SHRIMP U-Pb age of the radiolarian-bearing Yoshiki Formation in Japan


Authors: Manchuk N, Horie K, Tsukada K

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 88, issue 2; pages: 223 - 240; Received 3 February 2012; Accepted in revised form 16 April 2012; Online 28 May 2012

Keywords: U-Pb SHRIMP age, Silurian, Devonian, radiolarian, biostratigraphy,

full text (PDF, 4.21 MB)

Export to RIS



The dating of radiolarian biostratigraphic zones from the Silurian to Devonian is only partially understood. Dating the zircons in radiolarian-bearing tuffaceous rocks has enabled us to ascribe practical ages to the radiolarian zones. To extend knowledge in this area, radiometric dating of magmatic zircons within the radiolarian-bearing Yoshiki Formation, Japan, was undertaken. The Yoshiki Formation is mainly composed of alternating beds of tuffaceous sandstones, tuffaceous mudstones, and felsic tuff. The felsic tuff and tuffaceous mudstone yield well-preserved radiolarian fossils. Radiolarians and zircon grains were collected from 21 tuffaceous mudstone and 30 tuff horizons of the Yoshiki Formation. The following radiolarian species which can be ascribed to the Zadrappolus yoshikiensis-Futobari solidus assemblage were identified: Oriundogutta(?) kingi, Oriundogutta(?) varispina, Zadrappolus yoshikiensis, Zadrappolus tenuis, Zadrappolus hitoeganensis, Zadrappolus lunaris, Zadrappolus(?) nudus, Zadrappolus(?) sp., Futobari solidus, Futobari morishitai, Rotasphaera(?) sp., and Ceratoikiscum armiger. U-Pb SHRIMP ages of 420.5 ± 2.5 Ma and 421.0 ± 1.9 Ma were obtained from the zircon grains. Thus the lower limit of the Zadrappolus yoshikiensis-Futobari solidus assemblage, that has previously been assigned to an age from Přidolian to Pragian, is in reality before Ludlowian. The technique in this paper has the capability of refining and making more accurate the dating of many radiolarian zones worldwide, and potentially of changing the direction of the entire study of radiolarian biostratigraphy.


Aitchison, J.C., Hada, S., Ireland, T. & Yoshikura, S. 1996. Ages of Silurian radiolarians from the Kurosegawa terrane, Southwest Japan constrained by U/Pb SHRIMP data. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Science 14, 53-70. View article

Aitchison, J.C. & Stratford, J.M.C. 1997. Middle Devonian (Givetian) Radiolaria from Eastern New South Wales, Australia: a reassessment of the Hinde (1899) fauna. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 203, 369-390.

Aitchison, J.C., David, A.M., Stratford, J.M.C. & Spiller, F.C.P. 1999. Lower and Middle Devonian radiolarian biozonation of the Gamilaroi terrane New England Orogen, easthern Australia. Micropaleontology 45, 138-162. View article

Amon, E.O., Braun, A. & Ivanov, K.S. 1995. Upper Silurian radiolarians from the southern Urals. Geologica et Palaeontologica 29, 1-17.

Black, L.P., Kamo, S.L., Allen, C.M., Davis, D.W., Aleinikoff, J.N., Valley, J.W., Mundil, R.M., Campbell, I.H., Korsch, R.J., Williams, I.S. & Foudoulis, C. 2004. Improved 206Pb/238U microprobe geochronology by the monitoring of a trace-element-related matrix effect; SHRIMP, ID-TIMS, ELA-ICP-MS and oxygen isotope documentation for a series of zircon standards. Chemical Geology 205, 115-140. View article

Breemen, O. van, Davidson, A., Loveridge, W.D. & Sullivan, R.W. 1986. U-Pb zircon geochronology of Grenville tectonites, granulites, and igneous precursors, Parry Sound, Ontario, 191-208. In Moore, J.M., Davidson, A. & Baer, A.J. (eds) The Grenville Province. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 31.

Claoue-Long, J.C., Compston, W., Roberts, J. & Fanning, C.M. 1995. Two Carboniferous ages: a comparison of SHRIMP zircon dating with conventional zircon ages and 40Ar/39Ar analysis, 3-21. In Berggren, W.A., Kent, D.V., Aubrey, M.P. & Hardenbol, J. (eds) Geochronology Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlation. Society for Sedimentary Geology Special Publication 54.View article

Deflandre, G. 1953. Radiolaires fossils, 389-436. In Grasse, P.P. (ed.) Traité de Zoologie. Masson, Paris.

Ehrenberg, C.G. 1875. Fortsetzung der mikrogeologischen Studien als Gesammt-Uebersicht der mikroskopischen Palaontologie gleichartig analysirter Gebirgsarten der Erde, mit specieller Rucksicht auf den Polycystinen-Mergel von Barbados. Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Abhandlungen 1875, 1-225.

Furutani, H. 1990. Middle Paleozoic radiolarians from Fukuji area, Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. Journal of Earth Science, Nagoya University 37, 1-56.

Furutani, H. 1996. Evolution of Palaeoscenidiidae and Ceratoikiscidae (Radiolaria) in Late Devonian (Preliminary report), 71-84. In Noda, H. & Sashida, K. (eds) Professor Hisayoshi Igo Commemorative Volume on Geology and Paleontology of Japan and Southeast Asia.

Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G. (eds) 2004. A Geologic Time Scale 2004. 589 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Horie, K., Hidaka, H. & Gauthier-Lafaye, F. 2006. Elemental distribution in zircon: Alteration and radiation-damage effects. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 31, 587-592.

Igo, H. 1990. Paleozoic strata in the Hida “Gaien” Belt, 41-48. In Ichikawa, K., Hara, I., Hada, S. & Yao, A. (eds) Pre-Cretaceous Terranes of Japan, IGCP Project No. 224: Pre-Jurassic Evolution of Eastern Asia.

Igo, H., Adachi, S., Furutani, H.&Nishiyama, H. 1980. Ordovician fossils first discovered in Japan. Proceedings of the Japan Academy 56, 499-503. View article

Kurihara, T. 2003. Stratigraphy and geologic age of the Middle Paleozoic strata in the Kuzuryu Lake-Upper Ise River area of the Hida-gaien Terrane, central Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 109, 425-441. [in Japanese with English abstract] View article

Kurihara, T. 2003. Early Devonian Palaeoscenidiidae (Radiolaria) from the “Yoshiki Formation” in the Fukuji area of the Hida-gaien Terrane, central Japan, and its biostratigraphy significance. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 109, 635-647. [in Japanese with English abstract] View article

Kurihara, T. 2004. Silurian and Devonian radiolarian biostratigraphy of the Hida Gaien belt, central Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 110, 620-639. [in Japanese with English abstract] View article

Kurihara, T. 2007. Uppermost Silurian to Lower Devonian radiolarians from the Hitoegane area of the Hida-gaien terrane, central Japan. Micropaleontology 53, 221-237. View article

Kurihara, T. & Sashida, K. 1998. Occurrence and significance of the Late Silurian and Early to Middle Devonian radiolarians from the Kuzuryu Lake district of the Hida Gaien Belt, Fukui Prefecture, central Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 104, 845-858. [in Japanese with English abstract] View article

Kurihara, T. & Sashida, K. 2000. Taxonomy of Late Silurian to Middle Devonian radiolarians from the Kuzuryu Lake district of the Hida Gaien Belt, Fukui Prefecture, central Japan. Micropaleontology 46, 51-71.

Kroner, A., O’Brien, P.J., Nemchin, A.A.&Pidgeon, R.T. 2000. Zircon ages for high pressure granulites from South Bohemia, Czech Republic, and their connection to Carboniferous high temperature processes. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 138, 127-142.View article

Li, H. 1994. Middle Silurian Radiolarians from Keerhada, Xinjiang. Acta Micropaleontologica Sinica 11, 259-272. [in Chinese with English abstract]

Ludwig, K.R. 2008. Isoplot 3.6: A Geochronological Toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication, Berkeley 4, 77.

Ludwig, K.R. 2009. SQUID 2: A User’s Manual. Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication, Berkeley 2, 104.

MacDonald, E.W. 1998. Llandovery Secuicollactinae and Rotasphaeridae (Radiolaria) from the Cape Phillips Formation, Cornwallis Island, Arctic Canada. Journal of Paleontology 72, 585-604.View article

Nazarov, B.B. 1975. Lower and Middle Paleozoic radiolarians of Kazakhstan. Transactions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Geological Institue, 1-203. [in Russian]

Nazarov, B.B. 1988. Paleozoic radiolaria. Practical manual of microfauna of the USSR. 232 pp. Nedra, Leningrad. [in Russian]

Nazarov, B.B. & Ormiston, A.R. 1984. Tentative system of Paleozoic radiolaria, 64-87. In Petrushevskaya, M.G. & Stepanjants, S.D. (eds) Morphology, ecology and evolution of Radiolaria. Nauka, Leningrad. [in Russian with English summary]

Nazarov, B.B. & Ormiston, A.R. 1993. New biostratigraphic important Paleozoic Radiolaria of Eurasia and North America, 22-60. In Blueford, J.R. & Murchey, B.L. (eds) Radiolaria of giant and subgiant fields in Asia. Nazarov Memorial Volume. Micropaleontology Press Special Publication 6.

Niihara, T., Tachikawa, O. & Horie, K. 2010. New desine megamount holder, application for extra terrestrial materials. International Association for Gondwana Research Conference Series 10, 59-60.

Noble, P.J. 1994. Silurian radiolarian zonation for the Caballos Novaculite, Marathon uplift, West Texas. Bulletins of American Paleontology 106, 1-55.

Noble, P. & Aitchison, J. 2000. Early Paleozoic radiolarian biozonation. Geology (Boulder) 28, 367-370. View article

Noble, P.J. & Maletz, J. 2000. Radiolaria from the Telychian (Llandovery, Early Silurian) of Dalarna, Sweden. Micropaleontology 46, 265-275. View article

Obut, O.T. & Shcherbanenko, T.A. 2008. Late Devonian radiolarians from the Rudny Altai (SW Siberia). Bulletin of Geosciences 83, 371-382. View article

Odin, G.S. 1994. Geological time scale (1994). Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Science, Serie II 318, 59-71.

Pidgeon, R.T., Macambira, M.J.B. & Lafon, J.M. 2000. Th-U-Pb isotopic systems and internal structures of complex zircons from an enderbite from the Pium Complex, Carajas Province, Brazil: Evidence for the ages of granulite facies metamorphism and the protolith of the enderbite. Chemical Geology 166, 159-171. View article

Rust, D. 1892. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der fossilen Radiolarien aus Gesteinen der Trias und der Paleozoischen Schichten. Palaeontographica 38, 107-192.

Stacey, J.S. & Kramers, J.D. 1975. Approximation of terrestrial lead isotope evolution by a two-stage model. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 26, 207-221. View article

Stratford, J.M.C. & Aitchison, J.C. 1997. Lower to Middle Devonian radiolarian assemblages from the Gamilaroi Terrane, Glenrock Station, NSW, Austria. Marine Micropaleontology 30, 225-250. View article

Tsukada, K. & Takahashi, Y. 2000. Redefinition of the Permian strata in the Hida-gaien Tectonic Zone, Fukuji area, Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan. Journal of Earth and Planetary Science, Nagoya University 31, 1-35.

Tsukada, K., Takahashi, Y. & Ozawa, T. 1999. Stratigraphic relationship between the Mizuyagadani and Sorayama Formations, and age of the Sorayama Formation, in the Hida-gaien Tectonic Zone, Kamitakara Village, Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 105, 496-507. View article

Vavra, G., Schmid, R. & Gebauer, D. 1999. Internal morphology, habit and U-Th-Pb microanalysis of amphibolite-togranulite facies zircons: Geochronology of the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 134, 380-414. View article

Umeda, M. 1997. Late Silurian and Early Devonian radiolarians from the Konomori area in the Kurosegawa Terrane, Southwest Japan. Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 51, 413-432.

Umeda, M. 1998. Upper Silurian to Middle Devonian radiolarian zones of the Yokokurayama and Konomori areas in the Kurosegawa Belt, Southwest Japan. The Island Arc 7, 637-646. View article

Wakamatsu, H., Sugiyama, K. & Furutani, H. 1990. Silurian and Devonian radiolarians from the Kurosegawa Tectonic Zone, Southwest Japan. Journal of Earth Science, Nagoya University 37, 157-192.

Williams, I.S. 1998. U-Th-Pb geochronology by ion microprobe, 1-35. In McKibben, M.A., Shanks III, W.C. & Ridley, W.I. (eds) Applications of Micro-analytical Techniques to Understanding Mineralizing Processes. Reviews in Economic Geology 7.

Won, M.Z., Blodgett, R.B. & Nestor, V. 2002. Llandoverian (Early Silurian) radiolarians form the Road River Formation of east-central Alaska and the new family Haplotaeniatumidae. Journal of Paleontology 76, 941-964. View article

Yasui, T. 1984. On the pre-Silurian basement in the Yokokurayama lenticular body of the Kurisegawa Tectonic Zone. Chikyu Kagaku (Earth Science) 38, 89-101. [in Japanese]