Current IF 1.395
Latest issue (RSS 2.0)
Contact Editorial Office at
Bulletin of Geosciences
Published by ©
Czech Geological Survey,
W. Bohemia Museum Pilsen
ISSN: 1802-8225 (online),
Regional constraints on leaf physiognomy and precipitation regression models: a case study from China
Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 88, issue 3; pages: 595 - 608; Received 27 June 2012; Accepted in revised form 29 September 2012; Online 16 April 2013
Keywords: palaeoflora, palaeoclimate reconstruction, leaf size, precipitation, CLAMP,
AbstractThe relationship between leaf physiognomy and precipitation has been explored worldwide in regions under different climate conditions. Unlike the linear relationship established between the percentage of woody dicot species with entire margins and mean annual temperature, precipitation has been reported to correlate to different leaf physiognomic characters depending on the region where the correlation is studied. To investigate if precipitation can be calculated from leaf physiognomic characters on the basis of regional sample sites, data from 50 mesic to humid forests in China were analyzed in this study. With data from Chinese forests, the leaf-area analysis based on linear regression between natural logarithms of leaf size and mean annual precipitation (MAP) shows no significant correlation. Both single and multiple linear regression analyses fail to confirm the correlation between leaf physiognomy and precipitation, which may result from the similarity of modern spatial distribution of temperature and precipitation in China. Our results show that, due to variations in climatic conditions among sampling regions, leaf physiognomic characters that correlate to precipitation are not consistent worldwide, and applications of models without considering regional constraints could mislead our understanding of palaeoclimate. Therefore, when choosing a leaf physiognomic model for palaeoclimate reconstructions, it is important to determine if the leaf physiognomy of the palaeoflora lies within the leaf physiognomic spectrum of the model used.
Bailey, I.W.& Sinnott, E.W. 1915. A botanical index of Cretaceous and Tertiary climates. Science 41, 831-834.
Baker-Brosh, K.F. & Peet, R.K. 1997. The ecological significance of lobed and toothed leaves in temperature forest trees. Ecology 78, 1250-1255.
Chaloner, W.G. & Creber, G.T. 1990. Do fossil plants give a climatic signal? Journal of the Geological Society 147, 343-350.
China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System (CMDSSS) 2012. http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/. Access restricted to registered users, checked in February 2012.
Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP) 2011. http://clamp.ibcas.ac.cn/. Accessed in February 2012. Gayó, E., Hinojosa, L.F. & Villagrán, C. 2005. On the persistence of tropical Paleofloras in central Chile during the Early Eocene. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 137, 41-50.
Greenwood, D.R. 2005. Leaf form and the reconstruction of past climates. New Phytologist 166, 355-357.
Greenwood, D.R., Basinger, J.F. & Smith, R.Y. 2010. How wet was the Arctic Eocene rain forest? Estimates of precipitation from Paleogene Arctic macrofloras. Geology 38, 15-18.
Greenwood, D.R., Wilf, P., Wing, S.L. & Christophel, D.C. 2004. Paleotemperature estimation using leaf margin analysis: Is Australia different? Palaios 19, 129-142.
Gregory, K.M. & McIntosh, W.C. 1996. Paleoclimate and paleoelevation of the Oligocene Pitch-Pinnacle flora, Sawatch Range, Colorado. Geological Society of America Bulletin 108, 545-561.
Gregory-Wodzicki, K.M. 2000. Relationships between leaf morphology and climate, Bolivia: Implications for estimating paleoclimate from fossil floras. Paleobiology 26, 668-688.
Gregory-Wodzicki, K.M. 2002. A late Miocene subtropical-dry flora from the northern Altiplano, Bolivia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 180, 331-348.
Hijmans, R.J., Cameron, S.E., & Parra, J.L. 2005a. Worldclim, http://www.worldclim.org. Checked in February 2012.
Hijmans, R.J., Cameron, S.E., Parra, J.L., Jones, P.G. & Jarvis, A. 2005b. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25, 1965-1978.
Jacobs, B.F. 1999. Estimation of rainfall variables from leaf characters in tropical Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 145, 231-250.
Jacobs, B.F. 2002. Estimation of low-latitude paleoclimates using fossil angiosperm leaves: Examples from the Miocene Tugen Hills, Kenya. Paleobiology 28, 399-421.
Jacobs, B.F. & Herendeen, P.S. 2004. Eocene dry climate and woodland vegetation in tropical Africa reconstructed from fossil leaves from northern Tanzania. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 213, 115-123.
Jacques, F.M.B., Su, T., Spicer, R.A., Xing, Y.-W., Huang, Y.-J., Wang, W.-M. & Zhou, Z.-K. 2011. Leaf physiognomy and climate: Are monsoon systems different? Global and Planetary Change 76, 56-62.
Jordan, G.J. 2011. A critical framework for the assessment of biological palaeoproxies: Predicting past climate and levels of atmospheric CO2 from fossil leaves. New Phytologist 192, 29-44.
Little, S.A., Kembel, S.W. & Wilf, P. 2010. Paleotemperature proxies from leaf fossils reinterpreted in light of evolutionary history. PLoS ONE 5, e15161.
Martinetto, E., Uhl, D. & Tarabra, E. 2007. Leaf physiognomic indications for a moist warm-temperate climate in NW Italy during the Messinian (late Miocene). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 253, 41-55.
Miller, I.M., Brandon, M.T. & Hickey, L.J. 2006. Using leaf margin analysis to estimate the mid-Cretaceous (Albian) paleolatitude of the Baja BC block. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 245, 95-114.
National Research Council 2008. Origin and Evolution of Earth: Research Questions for A Changing Planet. 137 pp. National Academies Press, Washington.
New, M., Hulme, M. & Jones, P. 1999. Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability. Part I: Development of a 1961-90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology. Journal of Climate 12, 829-856.
New, M., Lister, D.,Hulme,M. & Makin, I. 2002.Ahigh-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas. Climate Research 21, 1-25.
Peppe, D.J., Royer, D.L., Cariglino, B., Oliver, S.Y., Newman, S., Leight, E., Enikolopov, G., Fernandez-Burgos, M., Herrera, F., Adams, J.M., Correa, E., Currano, E.D., Erickson, J.M.,Hinojosa, L.F.,Hoganson, J.W., Iglesias, A., Jaramillo, C.A., Johnson, K.R., Jordan, G.J., Kraft, N.J.B., Lovelock, E.C., Lusk, C.H., Niinemets, Ü., Penuelas, J., Rapson, G., Wing, S.L. & Wright, I.J. 2011. Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: global patterns and paleoclimatic applications. New Phytologist 190, 724-739.
Quan, C., Liu, Y.-S. & Utescher, T. 2011. Paleogene evolution of precipitation in northeastern China supporting the middle Eocene intensification of the east Asian monsoon. Palaios 26, 743-753.
Quan, C., Liu, Y.-S. & Utescher, T. 2012. Paleogene temperature gradient, seasonal variation and climate evolution of northeast China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 313-314, 150-161.
Royer, D.L., Peppe, D.J., Wheeler, E.A. & Niinemets, Ü. 2012. Roles of climate and functional traits in controlling toothed vs. untoothed leaf margins. American Journal of Botany 99, 915-922.
Spicer, R.A., Herman, A.B. & Kennedy, E.M. 2004. Foliar physiognomic record of climatic conditions during dormancy: Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP) and the cold month mean temperature. Journal of Geology 112, 685-702.
Spicer, R.A., Valdes, P.J., Spicer, T.E.V., Craggs, H.J., Srivastava, G., Mehrotra, R.C. & Yang, J. 2009. New developments in CLAMP: Calibration using global gridded meteorological data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 283, 91-98.
Steart, D.C., Spicer, R.A. & Bamford, M.K. 2010. Is southern Africa different? An investigation of the relationship between leaf physiognomy and climate in southern African mesic vegetation. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 162, 607-620.
Su, T., Xing, Y.-W., Liu, Y.-S., Jacques, F.M.B., Chen, W.-Y., Huang, Y.-J. & Zhou, Z.-K. 2010. Leaf margin analysis: A new equation from humid to mesic forests in China. Palaios 25, 234-238.
Sun, X.-J. & Wang, P.-X. 2005. How old is the Asian monsoon system? - Palaeobotanical records from China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 222, 181-222.
Sunderlin, D., Loope, G., Parker, N.E. & Williams, C.J. 2011. Paleoclimatic and paleoecological implications of a Paleocene-Eocene fossil leaf assemblage, Chickaloon Formation, Alaska. Palaios 26, 335-345.
Traiser, C., Klotz, S., Uhl, D. & Mosbrugger, V. 2005. Environmental signals from leaves - a physiognomic analysis of European vegetation. New Phytologist 166, 465-484.
Traiser, C., Uhl, D., Klotz, S. & Mosbrugger, V. 2007. Leaf physiognomy and palaeoenvironmental estimates - an alternative technique based on an European calibration. Acta Palaeobotanica 47(1), 183-201.
Valdes, P.J. 2008. http://www.paleo.bris.ac.uk/ummodel/scripts/html_bridge/clamp_UEA.html. Checked in February 2012.
Wiemann, M.C., Manchester, S.R., Dilcher, D.L., Hinojosa, L.F. & Wheeler, E.A. 1998. Estimation of temperature and precipitation from morphological characters of dicotyledonous leaves. American Journal of Botany 85, 1796-1802.
Wilf, P. 1997. When are leaves good thermometers? A new case for leaf margin analysis. Paleobiology 23, 373-390.
Wilf, P., Wing, S.L., Greenwood, D.R. & Greenwood, C.L. 1998. Using fossil leaves as paleoprecipitation indicators: An Eocene example. Geology 26, 203-206.
Wing, S.L. & Greenwood, D.R. 1993. Fossils and fossil climate: The case for equable continental interiors in the Eocene. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 341, 243-252.
Wolfe, J.A. 1979. Temperature parameters of humid to mesic forests of eastern Asia, compared to Australasia and the Northern Hemisphere. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1106, 1-37.
Wolfe, J.A. 1993.Amethod of obtaining climatic parameters from leaf assemblages. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2040, 1-71.
Wu, Z.-Y. 1980. Vegetation in China. 1375 pp. Science Press, Beijing. [in Chinese]
Zhang, J.-C. 1991. Climate in China: The Pandect. 477 pp. China Meteorological Press, Beijing. [in Chinese]