Ostracods and rock facies across the Givetian/Frasnian boundary interval in the Sourd d’Ave section at Ave-et-Auffe (Dinant Synclinorium, Belgium)

 

Authors: Casier J-G, Devleeschouwer X, Maillet S, Petitclerc E, Preat A

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 88, issue 2; pages: 241 - 264; Received 3 February 2012; Accepted in revised form 18 October 2012; Online 11 February 2013

Keywords: ostracods, palaeoecology, sedimentology, Givetian/Frasnian boundary, Fromelennes Formation, Nismes Formation, Dinant Synclinorium, Ardenne, Belgium,

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Abstract

Ostracods from the Sourd d’Ave section have been collected in the Moulin Boreux and Fort Hulobiet Members (Fromelennes Fm., Givet Group) and in the Pont d’Avignon Member (Nismes Fm., Frasnes Group). Ostracods collected in the Fromelennes Fm. by Milhau (1983a) and in the Nismes Fm. by Casier (1987a) have been also reviewed. Forty-four ostracod species are identified in the Fromelennes Fm. and 25 in the Nismes Fm. They belong exclusively to the Eifelian Mega-Assemblage, and several assemblages indicative of restricted and shallow marine, sometimes agitated, environments are recognized in the Fromelennes Fm. The great rarity of ostracods in the upper part of this formation provides evidence for less favourable lagoonal conditions probably related to increasing aridity at the end of the Givetian. In the Frasnes Group, assemblages are exclusively open marine and indicative of increasing water depth. The majority of ostracod species recognized in the Givet Group are missing in the base of the Frasnes Group as a consequence of the Frasnes Event. A systematic list of ostracods identified in the Fromelennes Fm. at Sourd d’Ave is published as an annex. Systematic sampling has been carried out in order to establish the sedimentological evolution of the environments and to detail the Givetian-Frasnian (G/F) transition. This allowed recognition of 13 microfacies types that replicate the standard sequence of Preat & Mamet (1989) from open marine shallow subtidal to restricted supratidal near emersion. The Boreux Member and the Fort Hulobiet Member display restricted facies (Amphipora, spongiostromid and algal bafflestones and bindstones, loferites with desiccation lumps) with poorly fossiliferous beds interbedded with higher energy peloidal and sometimes oolitic grainstone facies. Laminite horizons, sometimes with small-sized lateral linked hemispheroid stromatolites are uncommon, and are associated with dolomicrites showing pseudomorphs of evaporite minerals. These evaporitic facies become common in the upper part of the Fort Hulobiet Member suggesting the palaeoclimate became more arid at the G/F transition. Metre-scale cyclicity is pervasive throughout the Givetian part of the section. The boundary between the Givet Group and the Frasnes Group is very distinctive in the field, and is characterized by a transition from restricted evaporative lagoonal facies to open marine interbedded marly shales and nodular limestones. The upper part of the Fort Hulobiet Member consists of interbedded biostromes (semi-restricted stromatoporoid boundstones) followed by Amphipora floatstones, then fossil-poor units and restricted supratidal laminites with well-developed fenestral fabrics. The Frasnian Pont d’Avignon Member contains a rich faunal assemblage (bryozoans brachiopods, molluscs, nautiloids, tentaculitids) suggesting an abrupt drowning from the marginal Givetian carbonate platform into a Frasnian distal ramp or deep basinal environment below or near storm wave base.\r\n

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