The oldest evidence of non-coaxial shell heterostrophy in the Class Gastropoda


Authors: Frýda J, Ferrová L

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 86, issue 4; pages: 765 - 776; Received 10 July 2011; Accepted in revised form 6 September 2011; Online 14 October 2011

Keywords: Gastropoda, Paleozoic, Devonian, shell heterostrophy, Archaeogastropoda,

full text (PDF, 4.47 MB)

Export to RIS



The term shell heterostrophy describes the condition where the shell whorls coil in one direction during one portion of a gastropod’s life, and in the other direction for another portion. In the present paper, the oldest evidence of non-coaxial shell heterostrophy in the Class Gastropoda is documented in the new species Koneprusellia zaki sp. nov. (Porcellioidea, Archaeogastropoda), coming from the Early Devonian of the Barrandian area (Bohemia). A brief analysis of the occurrences of this shell’s morphological features, among the Paleozoic gastropods, revealed that the shell heterostrophy was present in at least three unrelated gastropod lineages: in the clades Heterobranchia (Devonian-Recent), Macluritoidea (Ordovician), and Porcellioidea (Silurian–Cretaceous)


Aktipis, S.W. & Giribet, G. 2010. A phylogeny of Vetigastropoda and other “archaeogastropods”: re-organizing old gastropod clades. Invertebrate Biology 129(3), 220-240. View article

Albers, J.C. 1850. Die Heliceen, nach natürlicher Verwandtschaft systematisch geordnet. 262 pp. Verlag von Th. Chr. Fr. Enslin, Berlin.

Asami, T., Gittenberger, E. & Falkner, G. 2008. Whole-body enantiomorphy and maternal inheritance of chiral reversal in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Journal of Heredity 99(5), 552-557. View article

Bandel, K. 1993. Evolutionary history of sinstral archaeogastropods with and without slit (Cirroidea, Vetigastropoda). Freiberger Forschungshefte, Paläontologie C450, 41-82.

Bandel, K. 1994. Triassic Euthyneura from St. Cassian Formation (Italian Alps) with a discussion on the evolution of the Heterostropha. Freiberger Forschungsheft, Serie C 452, 79-100.

Bandel, K. 1995. The Mathildoidea from the Upper St. Cassian Formation. Scripta Geologica 111, 1-83.

Bandel, K. 1996. Some heterostrophic gastropods from Triassic St. Cassian Formation with a discussion of the classification of the Allogastropoda. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 70(3/4), 325-365.

Bandel, K. 2002. About the Heterostropha (Gastropoda) from the Carboniferous and Permian. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg 86, 45-80.

Bandel, K. 2010. Relationships of the Triassic Eucycloidea Koken, 1897 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) to modern genera such as Pagodatrochus, Calliotropis and Euchelus, based on morphology of the early shell. Bulletin of Geosciences 85(3), 435-486. View article

Bandel, K. & Frýda, J. 2004. Sasakiela, a new Early Carboniferous porcelliid genus (Porcellioidea, Gastropoda) with an unusual shell ontogeny. Neues Jahrbuch, Geologisch-Paläontologische Monatshefte 3, 135-150.

Bandel, K. & Heidelberger, D. 2002. A Devonian member of the subclass Heterostropha (Gastropoda) with valvatoid shell shape. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 9, 503-550.

Berkyová, S., Frýda, J. & Lukeš, P. 2007. The first documentation of unsuccessful predation on the Middle Paleozoic plankton. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 52(2), 407-412.

Blodgett, R.B. & Frýda, J. 1999. New Devonian gastropod genera important for paleogeographic reconstructions. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 44, 293-308.

Bouchet, P., Rocroi, J.P., Frýda, J., Hausdorf, B., Ponder, W., Valdes, A. & Warén, A. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47(1-2), 1-368.

Brett, C.E. 2003. Durophagous predation on Paleozoic marine benthic assemblages, 401-432. In Kelley, P.H.,Kowalewski, M. & Hansen, T. (eds) Predator-Prey Interactions in the Fossil Record, Topics in Geobiology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

Carls, P., Slavík, L. & Valenzuela-Ríos, J.I. 2008. Comments on the GSSP for the basal Emsian stage boundary: the need for its redefinition. Bulletin of Geosciences 83(4), 383-390. View article

Carpenter, P.P. 1861. Lectures on Mollusca; or “shell-fish” and their allies. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 1860, 151-283.

Cossmann, M. 1915. Révision de scaphopodes, Gastéropodes, et Céphalopodes du Montien des la Belgique. Mémoires du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 6, 1-71.

Cossmann, M. 1916. Essais de paléoconchologie comparée, volume 10. 292 pp. Chez l’auteur, Paris.

Crofts, D.R. 1955. Muscle morphogenesis in primitive gastropods and its relation to torsion. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 125, 711-750.View article

Cuvier, G. 1797. Tableau élémentaire de l’histoire naturelle des animaux. 710 pp. Baudouin, Paris.

Davison, A., Barton, N.H. & Clarke, B. 2009. The effect of coil phenotypes and genotypes on the fecundity and viability of Partula suturalis and Lymnaea stagnalis: implications for the evolution of sinistral snails. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22, 1624-1635. View article

Dzik, J. 1983. Larval development and relationships of Mimospira - a presumably hyperstrophic Ordovician gastropod. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 104(3), 231-239.View article

Dzik, J. 1999. Evolutionary origin of asymmetry in early metazoan animals, 153-190. In Pályi, G., Zucchi, C. & Caglioti, L. (eds) Advances in BioChirality. Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford.

Farrell, J.R. 1992. The Garra Formation (Early Devonian: Late Lochkovian) between Cumnock and Larras Lee, New South Wales, Australia: stratigraphic and structural setting, faunas and community sequence. Palaeontographica, Abteilung A 222, 1-41.

Fretter, V. & Graham, A. 1962. British Prosobranch Molluscs. 820 pp. Ray Society, London.

Frýda, J. 1992. Mode of life of a new onychochilid mollusc from the Lower Devonian of Bohemia. Journal of Paleontology 66(2), 200-205.

Frýda, J. 1997. Oldest representatives of the superfamily Cirroidea (Vetigastropoda) with notes on their early phylogeny. Journal of Paleontology 71(5), 839-847.

Frýda, J. 1998. New Silurian and Devonian gastropod genera of Bohemia. Earth Science 52(3), 229-234.

Frýda, J. 2000. Some new Givetian (late Middle Devonian) gastropods from the Paffrath area (Bergisches Land, Germany). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 45(2), 359-374.

Frýda, J. 2004. Two new gastropod genera (Porcellioidea, Archaeogastropoda) from the Lower Carboniferous of Belgium. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 49(1-2), 57-61.

Frýda, J. & Blodgett, R.B. 1998. Two new cirroidean genera (Vetigastropoda, Archaeogastropoda) from the Emsian (late Early Devonian) of Alaska with notes on the early phylogeny of Cirroidea. Journal of Paleontology 72(2), 265-273.

Frýda, J. & Blodgett, R.B. 1999. New Devonian gastropod genera important for paleogeographic reconstructions. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 44, 293-308.

Frýda, J. & Blodgett, R.B. 2001. The oldest known heterobranch gastropod, Kuskokwimia gen. nov., from the Early Devonian of west-central Alaska, with notes on the early phylogeny of higher gastropods. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey 76, 39-53.

Frýda, J. & Blodgett, R.B. 2004. New Emsian (late Early Devonian) gastropods from Limestone Mountain, Medfra B-4 quadrangle, west-central Alaska (Farewell terrane), and their paleobiogeographic affinities and evolutionary significance. Journal of Paleontology 78(1), 111-132. View article

Frýda, J., Blodgett, R.B., Lenz, A.C. & Manda, Š. 2008. New porcellioidean gastropods from Early Devonian of Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada, with notes on their early phylogeny. Journal of Paleontology 82(3), 595-603. View article

Frýda, J., Blodgett, R.B. & Lenz, A.C. 2002. New Early Devonian gastropods from the families Crassimarginatidae (new family) and Scoliostomatidae (new family), Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada. Journal of Paleontology 76, 244-255. View article

Frýda, J. & Farrell, J.R. 2005. Systematic position of two Early Devonian gastropods with sinistrally heterostrophic shells from the Garra Limestone, Larras Lee, New South Wales. Alcheringa 29, 229-240.View article

Frýda, J. & Rohr, D.M. 2004. Gastropoda, 184-195. In Webby, B.D., Paris, F., Droser, M.L. & Percival, I.G. (eds) The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. 408 pp. Columbia University Press, New York.

Frýda, J. & Rohr, D.M. 2006. Shell heterostrophy in Early Ordovician Macluritella Kirk, 1927, and its implications for phylogeny and classification of Macluritoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Paleontology 80(2), 264-271. View article

Geiger, D.L., Nützel, A. & Sasaki, T. 2008. Vetigastropoda, 297-330. In Ponder, W. & Lindberg, D.L. (eds) Phylogeny and Evolution of the Mollusca. 488 pp. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California.

Gray, J.E. 1850. Catalogue of the Mollusca in the collection of the British Museum. Part II, Pteropoda. 45 pp. E. Newman, London.

Haszprunar, G. 1985. The Heterobranchia - a new concept of the phylogeny of the higher Gastropoda. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 23, 15-37.View article

Havlíček, V. & Štorch, P. 1990. Silurian brachiopods and benthic communities in the Prague Basin (Czechoslovakia). Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 48, 1-275.

Heidelberger, D. 2001. Mitteldevonische (Givetische) Gastropoden (Mollusca) aus der Lahnmulde (suedliches Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Geologische Abhandlungen Hessen 106, 1-291.

Hendricks, J.R. 2009. Sinistral snail shells in the sea: developmental causes and consequences. Lethaia 42, 55-66. View article

Holzapfel, E. 1889. Die Cephalopoden-führenden Kalke des unteren Carbon von Erdbach-Breitscheid bei Herborn. Paläontologische Abhandlungen (Dames-Kayser), Band 5 (Neue Folge, Band 1), Jena, 1-460.

Horný, R.J. 2002. Krolmusium, a new genus of the subfamily Agnesiinae (Gastropoda) from the Lower Devonian of Bohemia (Czech Republic). Časopis Národního muzea, Řada přírodovědná 171(1-4), 7-11.

Kaim, A. 2001. Faunal dynamics of juvenile gastropods and associated organisms across the Valanginian transgression-regression cycle in central Poland. Cretaceous Research 22(3), 333-351. View article

Kaim, A. 2004. The evolution of conch ontogeny in Mesozoic open sea gastropods. Palaeontologia Polonica 62, 3-183.

Kiel, S. & Frýda, J. 2004. Nacre in Late Cretaceous Sensuitrochus ferreri - implications for the taxonomic affinities of the Cirridae (Gastropoda). Journal of Paleontology 78(4), 795-797. View article

Kirk, E. 1927. Macluritella, a new gastropod genus from the lower Ordovician of Colorado. American Journal of Science 14, 288-291.View article

Klug, C., Kröger, B., Kiessling, W., Mullins, G. L., Servais, T., Frýda, J., Korn, D. & Turner, S. 2010. The Devonian Nekton Revolution. Lethaia 43, 465-477. View article

Knight, J.B. 1931. The gastropods of the St. Louis, Missouri, Pennsylvanian outlier: Aclisina and Streptacis. Journal of Paleontology 5, 1-14.

Knight, J.B. 1941. Paleozoic gastropod genotypes. Geological Society of America, Special Papers 32, 1-510.

Knight, J.B. 1952. Primitive fossil gastropods and their bearing on gastropod classification. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117(13). 56 pp. Smithsonian Institute, Washington.

Knight, J.B. 1956. New families of Gastropoda. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46, 41-42.

Knight, J.B., Cox, L.R., Batten, R.L. & Yochelson, E.L. 1960. Systematic descriptions. In Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part I. Mollusca 1. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Koken, E. 1896. Die Leitfossilien. 848 pp. C.H. Trachnitz, Leipzig.

Koninck, L.G. de 1883. Faune du calcaire carbonifere de la Belgique, 4 partie, Gastéropodes (suite et fin). Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique Annales, Série Paléontologique 8, 1-240.

Kuroda, R., Endo, B., Abe, M. & Shimizu, M. 2009. Chiral blastomere arrangement dictates zygotic left-right asymmetry pathway in snails. Nature 462, 790-794. View article

Lehnert, O., Frýda, J., Buggisch, W., Munnecke, A., Nützel, A., Kříž, J.&Manda, Š. 2007. ?13C record across the Ludlow Lau Event: new data from mid palaeo-latitudes of northern peri-Gondwana (Prague Basin, Czech Republic). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 245, 227-244. View article

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Tomus I. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. 824 pp. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.

Linsley, R.M. & Kier, W.M. 1984. The Paragastropoda: a proposal for a new class of Paleozoic Mollusca. Malacologia 25(1), 241-254.

Manda, Š. & Frýda, J. 2010. Silurian-Devonian boundary events and their influence on cephalopod evolution: evolutionary significance of cephalopod egg size during mass extinctions. Bulletin of Geosciences 85(3), 513-540. View article

Manda, Š. & Kříž, J. 2006. Environmental and biotic changes of the subtropical isolated carbonate platforms during Kozlowskii and Lau events (Prague Basin, Silurian, Ludlow). GFF 128, 161-168.View article

Manda, Š. & Turek, V. 2009. Revision of the Pragian Rutoceratoidea Hyatt, 1884 (Nautiloidea, Oncocerida) from the Prague Basin. Bulletin of Geosciences 84(1), 127-148. View article

Nützel, A. & Frýda, J. 2003. Paleozoic plankton revolution: evidence from early gastropod ontogeny. Geology 31, 829-831. View article

Nützel, A., Lehnert, O. & Frýda, J. 2006. Origin of planktotrophy - evidence from early molluscs. Evolution and Development 8(4), 325-330. View article

Nützel, A., Lehnert, O. & Frýda, J. 2007. Origin of planktotrophy - evidence from early molluscs: a response to Freeman and Lundelius. Evolution and Development 9(4), 312-317. View article

Pan Hua-Zhang, Erwin, D.H., Nützel, A. & Zhu Xiang-shui 2003. Jiangxispira, a new gastropod genus from the Early Triassic of China with remarks on the phylogeny of the Heterostropha at the Permian/Triassic Boundary. Journal of Paleontology 77, 44-49. View article

Pchelintsev, V.F. & Korobkov, I.A. 1960. Osnovy paleontologii, Mollusca - Gastropoda. 360 pp. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow.

Peel, J.S. & Horný, R. 1996. Sinistral hyperstrophic coiling in a Devonian gastropod from Bohemia with an in situ operculum. Palaeontology 39(3), 709-718.

Pelseneer, P. 1893. Introduction a l’étude des Mollusques. Annales de la Société Royale Malacologique de Belgique 27, 31-243.

Perner, J. 1907. Recherches paléontologiques. Volume 4, Gastéropodes. In Barrande, J. Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme. Prague.

Quintero, I. & Revilla, J. 1966. Algunas especies nuevas y otras poco conocidas. Notas y comunicaciones del Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espańa 82, 27-86.

Robertson, R. 1993. Snail handedness. National Geographic Research & Exploration 9(1), 104-119.

Salvini-Plawen, L. von 1980. A reconsideration of systematics in the Mollusca (phylogeny and higher classification). Malacologia 19, 249-278.

Sasaki, T. 1998. Comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the Recent Archaeogastropoda. The University Museum, The University of Tokyo Bulletin 38, 1-223.

Schilthuizen, M. & Davison, A. 2005. The convoluted evolution of snail chirality. Naturwissenschaften 92, 504-515.View article

Schilthuizen, M. & Haase, M. 2010. Disentangling true shape differences and experimenter bias: are dextral and sinistral snail shells exact mirror images? Journal of Zoology 282(3), 191-200.View article

Signor, P.W. &. Brett, C.E. 1984. The mid-Paleozoic precursor to the Mesozoic marine revolution. Paleobiology 10, 229-245.

Slavík, L. 2004. The Pragian-Emsian conodont successions of the Barrandian area: search of an alternative to the GSSP polygnathid-based correlation concept. Geobios 37(4), 454-470. View article

Slavík, L., Kříž, J. & Carls, P. 2010. Reflection of the mid-Ludfordian Lau Event in conodont faunas of Bohemia. Bulletin of Geosciences 85(3), 395-414. View article

Thiele, J. 1929-35. Handbuch der systematischen Weichtierkunde. 1154 pp. Fischer, Jena.

Ueshima, R. & Asami, T. 2003. Single-gene speciation by leftright reversal. Nature 425(6959), 679. View article

Vermeij, G.J. 1975. Evolution and distribution of left-handed and planispiral coiling in snails. Nature 254(5499), 419-420.View article

Wägele, H., Klussmann-Kolb, A., Vonnemann, V. & Medina, M. 2008. Heterobranchia I, 385-408. In Ponder, W. & Lindberg, D.L. (eds) Phylogeny and Evolution of the Mollusca. 488 pp. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California.

Wagner, P.J. 1999. Phylogenetics of the earliest anisostrophically coiled gastropods. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 88, 1-132.

Wenz, W. 1938-1944. Gastropoda, 1-1639. In Schindewolf, O.H. (ed) Band 6, Teil 1-7, Handbuch der Paläozoologie. Borntraeger, Berlin.

Whidborne, G.F. 1891. A monograph of the Devonian fauna of the south of England. Part 4, 251-344. Palaeontographical Society, London.

Woodward, S.P. 1854. A manual of the Mollusca; or, rudimentary treatise of Recent and fossil shells. 486 pp. Weale, London.

Yoo, E.K. 1994. Early Carboniferous Gastropoda from the Tamworth Belt, New South Wales, Australia. Records of the Australian Museum 46, 63-120.View article

Zittel, K.A. 1895. Grundzüge der Paläontologie (Paläozoologie), Abteilung I, Invertebrata. 971 pp. Oldenburg, München & Leipzig.