Relationships of the Triassic Eucycloidea Koken, 1897 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) to modern genera such as Pagodatrochus, Calliotropis and Euchelus, based on morphology of the early shell


Authors: Bandel K

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 85, issue 3; pages: 435 - 486; Received 7 March 2010; Accepted in revised form 23 August 2010; Online 20 September 2010

Keywords: Vetigastropoda, phylogeny, shell morphology,

full text (PDF, 5.62 MB)

Export to RIS



The aim of this study is to document the relationship that may exist between Triassic species of Eucycloscala, Ampezzotrochus, Sabrinella, Microcheilus, Eunemopsis and Pseudoclanculus and living species of genera such as Pagodatrochus, Turcica, Calliotropis, Danilia, and Euchelus. Their shell has a nacreous inner layer and ornament of axial ribs on the early teleoconch. This ornament distinguishes from living and fossil Vetigastropoda with Trochus, and Turbo-like shells. Eucycloscalidae, containing the Triassic genera Eucycloscala and Ampezzotrochus, can be distinguished from Eunemopsis and Pseudoclanculus and the Eunemopsidae fam. nov. by folds on the inner lip and Sabrinellidae fam. nov. with Sabrinella and Microcheilus by the varix of the aperture of the last whorl. Lanascala with Lanascalidae belongs here. Neoeunema gen. nov. represents a Triassic member of Eucyclidae, which contains numerous Jurassic genera and species. Pseudoturcicidae fam. nov. differs by the ornament of the early teleoconch. The Chilodontidae form a characteristic Cretaceous group with teeth on the inner side of their outer lip. Three families of modern genera can be distinguished by the arrangement of teeth in the radula: four pairs in Pagodatrochidae fam. nov. and Turcicidae fam. nov., and three pairs in Calliotropidae, documented with Euchelus. The Seguenzioidea represents a related group having a distinctive radula with two lateral pairs of teeth and a variety of shell shapes and ornament. The early teleoconch of Seguenziidae (with slit in the aperture) and Ancistrobasidae fam. nov. (without such a slit) resembles that of the Eucycloscalidae, but has a strong spiral rib in addition to the axial ribs. The new species Microcheilus maxwelli sp. nov., Eucycloidea madagascariensis sp. nov., new genera Pseudoturcica and Heterodiscohelix, and new families Sabrinellidae fam. nov., Euemopsidae fam. nov., Pseudoturcidae fam. nov., Pagodatrochidae fam. nov. Turcicidae fam. nov., and Ancistrobasidae fam. nov. are introduced. The fossil record confirms existence of two independent branches of Vetigastropoda since more than 220 Ma, and within one of these branches parallel to the Eucycloidea the Seguenzioidea since Mesozoic times.


Abbott, R.T. 1974. American Seashells. Marine mollsks of the eastern and western coast of North America, second edition. 663 pp. Van Nostrand Reinold, New York.

Anderson, H.J. 1975. Die Fauna der paläozänen Hückelhovener Schichten aus dem Schacht Sophia Jacoba 6 (Erkelenzer Horst, Niederrheinische Bucht). Geologica et Palaeontologica 9, 141-171.

Bandel, K. 1979. The nacreous layer in the shells of the gastropod family Seguenziidae and its taxonomic significance. Biomineralisation 10, 49-61.

Bandel, K. 1982. Morphologie und Bildung der frühontogenetischen Gehäuse bei conchiferen Mollusken. Fazies 7, 1-198.

Bandel, K. 1988. Repräsentieren die Euomphaloidea eine natürliche Einheit der Gastropoden? Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universiät Hamburg 67, 1-33.

Bandel, K. 1992. Über Caenogastropoda der Cassianer Schichten (Obertrias) der Dolomiten (Italien) und ihre taxonomischer Bewertung. Mitteilungen Geologisch Paläontologischer Institut Universität Hamburg 73, 37-97.

Bandel, K. 1993. Trochomorpha aus der triassischen St. Cassian Formation (Gastropoda, Dolomiten). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien 95, 1-99.

Bandel, K. 1994. Comparision Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic gastropods from the Peruvian Andes (Pucará Group) and the Alps (Cassian Formation). Palaeontographica 1(233), 127-160.

Bandel, K. 1999. Scissurellidae als Modell für die Variationsbreite einer natürlichen Einheit der Schlitzbandschnecken (Mollusca, Archaeogastropoda). Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg 81, 1-120.

Bandel, K. 2006. Families of the Cerithioidea and related superfamilies (Palaeo-Caeogastropoda; Mollusca) from the Triassic to the Recent characterized by protoconch morphology including the description of new taxa. Freiberger Forschungshefte, Geowisenschaften C511, 59-138.

Bandel, K. 2009. Slit bearing nacreous Archaeogastropoda of the Triassic tropical reefs in the St. Cassian Formation with evaluation of the taxonomic value of the selenizone. Berliner paläobiologiche Abhandlungen 10, 5-48.

Bandel, K. & Frýda, J. 1998. Position of Euomphalidae in the system of the Gastropoda. Senckenbergiana lethaea 78, 103-131.View article

Bandel, K. & Frýda, J. 2004. Sasakiela, a new Early Carboniferous porcelliid genus (Porcellioidea, Gastropoda) with an unusual shell ontogeny. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Mh., H., 135-150.

Bandel, K., Gründel, J. & Maxwell, P. 2000. Gastropods from the upper Early Jurassic/Middle Jurassic of Kaiwara Valley, North Canterbury, New Zealand. Freiberger Forschungshefte C490, 67-132.

Bandel, K. & Stinnesbeck, W. 2000. Gastropods of the Quiriquina Formation (Maastrichtian) in Central Chile: Paleobiogeographic relationships and the description of new taxa. Zentralblat Geologie Paläontologie 7/8, 757-788.

Beck, L.A. 1995. Zur Systematik und Evolution europäischer Trochiden (Kreiselschnecken) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gattung Gibbula Risso, 1826, Osilinus Philippi, 1847 und Jujubinus Monterosato, 1884 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Dissertation am Fachbereich der Philipps-Universität Marburg.

Bernecker, M. & Weidlich, O. 1990. The Danian (Paleocene) of Fakse, Denmark: A model for ancient aphotic, azooxanthellate coral mounds. Fazies 22, 103-138.

Beu, A.G. & Climo, F.M. 1974. Mollusca from a Recent coral community in Palliser Bay, Cook Strait. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 8, 307-332.View article

Bosch, D. & Bosch, E. 1989. Seashells of Southern Arabia. 95 pp. Motivate Publishing, Dubai & London.

Bouchet, P., Rocroi, J.P., Frýda, J., Hausdorf, B., Ponder, W., Valdes, A. & Warén, A. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47(1-2), 1-368.

Calzada, S. 1989. Gasterópodos del Aptiense inferior de Forcall (Castellón, Espana). Batalleria 2, 3-32.

Conti, M.A. & Monari, S. 1991. Bivalve and gastropod fauna from the Liassic Ammonitico Rosso facies in the Bilecik area (Western Pontides, Turkey). Geologica Romana 27, 245-301.

Conti, M.A. & Monari, S. 2001. Middle Jurassic gastropods from the Central High Atlas, Marocco. Geobios 34, 183-214.View article

Cossmann,M. 1895. Essais de paléoconchologie comparée 1. 159 pp. Published by the author and Comptoire Geologique, Paris.

Cossmann, M. 1915. Révision de scaphopodes, Gastéropodes, et Céphalopodes du Montien des la Belgique. Mémoires du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 6, 1-71.

Cossmann, M. 1918. Essais de paléoconchologie comparée 11. 388 pp. Published by the author, Paris.

Cossmann, M. 1924. Essais de paléoconchologie comparée 13. 345 pp. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.

Dockery, D.T. III 1993. The streptoneuran gastropods, exclusive of the Stenoglossa, of the Coffee Sand (Campanian) of northeastern Mississippi. Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Geology Bulletin 129, 1-191.

Frýda, J. 1997. Oldest representatives of the superfamily Cirroidea (Vetigastropoda) with notes on their early phylogeny. Journal of Paleontology 71(5), 839-847.

Frýda, J. & Blodgett, R.B. 1998. Two new cirroidean genera (Vetigastropoda, Archaeogastropoda) from the Emsian (late Early Devonian) of Alaska with notes on the early phylogeny of Cirroidea. Journal of Paleontology 72(2), 265-273.

Frýda, J. & Blodgett, R.B. 2004. New Emsian (late Early Devonian) gastropods from Limestone Mountain, Medfra B-4 quadrangle, west-central Alaska (Farewell terrane), and their paleobiogeographic affinities and evolutionary significance. Journal of Paleontology 78(1), 111-132.View article

Frýda, J., Blodgett, R.B., Lenz, A.C. & Manda, Š. 2008. New Porcellioidean gastropods from Early Devonian of Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada, with notes on their early phylogeny. Journal of Paleontology 82(3), 595-603.View article

Frýda, J. & Farrell, J.R. 2005. Systematic position of two Early Devonian gastropods with sinistrally heterostrophic shells from the Garra Limestone, Larras Lee, New South Wales. Alcheringa 29, 229-240.View article

Frýda, J., Heidelberger, D. & Blodgett, R.B. 2006. Odontomariinae, a new Middle Paleozoic subfamily of slit-bearing euomphaloidean gastropods (Euomphalomorpha, Gastropoda). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 4, 225-248.

Geiger, D.L. & Thacker, C.E. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Vetigastropoda reveals non-monophyletic Scissurellidae, Trochoidea, and Fissurelloidea. Molluscan Research 25, 47-55.

Graham, A. 1988. Molluscs: Prosobranch and pyramidellid gastropods. 662 pp. Brill & Backhuys, Leiden.

Gründel, J. 1997. Zur Kenntnis einiger Gastropoden-Gattungen aus dem französischen Jura und allgemeine Bemerkungen zur Gastropodenfauna aus dem Dogger Mittel- und Westeuropas. Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (E) 25, 69-129.

Gründel, J. 1999. Gastropoden aus dem höheren Lias von Grimmen, Vorpommern (Deutschland). Archiv für Geschiebekunde 2, 629-672.

Gründel, J. 2000. Archaeogastropoda aus dem Dogger Norddeutschlands und des nordwestlichen Polens. Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (E) 34, 205-253.

Gründel, J. 2003a. Neue und wenig bekannte Gastropoden aus dem Dogger Nordeutschlands und Nordwestpolens. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 228, 61-82.

Gründel, J. 2003b. Gastropoden aus dem unteren Lias (Ober-Hettangium bis Unter-Sinemurium) Südwestdeutschlands. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde (B) 340, 1-55.

Gründel, J. 2003c. Gastropoden aus dem Bajocium und Bathonium von Sengenthal und Kinding, Franken (Süddeutschland). Zitteliana A43, 45-91.

Gründel, J. 2003d. Die Gastropoden der Dogger-Geschiebe Deutschlands und des nordwestlichen Polens. Archiv für Geschiebekunde 4, 130-231.

Gründel, J. 2004. Gastropoden aus dem oberen Bathonium von Luc-sur-Mer/ Calvados (Normandie, Frankreich): I Archaeogastropoda und Neritimorpha. Freiberger Forschungshefte C502, 15-50.

Gründel, J. 2005a. Gastropoden aus dem oberen Callovium (Lamberti- Zone) der Tongrube Dubki bei Satatov, Russische Plattform. Zitteliana A45, 65-85.

Gründel, J. 2005b. Die Gattung Discohelix Dunker, 1847 (Gastropoda) und zur Fassung der Discohelicidae Schröder, 1995. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 2005, 729-748.

Gründel, J. 2007a. Gastropoden des Pliensbachiums (unterer Jura) aus der Usedom-Senke (Nordostdeutschland). Zitteliana A47, 69-103.

Gründel, J. 2007b. Jurassische Gastropoden aus der Betakalkbank (oberes Sinemurium, obere Obtusum-Zone) Südwestdeutschlands. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde B370, 1-29.

Gründel, J. 2007c. Gastropoden aus dem unteren Pliensbachium von Feuguerolles (Normandie, Frankreich). Freiberger Forschungshefte C524, 1-34.

Gründel, J. 2009a. Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Amphitrochus Cossmann, 1907 und Costatrochus n. gen. (Gastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Turbinidae). Berliner Paläobiolgische Abhandlungen 10, 199-124.

Gründel, J. 2009b. Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Metriomphalus Cossmann, 1916 (Gastropoda, Vetigastropoda). Zitteliana A48/49, 39-48.

Gründel, J. & Kaim, A. 2006. Shallow-water gastropods from Late Oxfordian sands in Kleby (Pomerania, Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica 56, 121-157.

Gründel, J. & Koppka, J. 2007. Gastropoden aus einem Lias-Geschiebe von Lentschow bei Lassan (Vorpommern, Nordostdeutschland). Archiv für Geschiebekunde 4, 643-658.

Gründel, J. & Nützel, A. 1998. Gastropoden aus dem oberen Pliensbachium (Lias d2, Zone des Pleuroceras spinatum) von Kalchreuth, östlich Erlangen (Mittelfranken). Mitteilungen Bayrische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Historische Geologie 38, 63-96.

Hasegawa, K. 2001. Deep-sea gastropods of the Tosa Bay, Japan, collected by the R/V Kotaka-Maru and Tabsei-Maru during the years 1997-2000. National Science Museum Monographs 20, 121-165.

Hasegawa, K. 2005. A preliminary list of deep-sea gastropods collected from the Nansei Islands, southwestern Japan. National Science Museum Monographs 29, 137-190.

Hasegawa, K. 2006. Sublittoral and bathyal shell-bearing gastropods chiefly collected by the R/V Rinkai-Maru of the University of Tokyo around the Miura Peninsula, Sagami Bay, 2001-2004. Memoirs of the National Science Museum, Tokyo 40, 225-281.

Herbert, D.G. 1989. Pagodatrochus, a new genus for Minolia variabilis H. Adams, 1873 (Gastropoda: Trochidae). Journal Molluscan Studies 55, 365-372.View article

Herbert, D.G. 1996. Observations on Clanculus tonnerrei (G. & H. Neville, 1875) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Trochidae). Tropical Zoology 1996, 31-45.

Hickman, C.S. 1980. Gastropod radulae and the assessment of form in evolutionary paleontology. Paleobiology 6, 276-294.

Hickman, C.S. 1981. Evolution and function of asymmetry in the archaeogastropod radula. The Veliger 23, 189-194.

Hickman, C.S. 1984. Form and function of the radulae of pleurotomariid gastropods. The Veliger 27, 29-36.

Hickman, C.S. 1998. Superfamily Pleurotomarioidea, 664-669. In Beesley, P.L., Ross, G.J.B. & Wells, A. (eds) Mollusca: the southern synthesis. Fauna of Australia 5, Part B. Melbourne, CSIRO Publishing.

Hickman, C.S. & McLean, J.H. 1990. Systematic revision and suprageneric classification of trochacean gastropods. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series 35, 1-169.

Hudleston, W.H. 1888. British Jurassic Gasteropoda. Part 1, No. 2: Gasteropoda of the Inferior Oolite, 57-136. Palaeontographical Society Monograph, London.

Hudleston, W.H. 1895. A monograph of the British Jurassic Gasteropoda. Part 1, No. 8: The Inferior Oolite Gasteropoda, 391-444. Palaeontographical Society Monograph, London.

Kaim, A. 2004. The evolution of conch ontogeny in Mesozoic open sea gastropods. Palaeontologica Polonica 62, 1-183.

Kano, Y. 2008. Vetigastropod phylogeny and a new concept of Seguenzioidea: independent evolution of copulatory organs in the deep-sea habitats. Zoologica Scripta 37, 1-21.View article

Kano, Y., Chikuy, E. & Warén, A. 2009. Morphological, ecological and molecular characterization of the enigmatic planispiral snail Adeuomphalus (Vetigastropoda, Seguenzioidea). Journal of Mollucan Studies 75, 397-418.View article

Kaunhowen, F. 1897. Die Gastropoden der Maestrichter Kreide. Palaeontologische Anhandlungen N.F.4, 3-132.

Keen, A.M. 1971. Sea shells of tropical West America. Marine molluskc from Baja California to Peru. Second edition. 1064 pp. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

Kiel, S. & Bandel, K. 2001. Trochidae (Archaeogastropoda) from the Campanian of Torallola in northern Spain. Acta Geologica Polonica 51, 137-154.

Kiel, S. & Frýda, J. 2004. Shell structure of Late Cretaceous Sensuitrochus ferreri (Cirridae, Gastropoda). Journal of Paleontology 78(4), 795-797.View article

Kittl, E. 1891. Die Gastropoden der Schichten von St. Cassian der südalpinen Trias. Teil I. Annalen des Kaiserlich-Königlichen Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums in Wien 6, 166-262.

Kittl, E. 1894. Die Gastropoden der Schichten von St. Cassian der südalpinen Trias. Teil III. Annalen des Kaiserlich-Königlichen Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums in Wien 9, 144-277.

Knight, J.B. 1933. The gastropods of the St. Louis, Missouri, Pennsylvanian outlier: V. The Trochoturbinidae. Journal of Paleontology 7, 30-58.

Knight, J.B. 1941. Paleozoic gastropod genotypes. Geological Society of America Special Paper 32, 1-510.

Knight, J.B., Batten, R.L. & Yochelson, E.L. 1960. Part I, Mollusca 1, I169-I351. In Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Geological Society of America & University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.

Koken, E. 1889. Über die Entwicklung der Gastropoden vom Cambrium bis zur Trias. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, supplementary volume 6, 305-484.

Koken, E. 1897. Die Gastropoden der Trias um Hallstatt. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt 17, 1-112.

Laube, G.C. 1869. Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 30, 1-48.

Le Renard, J. & Bouchet, P. 2003. New species and genera of the family Pickworthiidae (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda). Zoosystema 25, 569-591.

Luger, P., Gröschke, M., Bußmann, M., Dina, A., Kallenbach, H., Mette, W. & Uhlmann, A. 1994. A comparison of the Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary cycles of Somalia and Madagascar - implications for the Gondwana breakup. Geologische Rundschau 83, 711-727.View article

Marshall, B.A. 1979. The Trochidae and Turbinidae of the Kermadec Ridge (Mollusca: Gastropoda). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 6, 521-552.

Marshall, B.A. 1983. Recent and Tertiary Seguenziidae (Molusca; Gastropoda) from the New Zealand region. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 10, 235-262.

Marshall, B.A. 1988. New Seguenziidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Tasman Sea, south Pacific, and Southern Antilles Basin. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 15, 235-247.

Marshall, B.A. 1991. Mollusca Gastropoda Seguenziidae from New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands. Mémoires du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle A150, 41-109.

McLean, J.H. 1969. Marine shells of Southern California. Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History Science Series 11, 1-104.

McLean, J.H. 1984. Agathodonta nortoni, new species: living member of a lower Cretaceous trochid genus. The Nautilus 98, 121-123.

McLean, J.H. 1996. Taxonomic Atlas of the benthic fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and western Santa Barbara channel. Volume 9, the Mollusca part 2, the Gastropoda, the Prosobranchia. 160 pp. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.

McLean, J.H. & Andrade, V.H. 1982. Large archibenthal gastropods of Central Chile: collections from an expedition of the R/V Anton Bruun and the Chienian shrimp Fishery. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contribution in Science 342, 1-20.

Morris, J. & Lycett, J. 1851-55. A monograph of the Mollusca from the Great Oolite, chiefly from Minchinhampton and the coast of Yorkshire. Palaeontographical Society London Monographs, 1851, 1-130; 1853, 1-80; 1855, 81-147.

Müller, J. 1848. Monographie der Petrefacten der Aachener Kreideformation. 88 pp. Henry & Cohen, Bonn.

Münster, G.G. zu 1841. Beschreibung und Abbildung der in den Kalkmergelschichten von St. Cassian gefundenen Versteinerungen, 25-152. In Wissmann, H.L. & Münster, G.G. Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirol’s vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian. In Münster G.G. zu (ed.) Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde, Heft 4. Bayreuth, Buchner.

Nofroni, I. & Sciubba, M. 1985. First record of Adeuomphalus ammonitiformis Seguenza, 1876 in the Mediterranean. La Conchiglia 17, 22-23.

Okutani, T. ed. 2000. Marine mollusks in Japan. 1174 pp. Tokai University Press, Tokyo.

Perrilliat, M. de C. & Vega, F.J. 2000. Early Maastrichtian mollusca from the Mexcala Formation of the state of Guerrero, southern Mexico. Journal of Paleontology 74, 7-24.View article

Poppe, G.T., Tagaro, S.P. & Dekker, H. 2006. The Seguenziidae, Chilodontidae, Trochidae, Calliostomatiidae & Solariellidae of the Philippine Islands with the description of 1 new genus, 2 new subgenera, 70 new species and 1 new subspecies. Visaya, Supplement 2, 3-228.

Quinn, J.F. 1979. Biological results of the University of Miami deep-sea expeditions. 130. The systematics and zoogeography of the Gastropoda family Trochidae collected in the Straights of Florida and its approaches. Malacologia 19, 1-62.

Quinn, J.F. 1983. A revision of the Seguenziacea Verrill, 1884 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). I. Summary and evaluation of the superfamily. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 96, 725-757.

Quinn, J.F. 1987. A revision of the Seguenziacea Verrill, 1884 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). II. The new genera Hadroconus, Rotellenzia, and Asthelys. The Nautilus 101, 59-68.

Quinn, J.F. 1991a. Lamellitrochus, a new genus of Solariellinae (Gastropoda: Trochidae), with descriptions of six new species from the Western Atlantic Ocean. The Nautilus 105, 81-91.

Quinn, J.F. 1991b. New species of Gaza, Mirachelus, Calliotropis, and Echinogurges (Gastropoda: Trochidae) from the Noorthwestern Atlantic Ocean. The Nautilus 105, 166-172.

Quinn, J.F. 1991c. Systematic position of Basilissopsis and Guttula and a discussion of the phylogeny of the Seguenzioidea (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Bulletin of Marine Science 49, 575-598.

Ravn, J.P.J. 1933. Etudes sur les pelecypodes et gastropodes daniens du Calcaire de Faxe. Kongelige Danske Videnskabints Selskab Skrifter, Naturvidenshabelige og Mathematiske. Afhandlinger 9(2), 1-74.

Rusmore-Villaume, M.L. 2008. Sea shells of the Egyptian Red Sea. 307 pp. American University in Cairo Press.

Roman, F. & Mazeran, P. 1913. Monographie paléontologique de la faune du Turonien du Bassin d’Uchaux et des dépandences. Archives du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle de Lyon 12, 1-133.

Salvini-Plawen, L.V. & Haszprunar, G. 1987. The Vetigastropoda and the systematics of streptonerous Gastropoda (Mollusca). Journal of Zoology 211, 747-770.View article

Sasaki, T. 1998. Comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the Recent Archaeogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda). The University Museum, The University of Tokyo Bulletin 38, 1-224.

Schepman, M.M. 1908. The Prosobranchia oft the Siboga Expedition. Part I. Rhipidoglossa and Docoglossa. Siboga Expeditie Monographie 49, 1-107.

Schröder, M. 1995. Frühontogenetische Schalen jurassischer und unterkretazischer Gastropoden aus Norddeutschland und Polen. Palaeontographica A238, 1-95.

Sohl, N.F. 1960. Archaeogastropoda, Mesogastropoda and Stratigraphy of the Ripley Owl Creek, and Prairie Bluff Formation. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 331-A, 1-151.

Sohl, N.F. 1964. Gastropods from the Coffee Sand (Upper Cretaceous) of Mississippi. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 331-C, 345-394.

Sohl, N.F. 1998. Upper Cretaceous trochacean gastropods from Puerto Rico and Jamaica. Palaontographica Americana 60, 1-109.

Szabo, J. 1995. Eucyclidae (Eucycloidea; Gastropoda) as a palaeoecological index in the Transdanubian Central Range (Hungary). Hantkeiana 1, 67-74.

Szabo, J. 2008. Gastropods of the Early Jurassic Hierlatz Limestone Formation; part 1: a revision of type collections from Austrian and Hungarian localities. Fragmenta Palaeontologica Hungarica 26, 1-108.

Thiele, J. 1924. Gastropoden der Deuschen Tiefsee-Expedition II. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition des Dampfers “Valdivia” 17, 36-282.

Thiele, J. 1931. Handbuch der systematischen Weichtierkunde 1. 376 pp. G. Fischer, Jena.

Troschel, F.H. & Thiele, J. 1866-1893. Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 33-302. Nicolaische Verlags-Buchhandlung, Berlin.

Tsuchida, E. & Hori, S. 1996. Marine mollusks around Mishima and Tsunoshima Islands, Japan Sea collected by the R/V Tansei-Maru. Bulletin of the National Science Museum Tokyo Series A22, 219-261.

Vilvens, C. 2007. New species and new records of Calliotropis (Gastropoda: Chilodontidae: Calliotropinae) from Indo-Pacific. Novapex 8, 1-72.

Warén, A. 1991. New and little known Mollusca from Iceland and Scandinavia. Sarsia 76, 53-124.

Warén, A. 1992. New and little known ‘skeneimorph’ gastropods from the Mediterranean and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. Bollettino Malacologico 27, 149-248.

Warén, A., Bengtson, S., Goffredi, S.K. & Van Dover, C.L. 2003. A hot-vent gastropod with iron sulfide dermal sclerites. Science 302, 1007.View article

Warén, A. & Bouchet, P. 1993. New records, species genera, and a new family of gastropods from hydrothermal vents and hydrocarbon seeps. Zoologica Scripta 22, 1-90.View article

Watson, R.B. 1897. Mollusca of the HMS Challenger Expedition. III. Trochidae, viz. the genera Seguenzia, Basilissa, Gaza and Bembix. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 14, 586-603.View article

Weinzettl, V. 1910. Gastropoda českého křídového útvaru. Palaeontographica Bohemiae 8, 1-56.

Wenz, W. 1938-1944. Handbuch der Paläontologie. In Schindewolf, O. (ed.) Gastropoda, 6 (Teil 1). 1639 pp. Borntraeger, Berlin.

Williams, S.T., Donald, K.M., Spencer, H.G. & Nakaono, T. 2010. Molecular systematic of marine gastropod families Trochidae and Calliostomatidae (Mollusca: Superfamily Trochoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54, 783-809.View article

Williams, S.T., Karube, S. & Ozawa, T. 2008. Molecular systematics of Vetigastropoda: Trochidae, Turbinidae and Trochoidea redefined. Zoologica Scripta 37, 483-506.View article

Williams, S.T. & Ozawa, T. 2006. Molecular phylogeny suggests polyphyly of both the turban shells (family Turbinidae) and the superfamily Trochoidea (Mollusca: Vetigastropoda). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39, 33-51.View article

Yaron, I. 1979. On some Minolia species in the northern Red Sea. Argamon 7, 21-29.

Zardini, R. 1978. Fossili cassiani (Trias mediosuperiore) Atlante dei gasteropodi della formazione di S. Cassiano raccolti nella regione dolomitica attorno a Cortina d’Ampezzo. 58 pp. Ed. Ghedina, Cortina d’Ampezzo.

Zardini, R. 1980. Fossili cassiani (Trias mediosuperiore), Prima aggioramento all’atlantei dei gasteropodi della formazione di S. Cassiano raccolti nella regione dolomitica attorno a Cortina d’Ampezzo. 16 pp. Ed. Ghedina, Cortina d’Ampezzo.

Zardini, R. 1985. Fossili cassiani (Trias Mediosuperiore) atlante dei gasteropodi della formazione di S. Cassiano raccolti nella regione dolomitica attorno a Cortina d’Ampezzo. 15 pp. Ed. Ghedina, Cortina d’Ampezzo.

Zittel, K.A. 1895. Grundzüge der Palaeontologie. 971 pp. Oldenbourg, München & Leipzig.

Zuschin, M., Janssen, R. & Baal, C. 2009. Gastropods and their habitats from the Northern Red Sea (Egypt, Safaga). Part I. Patellogastropoda, Vetigastropoda and Cycloneritimorpha. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien 111a, 73-158.