovelebitella (dasyclad algae) and importance of its Brigantian subprovince within the western Palaeotethys. Kölner Forum für Geologie und Paläontologie 15, 120-121.

Vachard, D., Termier, H. & Termier, G. 1977. Sur la transgression viséenne au Jebel Goulib (Maroc Central). Bulletin mensuel de la Société linnéenne de Lyon 46(8), 267-281.

Vdovenko, M.V. 1980. Viséan stage; zonal subdivisions and palaeozoogeographical provinces. Naukova dumka, Kiev. [in Russian]

Vdovenko, M.V. 1986. Rannekammenougolnye foraminifery Pridobrudzhinskogo Progiba [Early Carboniferous foraminifers from the Predobrudzha area]. Bulgarska Academiya na Naukite, Paleontologiya, Stratigrafiya i Litologiya 22, 3-14. [(in Russian]

Vdovenko, M.V. 2001. Atlas of Foraminifera from the Upper Viséan and Lower Serpukhovian (Lower Carboniferous) of the Donets Basin (Ukraine). Abhandlungen und Berichte für Naturkunde 23, 93-178.

Verneuil, M. de 1836-1837. Notice géologique sur les environs de Constantinople. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 1(8), 268-278.

Weyer, D. 2006. 5. Faunen des deutschen Unterkarbons; 5.1 Korallen, 69-88. In Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission (ed.) Stratigraphie von Deutschland, VI. Unterkarbon (Mississippium). Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften 41.

Yalçinlar, I. 1951. İstanbul civarının Paleozoik arazisine yeni musahedeler. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurumu Bülteni 3(1), 125-130.

Yalçinlar, I. 1954. Sur la présence de schistes carboniferes et de plantes fossiles a l’W d’Istanbul. Comptes Rendus Sommaires de la Société géologique de France 2, 23-25.

Yanev, S. 1993. Gondwana Paleozoic terranes in the Alpine collage system of the Balkans. Himalayan Geology 4(2), 257-270.

Yanev, S. 1997. Paleozoic migration of terranes from the basement of the eastern part of the Balkan peninsula from peri-Gondwana to Laurussia. Turkish Association Petroleum Geologists, Special Publication 3, 89-100.

Yanev, S. 2000. Palaeozoic terranes of the Balkan Peninsula in the framework of Pangea assembly. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 161, 151-177. View article

Yanev, S. & Adamia, S. 2010. General correlation of the Late Palaeozoic sequences in the Balkans and the Caucasus. Yerbilimleri 31(1), 1-22.

Yanev, S., GöncüoĞlu, M.C., Gedik, I., Lakova, I., Boncheva, I., Sachanski, V., Okuyucu, C., Özgül, N., Timur, E. & Maliakov, Y. 2006. Stratigraphy, correlations and palaeogeography of Palaeozoic terranes in Bulgaria and NW Turkey: a review of recent data. In Robertson, A.H.F., Mountrakis, D. & Brun, J.-P. (eds) Tectonic Evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 260.

Yilmaz, Y. 1991. Allochthonous terranes in the Tethyan Middle East: Anatolia and the surrounding regions. In Dewey, J.F., Gass, I.G., Curry, G.B., Harris, N.B.W. & Şengör, C. (eds) Allochthonous terranes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.