First records of trace fossils from the Lake District, southwestern Turkey

 

Authors: Nielsen JK, Görmüş, M, Uysal K, Kanbur S

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 85, issue 4; pages: 691 - 708; Received 18 Febuary 2010; Accepted in revised form 11 June 2010; Online 17 September 2010

Keywords: stratigraphy, trace fossils, ethology, ichnofacies, shelf, bathyal, Turkey,

full text (PDF, 4.04 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

Important new ichnological data was obtained from the Isparta Çay Formation (Triassic to early Cretaceous), Koçtepe Formation (middle Paleocene to Early Eocene), Isparta Formation (Early to Middle Eocene) and İncesu Formation (Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene). These formations are significantly exposed in the Eğirdir, Gönen and Isparta regions within the northern part of the Isparta Angle. An overview of the stratigraphy and its trace-fossil bearing formations and microfossil content is presented together with recommendations. The density and diversity of trace fossils vary between and within these formations, which originated in deep-marine shelf slope and shelf environments of the Neotethys ocean. Changes in the frequency of abrupt turbiditic deposition, oxygenation of the bottom water and possibly food availability are reflective in the trace fossil distribution. The trace fossils of the Isparta Çay, Koçtepe and Isparta formations are typical of deep-marine settings with occasional high-energy turbiditic conditions. The Isparta Çay Formation (Paleodictyon ichnosubfacies) is seen as the bedrocks of the region, whereas the Isparta Formation (Ophiomorpha rudis ichnosubfacies) overlies conformably the Koçtepe Formation (Nereites and Arenicolites ichnofacies). The İncesu Formation is laterally interlaced with the Isparta Formation. A high diversity of trace fossils occurs in the İncesu Formation (Zoophycos ichnofacies), which was formed in an outer shelf environment. Findings from previous ichnological investigations in Turkey are compiled and compared with the present results from the Isparta Angle.

References

Akbulut, A. 1980. Egirdir Gölü güneyinde Çandir (Sütçüler, Isparta) yöresindeki Bati Toroslarin jeolojisi. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni 23, 1-9.

Akkiraz, M.S., Akgün, F. & Örçen, S. 2007. Bati Toroslarin kuzeyindeki Incesu Havzasinin Oligosen palinostratigrafisi ve paleoiklimi, Isparta Çevresi, Türkiye. 60. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayi, bildiri özleri, 385-387.

Allasinaz, A, Gutnic,M. & Poisson,A. 1974. La formation de l’Isparta Cay calcaires a Halobies, grés a plantes, et radiolarites d’age Carnien(?) Norie (Taurides-Region d’Isparta-Turquie). Schriftenreihe der Erdwissenschaftlichen Kommissionen, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften 2, 11-21.

Bann, K.L. & Fielding, C.R. 2001. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of reservoirs in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia, facilitated by ichnological analysis. AAPG Annual Convention, June 3-6, 2001, Denver, Colorado. Abstracts.

Bertling, M., Braddy, S., Bromley, R.G., Demathieu, G.D., Genise, J., Mikuláš, R., Nielsen, J.K., Nielsen, K.S.S., Rindsberg, A., Schlirf, M. & Uchman, A. 2006. Names for trace fossils: a uniform approach to concepts and procedures. Lethaia 39, 265-286.View article

Bromley, R.G. 1996. Trace fossils: biology, taphonomy and applications. 2nd edition. 361 pp. Chapman & Hall, London.

Bromley, R.G. & Asgaard, U. 1975. Sediment structures produced by a spatangoid echinoid: a problem of preservation. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 24, 261-281.

Bromley, R.G. & Asgaard, U. 1991. Ichnofacies: a mixture of taphofacies and biofacies. Lethaia 24, 153-163.View article

Bromley, R.G. & Ekdale, A.A. 1984. Chondrites: A trace fossil indicator of anoxia in sediments. Science 224, 872-874.View article

Bromley, R.G., Pemberton, S.G. & Rahmani, R.A. 1984. A Cretaceous woodground: The Teredolites ichnofacies. Journal of Paleontology 58, 488-498.

Buatois, L.A. & Mángano, M.G. 2004. Ichnology of fluvio-lacustrine environments: animal-substrate interaction in freshwater ecosystems. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 228, 311-333.

Buckman, J.O. 1992. Palaeoenvironment of a Lower Carboniferous sandstone succession northwest Ireland: ichnological and sedimentological studies. Geological Society, Special Publications 62, 217-241.

Demircan, H. 2008. Trace fossil associations and palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the late Eocene units (SW-Thrace). Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration 136, 29-47.

Demircan, H. & Toker, V. 2003. Trace fossils in the western fan of the Cingöz Formation in the northern Adana basin (southern Turkey). Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration 127, 15-32.

Demircan, H. & Toker, V. 2004. Cingöz Formasyonu dogu yelpaze iz fosilleri (KB Adana). Maden Tetkik Arama Enstitüsü Dergisi 129, 69-87.

Dogdu, B.E. 2007. Haymana Güneyi (Ankara) Yamak Formasyonu iz fosilleri. 101 pp. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Türkiye.

Dumont, J.F., Gutnic, M., Marcoux, J., Monod, O. & Poisson, A. 1972. Le Trias des Taurides occidentales (Turquie). Definition du bassin pamphylien: Un nouveau domaine a ophiolites a la marge externe de la chaine taurique. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 123, 385-409.

Frey, R.W. & Goldring, R. 1992. Marine event beds and recolonization surfaces as revealed by trace fossil analysis. Geological Magazine 129, 325-335.View article

Fürsich, F.T. 1981. Invertebrate trace fossils from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal. Comunicaçoes dos Serviços Geológicos de Portugal 67, 153-168.

Glover, C.P. & Robertson, A.H.F. 1998. Role of regional extension and uplift in the Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the Aksu Basin, SW Turkey. Journal of the Geological Society 155, 365-387.View article

Goldring, R. 1995. Organisms and the substrate: response and effect. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 83, 151-180.View article

Goldring, R. & Pollard, J.E. 1996. Ichnotaxonomic revision and the importance of type material. Palaeontology Newsletter 31, 7-8.

Görmüş, M., Caran, Ş., Çoban, H. & Yilmaz, K. 2001b. Bedre-Barla (Egirdir Gölü Batisi) arasinda kiyi kenar çizgisi. 1. Egirdir Sempozyumu, 31 Agustos-1 Eylül 2001, Bildiriler, Isparta, 387-402.

Görmüş, M. & Karaman, E. 1992. Facies changes and new stratigraphical-paleontological data in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary around Söbüdag (Çünür-Isparta). Çukuova University Geosound 21, 43-57.

Görmüş, M. & Meriç, E. 2000. Unusual forms of orbitoidal foraminifera in the Maastrichtian of Turkey. Cretaceous Research 21, 801-812.View article

Görmüş, M., Meriç, E., Uysal, K. & Nielsen, J.K. 2005. Orbitoides kavkilarindaki izlere ait yeni bulgular ve bu izlerin ortamsal önemi. Çukurova Üniversitesi Geosound 46, 25-40.

Görmüş, M. & Nielsen, J.K. 2006. Borings in large benthic foraminifers from Turkey and their palaeoenvironmental significance. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 36, 152-165.View article

Görmüş, M., Nielsen, J.K. & Uysal, K. 2003. Trace fossils from Tertiary sediments between Gönen (Isparta)-Aglasun (Burdur). 20th Anniversary Geology Symposium, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, May 14-16, 2003, Isparta. Abstracts, 64-65.

Görmüş, M., Nielsen, J.K. & Uysal, K. 2008. Ichnology of Tertiary deposits from the Lake District, southwestern Turkey: sedimentation dynamics and oxygenation. 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo, Aug. 6-14, 2008. Abstract CD-ROM.

Görmüş, M. & Özkul, M. 1995. Gönen-Atabey (Isparta) ve Aglasun (Burdur) arasindaki Bölgenin Stratigrafisi. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 1, 43-64.

Görmüş, M. & Sagular, E.K. 1998. Microboring activity in Orbitoides accumulations from Turkey. Israel Journal of Earth Science 47, 61-67.

Görmüş, M., Sagular, E.K. & Çoban,H. 2001a. The Miocene sequence characteristics, its contact relation to the older rocks and lamprophyric dikes in the Derebogazi area (southern Isparta, Turkey). 4th International Symposium on Eastern Mediterranean Geology, 21-25 May 2001, Proceedings, Isparta, 69-90.

Gutnic, M., Monod, O., Poisson, A. & Dumont, J. F. 1979. Geologie des Taurides occidentales (Turquie). Memories Société géologique de France 137, 1-112.

Hedberg, H.D. 1976. International stratigraphic guide. 187 pp. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Karaman, M.E.,Meriç, E. & Tansel, I. 1988. Çünür (Isparta) dolaylarinda Kretase-Tersiyer geçi?i. Akdeniz Üniversitesi Isparta Mühendislik Fakültesi Dergisi 4, 80-100.

Karaman, M.E. 1990. Isparta güneyindeki sahanin jeolojik etüdü. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni 33, 57-67.

Karaman, M.E. 1994. Isparta-Burdur arasinin jeolojisi ve tektonik özellikleri. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni 37, 57-68.

Koçyigit, A. 1980. Hoyrati gölü yöresinin (Afyon-Isparta) stratigrafik ve tektonik šzellikleri. 172 pp. Doçentlik tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi, Fen Fakültesi Genel Jeoloji Kürsüsü, Türkiye.

Koçyigit, A. 1981. Isparta Büklümünde (bati Toroslar) Toros karbonat platformunun evrimi. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurumu Bülteni 24, 15-23.

Koçyigit, A. 1983. Hoyran Gölü (Isparta Büklümü) Dolayinin Tektonigi. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurumu Bülteni 26, 1-10.

Koçyigit, A. 1984. Güneybati Türkiye ve komşu sahalarin levha içi Neotektonik gelişimi. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurumu Bülteni 27, 1-16.

Koçyigit, A. 2000. Güneybati Türkiye’nin depremselligi. BADSEM 2000-Bati Anadolu’nun Depremselligi Sempozyumu, 24-27 Mayis 2000, Bildiriler, Izmir, 30-39.

Meriç, E. & GÖRMÜŞ, M. 2001. The genus Loftusia. Micropaleontology, supplement 1, 1-71.

Moghadam, H.V. & Paul, C.R.C. 2000. Trace fossils of the Jurassic, Blue Lias, Lyme Regis, southern England. Ichnos 7, 283-306.View article

Monod, O. 1976. La courbe d’Isparta: une mosaique de blocks autochtones surmonté de nappes composites a la jonction de l’arc Hellenique et de l’arc Taurique. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 18, 521-531.

Nielsen, J.K. & Görmüş, M. 2004. Ichnotaxonomy and ethology of borings in shallow-marine benthic foraminifers from the Maastrichtian and Eocene of Northwestern and Southwestern Turkey. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 110, 493-501.

Nielsen, J.K., Hansen, K.S. & Simonsen, L. 1996. Sedimentology and ichnology of the Robbedale Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Bornholm, Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 43, 115-131.

Nielsen, K.S.S. & Nielsen, J.K. 2001. Bioerosion in Pliocene to late Holocene tests of benthic and planktonic foraminiferans, with a revision of the ichnogenera Oichnus and Tremichnus. Ichnos 8, 99-116.View article

Nielsen, J.K., Nielsen, J.K., Helama, S. & Worthington, R. 2008. Ichnofabrics as evidence of depositional dynamics on a prograding carbonate wedge: an example from the Pleistocene of Rhodes, Greece. 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo, Aug. 6-14, 2008. Abstract CD-ROM.

Osgood, R.G., Jr. 1970. Trace fossils of the Cincinnati Area. Palaeontographica Americana 6, 281-444.

Osgood, R.G., Jr. 1975. The paleontological significance of trace fossils, 87-108. In Frey, R.W. (ed.) The study of trace fossils. A synthesis of principles, problems, and procedures in ichnology. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Özkul, M. 1993. Kirkgeçit Formasyonunda (Eosen, Elazig) fliş iz fosilleri ve ortamsal dagilimlari. Akdeniz Üniversitesi Isparta Mühendislik Fakültesi Dergisi 7, 15-30.

Poisson, A. & Poignant, A.F. 1974. La formation de Karabayir, base de la transgression miocene dans la région de Korkuteli (Antalya, Turquie). Lithothamnium pseudoramossissimum: nouvelle espece d’algue rouge de la formation de Karabayir. Mineral Research and Exploration Bulletin 82, 67-71.

Poisson, A. 1977. Recherches géologiques dans les Taurides Occidentales (Turquie). 795 pp. Doctorat d’état thesis, Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay, France.

Poisson, A., Yagmurlu, F., Bozcu, M. & Şentürk, M. 2003a. New insights on the tectonic setting and evolution around the apex of the Isparta Angle (SW Turkey). Geological Journal 38, 257-282.View article

Poisson, A., Wernli, R., Sagular, E.K. & Temiz, H. 2003b. New data concerning the age of the Aksu Thrust in the south of the Aksu Valley, Isparta Angle (SW Turkey): consequences for the Antalya Basin and the Eastern Mediterranean. Geological Journal 38, 311-328.View article

Richter, R. 1928. Psychische Reaktionen fossiler tiere. Helminthoiden und Nereiten als Fragen der Fährtenkunde an die Tierpsychologie. Palaeobiologica 1, 225-244.

Rindsberg, A.K. & Kopaska-Merkel, D.C. 2005. Treptichnus and Arenicolites from the Steven C. Minkin Paleozoic Footprint Site (Langsettian, Alabama, USA), 121-141. In Buta, R.J., Rindsberg, A.K. & Kopaska Merkel, D.C. (eds) Pennsylvanian footprints in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. Alabama Paleontological Society Monograph 1.

Robertson, A.H.F. 1993. Mesozoic-Tertiary sedimentary and tectonic evolution of Neotethyan carbonate platforms, margins and small ocean basins in the Antalya Complex, southwest Turkey. Special Publication, International Association of Sedimentologists 20, 415-465.

Robertson, A.H.F. 1993. Mesozoic-Tertiary sedimentary and tectonic evolution of Neotethyan carbonate platforms, margins and small ocean basins in the Antalya Complex, southwest Turkey. Special Publication, International Association of Sedimentologists 20, 415-465.

Robertson, A.H.F. 2000. Mesozoic-Tertiary tectonic-sedimentary evolution of a south Tethyan oceanic basin and its margins in the southern Turkey. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 173, 97-138.View article

Robertson, A.H.F., Poisson, A. & Akinci, Ö. 2003. Developments in research concerning Mesozoic-Tertiary Tethys and neotectonics in the Isparta Angle, SW Turkey. Geological Journal 38, 195-234.View article

Sagular, E.K. & Görmüş, M. 2006. New stratigraphical results and evidence of reworking based on nannofossils, foraminiferal and sedimentological data in the Eocene sequence from the Derebogazi area, N Isparta Angle, SW Turkey. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 27, 78-98.View article

Salter, J.W. 1857. On annelide-burrows and surface-markings from the Cambrian rocks of the Longmynd. No. 2. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 13, 199-206.View article

Sariiz, K. 1985. Keçiborlu kükürt yataklarinin oluţumu ve yörenin jeolojisi. Doktora tezi, Anadolu Üniversitesi yayinlari, Yayin no. 91, Eskişehir.

Schlirf, M. & Uchman, A. 2005. Revision of the ichnogenus Sabellarifex Richter, 1921 and its relationship to Skolithos Haldeman, 1840 and Polykladichnus Fürsich, 1981. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 3, 115-131.View article

Seilacher, A. 1964a. Sedimentological classification and nomenclature of trace fossils. Sedimentology 3, 253-256.

Seilacher, A. 1964b. Biogenic sedimentary structures, 296-316. In Imbrie, J. & Newell, N. (eds) Approaches to paleoecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Seilacher, A. 1967. Bathymetry of trace fossils. Marine Geology 5, 413-428.View article

Seilacher, A. 1992. Vendobionta: strangest organisms on Earth and evolution of trace fossils, 57-73. In Álvarez, F. & Morris, S.C. (eds) Lecture course on palaeobiology: preparing for the twenty-first century. Instituto Juan March de Estudios e Investigaciones, Centro de Reuniones Internacionales sobre Biología, Madrid.

Seilacher, A. 2007. Trace fossil analysis. 226 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Şenel, M. 1984. Discussion on the Antalya nappes, 41-52. In Tekeli, O. & Göncüoglu, M.C. (eds) Geology of Taurus Belt. Proceedings of International Symposium on the Taurus Belt, 1983. Mineral Research and Exploration Institute (MTA) of Turkey Publication.

Şenel, M. 1997. 1:250000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritalari No: 4, Isparta paftasi. 47 pp. Maden Tetkik Arama Enstitüsü Jeoloji etüdleri dairesi, Ankara.

Şentürk, M. & Yagmurlu, F. 2003. Acigöl ve Burdur arasindaki bölgenin jeolojik ve sismotektonik özellikleri. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 7, Özel sayi, 11-24.

Sevim, S. 2003. Göynük (Bolu) - Tarakli (Adapazari) bölgelerinin Kretase-Tersiyer sinirinin iz fosilleri ve nannoplankton biyostratigrafisi. 159 pp. Yüksek lisans tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi, Türkiye.

Šimo, V. & Olšavský, M. 2007. Diplocraterion parallelum Torell, 1870, and other trace fossils from the Lower Triassic succession of the Drienok Nappe in the western Carpathians, Slovakia. Bulletin of Geosciences 82, 165-173.View article

Simpson, S. 1957. On the trace-fossil Chondrites. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 107, 475-499.

Singh, B.P. 2009. Integrated ichnological and sedimentological Studies of the Parahio Formation (Cambrian) of the Zanskar region (Zanskar-Spiti Basin), Northwest Himalaya. Journal Geological Society of India 74, 723-737.View article

Tekin, U.K. 1999. Biostratigraphy and systematics of late middle to late Triassic radiolarians from the Taurus Mountains and Ankara Region, Turkey. Geologisch-Paläontologische Mitteilungen Innsbruck Sonderband 5, 1-297.

Temiz, H., Poisson, A. & Andrieux, J. 2001. The Plio-Quaternary extensional system of the western side of the Isparta Angle in SW Turkey. 4th International Symposium Eastern Mediterranean Geology, Isparta. Abstracts, 125-129.

Uchman, A. 1995. Taxonomy and palaeoecology of flysch trace fossils: The Marnoso-arenacea Formation and associated facies (Miocene, Northern Apennines, Italy). Beringeria 15, 3-115.

Uchman, A. 1998. Taxonomy and ethology of flysch trace fossils: A revision of the Marian Książkiewicz collection and studies of complementary material. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 68, 105-218.

Uchman, A. 2009. The Ophiomorpha rudis ichnosubfacies of the Nereites ichnofacies: Characteristics and constraints. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 276, 107-119.View article

Uchman, A. & Demircan, H. 1999a. A Zoophycos group trace fossil from Miocene flysch in southern Turkey: evidence for a U-shaped causative burrow. Ichnos 6, 251-259.View article

Uchman, A. & Demircan, H. 1999b. Trace fossils of Miocene deep-sea fan fringe deposits from the Cingöz Formation, southern Turkey. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 69, 125-135.

Uchman, A., Demircan, H., Toker, V., Derman, A.S., Sevim, S. & Szulc, J. 2002. Relative sea-level changes recorded in borings from a Miocene rocky shore of the Mut Basin, southern Turkey. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 72, 263-270.

Vrielynck, B., Bonneau, M., Danelian, T., Cadet, J.P. & Poisson, A. 2003. New insights on the Antalya Nappes in the apex of the Isparta Angle: the Isparta Çay unit revisited, Geological Journal 38, 283-293.View article

Yagmurlu, F., Savascin, M.Y. & Ergun, M. 1997. Relation of alkaline volcanism and active tectonism within the evolution of Isparta Angle, SW Turkey. The Journal of Geology 15, 717-728.View article

Yalçinkaya, S., Ergin, A., Afşar, Ö.P. & Taner, K. 1986. Bati Toroslarin jeolojisi, Isparta projesi raporu. MTA Genel Müdürlügü Raporlari, Ankara.

Yalçinkaya, S. 1989. Isparta-Aglasun (Burdur) dolaylarinin jeolojisi. 176 pp. Doktora tezi, Istanbul Universitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü.

Yeşilot, S.K. 2000. Dinar-Isparta arasindaki Eosen bentik foraminiferlerinin sistematik ve biyofabrik incelemesi. 116 pp. Yüksek lisans tezi, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü.

Yildiz, A., Karahasan, G., Demircan, H. & Toker, V. 2000. Kalecik (Ankara) güneydogusu alt Maastrichtiyen-Paleosen biyostratigrafisi ve paleoekolojisi. Yerbilimleri 22, 247-259.

Yildiz, A., Toker, V., Demircan, H. & Sevim, S. 2003. Mut Havzasi Pliyosen-Pleyistosen nannoplankton, planktik foraminifera, iz fosil bulgulari ve paleoortam yorumu. Yerbilimleri 28, 123-144.