Silurian Spanila Barrande, 1881 (Bivalvia, Spanilidae) from European peri-Gondwana (Bohemia, Germany, France, and Austria)

 

Authors: Kříž J

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 85, issue 3; pages: 425 - 434; Received 7 June 2010; Accepted in revised form 28 July 2010; Online 1 September 2010

Keywords: Bivalvia, Nepiomorphia, Silurian, systematics, evolution, palaeoecology, Perunica, European peri-Gondwana,

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Abstract

Silurian Spanila Barrande, 1881 (Nepiomorphia Kříž, 2007) of Perunica and the European peri-Gondwana contains two species, Spanila gracilis (Münster in Goldfuss, 1837) and Spanila discipulus Barrande, 1881. It represents an important taxon-range-zone in the middle Ludfordian to the earliest Přídolí cephalopod limestone facies and may be correlated with the interval from the Neocucullograptus kozlowskii Biozone to the early Monograptus parultimus Biozone. Semi-infaunal Tetinka Barrande, 1881 from the Gorstian of Perunica was most probably the ancestor of Spanila, adapted to the specific semi-infaunal or infaunal mode of life. The assumption of semi-infaunal mode of life is supported by the cyrtiid brachiopod epibionts attached by their triangular ventral interarea to the posterior part of the shell, presumably above the level of the sediment. Spanila occupied narrow spaces between the crowded current-oriented cylindrical cephalopod shells and is commonly preserved with conjoined valves, often in the living position, i.e. with the frontal face down and parallel with bedding plane.

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