Silurian Kenzieana Liljedahl, 1989 (Bivalvia, Spanilidae) from Bohemia, Gotland and Sardinia


Authors: Kříž J

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 85, issue 1; pages: 53 - 60; Received 9 February 2010; Accepted in revised form 2 March 2010; Online 15 March 2010

Keywords: Bivalvia, Nepiomorphia, Silurian, systematics, palaeoecology, Perunica, European peri-Gondwana, Baltica,

full text (PDF, 1.41 MB)

Export to RIS



The genus Kenzieana Liljedahl, 1989 (Nepiomorphia Kříž, 2007) from Perunica, the European peri-Gondwana and Baltica is the oldest known, very long ranging Silurian (late Wenlock to late Přídolí) genus of Spanilidae Kříž, 2007, and was most probably the ancestor of the Gorstian Algerina Kříž, 2008, and the Ludfordian Spanila Barrande, 1881. Kenzieana is represented by K. bellula (Barrande, 1881) from the Homerian (late Wenlock), and K. cardiopsis (Barrande, 1881) from the late Wenlock to the late Přídolí. K. angusta Liljedahl, 1989, and K. lata Liljedahl, 1989 from Gotland are the junior synonyms. Distinctly inflated, foreshortened shells of Kenzieana with almost flat and circular frontal face show adaptive convergence with the Silurian Slavinka plicata (Barrande, 1881), Recent Corculum Röding, 1798, Fragum Röding, 1798, and Hippopus Lamarck, 1799. Kenzieana was very shallow and slow burrower resting in the sediment on its anterior, almost subcircular or widely elliptical and flat frontal face with a few byssal threads attached to loose detritus.


Barrande, J. 1881. Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme. Classe des Mollusques, ordre des Acéphalés. 6. 342 pp., Prague & Paris.

Conrath, P. 1887. Über einige silurische Pelecypoden. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 96, 40-51.

Kříž, J. 1969. Genus Butovicella Kříž, 1965 in the Silurian of Bohemia (Bivalvia). Sborník geologických věd, Palaeontologie 10, 105-139.

Kříž, J. 1985. Silurian Slavidae (Bivalvia). Sborník geologických věd, Palaeontologie 27, 47-111.

Kříž, J. 1999a. Bivalvia dominated communities of Bohemian type from the Silurian and Lower Devonian carbonate facies, 229-252. In Boucot, A.J.&Lawson, J.D. (eds) Final report, project Ecostratigraphy. Paleocommunities: A case study from the Silurian and Lower Devonian. 895 pp.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kříž, J. 1999b. Cephalopod limestone biofacies on the northern slopes of the Silurian volcanic archipelago in the Prague Basin containing re-described benthic Cardiola donigala-Slava cubicula Community (Bivalvia, Barrandian, Bohemia). Journal of the Czech Geological Society 44(1-2), 159-165.

Kříž, J. 2007. Origin, evolution and classification of the new superorder Nepiomorphia (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lower Paleozoic). Palaeontology 50(6), 1341-1365.View article

Kříž, J. 2008. Algerina gen. nov. (Bivalvia, Nepiomorphia) from the Silurian of the North Gondwana margin (Algeria), peri-Gondwanan Europe (France, Italy), Perunica (Prague Basin, Bohemia) and the Siberian Plate (Tajmyr Basin, Russia). Bulletin of Geosciences 83(1), 79-84.View article

Kříž, J.&Serpagli, E. 1993. Upper Silurian and lowermost Devonian Bivalvia of Bohemian type from south-western Sardinia. Bolletino della Societa Paleontologica Italica 32, 289-347.

Lamarck, J.B. de 1799. Prodrome d’une nouvelle classification des coquilles, comprenant une rédaction appropriée des caracteres géneriques, et l’établissement d’un grand nombre de genres nouveaux. Mémories de la Société d’ Histoire Naturelle Paris 1, 63-91.

Liljedahl, L. 1989. Two micromorphic bivalves from the Silurian of Gotland. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 63, 229-240.

Linné, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Edit Decima, reformata. 824 pp. Holmiae.

Röding, J. 1798. Museum Boltenianum, sive, Catalogus cimeliorum e tribus regnis naturae quae olim collegerat Joa. Fried. Bolten: pars secunda continens conchylia sive testacea univalvia, bivalvia & multivalvia. viii + 119 pp. Typis Johan Christi Trapii, Hamburg.

Stanley, S.M. 1970. Relation of shell form to life habits in the Bivalvia (Mollusca). Memoir of the Geological Society of America 125, 1-296.

Starobogatov, Y.I. 1977. Sistematicheskoje polozhenije konokardiid i sistema paleozoiskikh Septibranchia (Bivalvia). Byulleten Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody, Otdel geologicheskii 52(4),125-139.