A first Late Permian fish fauna from Baghuk Mountain (Neo-Tethyan shelf, central Iran)

 

Authors: Hampe O, Hairapetian V, Dorka M, Witzmann F, Akbari AM, Korn D

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 88, issue 1; pages: 1 - 20; Received 2 April 2012; Accepted in revised form 28 June 2012; Online 26 September 2012

Keywords: chondrichthyans, actinopterygians, Wuchiapingian, Changxingian, palaeoenvironment,

full text (PDF, 6.06 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

A diverse Late Permian assemblage of chondrichthyan and actinopterygian micro- and macroremains is presented from the central Iranian locality of Baghuk Mountain for the first time. The vertebrate remains were found in sediments containing mainly pelagic organisms such as nautiloids, ammonoids, and conodonts. Their habitat is interpreted as a deep shelf area with well-oxygenated bottom water conditions below the storm wave base. The chondrichthyans are represented by various dermal denticles, a fragment of a spine, and a low number of teeth from mostly durophagous hybodontiforms and eugeneodontiforms. A new eugeneodontid species is described as Bobbodus xerxesi sp. nov.; this genus was known only from the east coast of the former Panthalassic Ocean. The actinopterygian remains are represented by dermal bones, teeth, and scales. The bones are only fragmentarily preserved. The Baghuk Mountain vertebrate fauna shows closest similarities to remains known from the Russian Platform and from localities situated at the east coastal region of the Panthalassic Ocean (central United States).

References

Agassiz, L. 1833–43. Recherches sur les Poissons fossiles. 3. Contenant l’Histoire de l’Ordre des Placoides. 422 pp. Petitpierre, Neuchâtel.

Angiolini, L., Balini, M., Garzanti, E., Nicora, A., Tintori, A., Crasquin, S. & Muttoni, G. 2003. Permian climatic and paleogeographic changes in Northern Gondwana: the Khuff Formation of Interior Oman. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 191(3–4), 269–300. View article

Arfania, R. & Shahriari, S. 2009. Role of southeastern Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone in the tectonic evolution of Zagros Orogenic Belt. The Island Arc 18(4), 555–576. View article

Bando, Y. 1979. Upper Permian and Lower Triassic ammonoids from Abadeh, Central Iran. Memoirs of the Faculty of Education, Kagawa University 29(2), 103–138.

Bendix-Almgreen, S.E. 1975. Fossil fishes from the marine Late Palaeozoic of Holm Land – Amdrup Land, North-East Greenland. Meddelelser om Gronland 195(9), 1–43.

Bonaparte, C.L.J.L. 1838. Iconografia della fauna italica per le quatro classi degli animali vertebrati. Tomo III: Pesci. 16 pp. Salviucci, Rome.

Cappetta, H. 1987. Chondrichthyes II. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Elasmobranchii. In Schultze, H.-P. (ed.) Handbook of Paleoichthyology, Volume 3B. 193 pp. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.

Casier, E. 1959. Contribution a l’étude des poissons fossiles de la Belgique, XII. Sélaciens et Holocéphales sinémuriens de la province de Luxembourg. Bulletin du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 35(8), 1–27.

Cope, E.D. 1871. Contribution to the ichthyology of the Lesser Antilles. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 14, 445–483. View article

Douglas, J.A. 1950. The Carboniferous and Permian faunas of south Iran and Iranian Baluchistan. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica, New Series, 22, Memoir 7, 1–57.

Fischer, J., Schneider, J.W. & Ronchi, A. 2010. New hybondontoid shark from the Permocarboniferous (Gzhelian-Asselian) of Guardia Pisano (Sardinia, Italy). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 55(2), 241–264. View article

Gallet, Y., Krystyn, L., Besse, J., Saidi, A. & Ricou, L.E. 2000. New constraints on the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic geomagnetic polarity timescale from the Abadeh section (central Iran). Journal of Geophysical Research – Solid Earth 105(B2), 2805–2815. View article

Ginter, M., Hampe, O. & Duffin, C.J. 2010. Chondrichthyes. Paleozoic Elasmobranchii: Teeth. In Schultze, H.-P. (ed.) Handbook of Paleoichthyology, Volume 3D. 168 pp. Pfeil, Munich.

Ginter, M. & Sun, Y. 2007. Chondrichthyan remains from the Lower Carboniferous of Muhua, southern China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 52(4), 705–727.

Glikman, L.S. 1964. Podklass Elasmobranchii, 196–237. In Obruchev, D.V. (ed.) Osnovy paleontologii. XI. Beschelustnye, ryby. Nauka, Moscow.

Golshani, F. & Janvier, P. 1974. Tooth fragment of a petalodontid fish (Elasmobranchii, Bradyodonti) from the Permian of central Iran. Geological Survey of Iran Report 31, 55–61.

Hay, O.P. 1902. Bibliography and catalogue of the fossil vertebrata of North America. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 179, 1–868.

Heydari, E., Hassanzadeh, J.,Wade, W.J. & Ghazi, A.M. 2003. Permian–Triassic boundary interval in the Abadeh section of Iran with implications for mass extinction: part 1 – sedimentology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 193(3–4), 405–423. View article

Hodnett, J.-P., Elliott, D.K. & Olson, T. 2011. The hybodontiform sharks (Chondrichthyes) from the marine Permian (Leonardian) Kaibab Formation of Northern Arizona. Ichthyolith Issues Special Publication 12, 23–24.

Huxley, T.H. 1880a. A manual of the anatomy of vertebrated animals. 431 pp. Appleton & Co., New York.

Huxley, T.H. 1880b. On the application of the laws of evolution to the arrangement of the Vertebrata, and more particularly of the Mammalia. Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London 1880, 649–662.

Ivanov, A.O. 2000. Permian elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes) of Russia. Ichthyolith Issues Special Publication 6, 39–42.

Ivanov, A.O. 2005. Early Permian chondrichthyans of the middle and south Urals. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 8(2), 127–138. View article

Jaekel, O. 1889. Die Selachier aus dem oberen Muschelkalk Lothringens. Abhandlungen zur Geologischen Specialkarte von Elsass-Lothringen 3(4), 273–332.

Johns, M.J. 1996. Diagnostic pedicle features of Middle and Late Triassic elasmobranch scales from northeastern British Columbia, Canada. Micropaleontology 42(4), 335–350. View article

Johnson, G.D. 1981. Hybodontoidei (Chondrichthyes) from the Wichita-Albany Group (Early Permian) of Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 1(1), 1–41. View article

Kozur, H.W. 2004. Pelagic uppermost Permian and the Permian boundary conodonts of Iran. Part 1: Taxonomy. Hallesches Jahrbuch Geowissenschaften Reihe B 18, 39–68.

Kozur, H.W. 2005. Pelagic uppermost Permian and the Permian–Triassic boundary conodonts of Iran. Part 2: Investigated sections and evaluation of the conodont faunas. Hallesches Jahrbuch Geowissenschaften Reihe B 19, 49–86.

Kozur, H.W. 2007. Biostratigraphy and event stratigraphy in Iran around the Permian–Triassic Boundary (PTB): implications for the causes of the PTB biotic crisis. Global and Planetary Change 55(1–3), 155–176. View article

Kriwet, J. 1995. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Fisch-Fauna des Ober-Jura (unteres Kimmeridge) der Kohlengrube Guimarota bei Leiria, Mittel-Portugal: 1. Asteracanthus biformatus n. sp. (Chondrichthyes: Hybodontoidea). Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen Reihe E 16(2), 683–691.

Leu, M.R. 1989. A late Permian freshwater shark from Eastern Australia. Palaeontology 32(2), 265–286.

Lund, R. 1989. New petalodonts (Chondrichthyes) from the Upper Mississippian Bear Gulch Limestone (Namurian E2b) of Montana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9(3), 350–368. View article

Lund, R. & Grogan, E.D. 1997. Relationships of the Chimaeriformes and the basal radiation of the Chondrichthyes. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 7, 65–123. View article

Maisey, J.G. 1975. The interrelationships of phalacanthous selachians. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte 1975(9), 553–567.

Maisey, J.G. 1987. Cranial anatomy of the Lower Jurassic shark Hybodus reticulatus (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii), with comments on hybodontid systematics. American Museum Novitates 2878, 1–39.

Malysheva, E.O., Ivanov, A.O., Beznosov, P.A., Belyaev, A.A. & Mityakov, S.N. 2000. Facies and ichthyofauna of the Kazanian from the Vym’ River (Komi Republic, Russia). Ichthyolith Issues Special Publication 6, 59–63.

Mihály, S. & Solt, P. 1983. Acrodus tooth from the Upper Permian of the Bukk Mountains (NE Hungary). Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet évi jelentése 1981, 209–212.

Minikh, A.V. & Minikh, M.G. 1981. Ryby, 55–64. In Ochev, V.G. (ed.) Opornyy Razrez Tatarskogo Yarusa Reki Sukhony. Izdatelstvo Saratovskogo Universiteta, Saratov.

Minikh, A.V. & Minikh, M.G. 2009. Ikhtiofauna permi Evropejskoj Rossii. 243 pp. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Saratov.

Mutter, R.J. & Neuman, A.G. 2008. New eugeneodontid sharks from the Lower Triassic Sulphur Mountain Formation of Western Canada, 9–41. In Cavin, L., Longbottom, A. & Richter, M. (eds) Fishes and the break-up of Pangaea. Geological Society Special Publications 295.

Newberry, J.S. & Worthen, A.H. 1866. Descriptions of Vertebrates. Geological Survey of Illinois 2, 9–134.

Nielsen, E. 1932. Permo-Carboniferous fishes from East Greenland. Meddelelser om Gronland 86(3), 1–63.

Ossian, C.R. 1976. Redescription of Megactenopetalus kaibabanus David, 1944 (Chondrichthyes: Petalodontidae) with comments on its geographic and stratigraphic distribution. Journal of Paleontology 50(3), 392–397.

Owen, R. 1846. Lectures on the comparative anatomy and physiology of the vertebrate animals. Part 1. – Fishes. 308 pp. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, London.

Peyer, B. 1946. Die schweizerischen Funde von Asteracanthus (Strophodus). Schweizerische Palaeontologische Abhandlungen 64(5), 1–101.

Rees, J. & Underwood, C.J. 2002. The status of the shark genus Lissodus Brough, 1935, and the position of nominal Lissodus species within the Hybodontoidea (Selachii). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(3), 471–479. View article

Reif, W.-E. 1978. Types of morphogenesis of the dermal skeleton in fossil sharks. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 52(1/2), 110–128.

Richoz, S., Krystyn, L., Baud, A., Brandner, R., Horacek, M. & Mohtat-Aghai, P. 2010. Permian–Triassic boundary interval in the Middle East (Iran and N. Oman): Progressive environmental change from detailed carbonate carbon isotope marine curve and sedimentary evolution. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 39, 236–253. View article

Rieppel,O. 1981. The hybodontiform sharks from the Middle Triassic of Mte. San Giorgio, Switzerland. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 161(3), 324–353.

Schaumberg, G. 1977. Der Richelsdorfer Kupferschiefer und seine Fossilien. III. Die tierischen Fossilien des Kupferschiefers. 2.Vertebraten. Der Aufschluss 28(8/9), 297–352.

Schultze, H.-P. 1985. Marine to onshore vertebrates in the Lower Permian of Kansas and their paleoenvironmental implications. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions 113, 1–18.

Schultze, H.-P. & West, R.R. 1996. An eugeneodontid elasmobranch from the Late Paleozoic of Kansas. Journal of Paleontology 70(1), 162–165.

Schultze, H.-P. & Kriwet, J. 1999. Die Fische der Germanischen Trias, 239–250. In Hauschke, N. & Wilde, V. (eds) Trias – Eine ganz andere Welt. Mitteleuropa im frühen Erdmittelalter. Pfeil, Munich.

Schultze, H.-P., Soler-Gijón, R., Hampe, O. & Heward, A. 2008. Vertebrates from the Gharif Formation, Lower Permian, of Oman, 41–42. In Štamberg, S. & Zajíc, J. (eds) Faunas and palaeoenvironments of the Late Palaeozoic. Special Publication to “5th Symposium on Permo-Carboniferous Faunas” and workshop “Interpretation of marine and freshwater environments in Carboniferous and Permian deposits”, July, 7–11, 2008. Museum of Eastern Bohemia, Hradec Králové.

Shen, S.-Z. & Mei, S.-L. 2010. Lopingian (Late Permian) high-resolution conodont biostratigraphy in Iran with comparison to South China zonation. Geological Journal 45, 135–161. View article

Stahl, B.J. 1999. Chondrichthyes III. Holocephali. In Schultze, H.-P. (ed.) Handbook of Paleoichthyology, Volume 4. 164 pp. Pfeil, Munich.

Stampfli, G.M. & Borel, G.D. 2002. A plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic constrained by dynamic plate boundaries and restored synthetic oceanic isochrons. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 196, 17–33. View article

Stepanov, D.L., Golshani, F. & Stöcklin, J. 1969. Upper Permian and Permian-Triassic boundary in North Iran. Geological Survey of Iran Report 12, 1–72.

Taraz, H., Golshani, F., Nakazawa, K., Sgimuzu, D., Bando, Y., Ishi, K.-I., Murata, M., Okimura, Y., Sakagami, S., Nakamura, K. & Tokuoka, T. 1981. The Permian and the Lower Triassic Systems in Abadeh Region, Central Iran. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Series of Geology and Mineralogy 47, 61–133.

Tintori, A. 1998. New chondrichthyan fauna from the Guadalupian (Middle Permian) of the Sultanate of Oman. Ichthyolith Issues Special Publication 4, 48–49.

Zangerl, R. 1981. Chondrichthyes I. Paleozoic Elasmobranchii. In Schultze, H.-P. (ed.) Handbook of Paleoichthyology, Volume 3A. 115 pp. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.