Contribution to knowledge on ontogenetic developmental stages of Lepidodendron mannebachense Presl, 1838

 

Authors: Opluštil S

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 85, issue 2; pages: 303 - 316; Received 16 January 2010; Accepted in revised form 26 April 2010; Online 3 June 2010

Keywords: Lepidodendron mannebachense, ontogeny, Pennsylvanian,

full text (PDF, 4.65 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

A new reconstruction of Lepidodendron mannebachense is proposed here based on collection of well-preserved compressions from middle Moscovian volcanoclastics of the Radnice Basin, Czech Republic. These specimens that represent remains of juvenile and matured individuals make progress in our current knowledge on ontogeny of this species and help us to improve its whole plant reconstruction. The juvenile stage was characterised by an unbranched columnar stem. The mature stage of L. mannebachense had an umbrella-like canopy produced by combination of more or less isotomous apical dichotomies of the stem and main branches with anisotomous pseudomonopodial branching. Dichotomous branching built the frame of the crown and continued until the limit for meristem division was reached. However, most of thin terminal shoots were anisotomous lateral branches growing from the main dichotomies. Some of them as well as terminal branches bore cones on their tips. Only a narrow zone of leaves was maintained at any stage of tree development. In the mature stage, leaves were retained only at apical parts of terminal shoots. L. mannebachense was a monocarpic type of plant with a determinate growth.

References

Andrews, H.N. & Murdy, W.H. 1958. Lepidophloios and ontogeny in arborescent lycopods. American Journal of Botany 45, 552-560.View article

Bateman, R.M. 1994. Evolutionary-developmental change in growth architecture of fossil rhizomorphic lycopsids: scenarios constructed on cladistic foundations. Biological Reviews 69, 527-597.View article

Bateman, R.M. & DiMichele, W.A. 1991. Hizemodendron, gen. nov., a pseudoherbaceous segregate of Lepidodendron (Pennsylvanian): Phylogenetic context for evolutionary changes in lycopsid growth architecture. Systematic Botany 16, 195-205.View article

Bek, J. & Opluštil, S. 2004. Palaeoecological constraints of some Lepidostrobus cones and their parent plants from the Late Palaeozoic continental basins of the Czech Republic. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 131, 49-89.View article

Delevoryas, T. 1964. Ontogenetic studies of fossil plants. Phytomorphology 14, 299-314.

DiMichele, W.A. 1979a. Arborescent lycopods of Pennsylvanian age coals: Lepidophloios. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B 171, 57-77.

DiMichele, W.A. 1979b. Arborescent lycopods of Pennsylvanian age coals: Lepidodendron dicentricum C. Felix. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B 171, 122-136.

DiMichele, W.A. 1980. Paralycopodites Morey & Morey, from the Carboniferous of Euramerica - a reassesment of generic affinities and evolution of Lepidodendron brevifolium Williamson. American Journal of Botany 67, 1466-1476.View article

DiMichele, W.A. 1981. Arborescent lycopods of Pennsylvanian age coals: Lepidodendron with description of a new species. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B 175, 85-125.

DiMichele, W.A. 1983. Lepidodendron hickii and generic delimitation in Carboniferous lepidodendrid lycopods. Systematic Botany 8(3), 317-333.View article

DiMichele, W.A. & Phillips, T.L. 1985. Arborescent lycopod reproduction and paleoecology in a coal-swamp environment of late Middle Pennsylvanian age (Herrin Coal, Illinois). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 44, 1-26.View article

DiMichele, W.A. & Phillips, T.L. 1994. Paleobotanical and paleoecological constraints on models of peat formation in the Late Carboniferous of Euramerica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 106(1-4), 39-90.View article

Eggert, D.A. 1961. The ontogeny of Carboniferous arborescent lycopsida. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B 108, 43-92.

Ettingshausen, C. 1854. Die Steinkohleflora von Radnitz in Böhmen. Abhandlungen der kaiserlich-königlichen geologischen Reichsanstalt II(3), 1-74.

Hirmer, M. 1927. Handbuch der Paläobotanik. Band I: Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta. 724 pp. R. Oldenburg Verlag, Munich.

Leary, L.L. & Thomas, B.A. 1989. Lepidodendron aculeatum with attached foliage: evidence of stem morphology and fossilization processes. American Journal of Botany 76(2), 283-288.View article

Libertín, M., Opluštil, S., Pšenička, J., Bek, J., Sýkorová, I.&Dašková, J. 2009a. Middle Pennsylvanian pioneer plant assemblage buried in situ by volcanic ash-fall, central Bohemia, Czech Republic. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 155(3-4), 204-233.View article

Libertín, M., Dašková, J., Opluštil, S., Bek, J. & Edress, N. 2009b. A palaeoecological model for a vegetated early Westphalian intramontane valley (Intra-Sudetic Basin, Czech Republic). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 155(3-4), 175-203.View article

Lindley, J. & Hutton,W. 1835. The fossil flora of Great Britain; or figures and descriptions of the vegetable remains found in a fossil state in this country. Volume 2. 208 pp. J. Ridgeway, London.

MacGregor, M. & Walton, J. 1948. The story of the fossil grove of Glasgow Public Parks and Botanical Gardens, Glasgow. 32 pp. City of Glasgow Public Parks and Botanic Gardens Department, Glasgow.

Němejc, F. 1946. Further critical remarks on Sternberg’s Lepidodendron dichotomum and its relations to the cones of Sporangiostrobus Bode. Rozpravy II. třídy České akademie věd 47(7), 1-11.

Němejc, F. 1947. The Lepidodendraceae of the coaldistricts of Central Bohemia. Sborník Národního musea 7 B(2), 45-87.

Němejc, F. 1963. Paleobotanika II. 523 pp. Nakladatelství Československé akademie věd, Praha.

Niklas, K.J. 1994. Predicting the height of fossil plant remains: an allometric approach to an old problem. American Journal of Botany 81(10), 1235-1242.View article

Opluštil, S., Pšenička, J., Libertín, M. & Šimůnek, Z. 2007. Vegetation patterns of Westphalian and Lower Stephanian mire assemblages preserved in tuff beds of the continental basins of Czech Republic. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 143, 107-154.View article

Opluštil, S., Pšenička, J., Libertín, M., Bashforth, A.R., Šimůnek, Z., Drábková, J. & Dašková, J. 2009a. A Middle Pennsylvanian (Bolsovian) peat-forming forest preserved in situ in volcanic ash: The Whetstone Horizon in the Radnice Basin, Czech Republic. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 155(3-4), 234-274.View article

Opluštil, S., Pšenička, J., Libertín, M., Bek, J., Dašková, J., Šimůnek, Z. & Drábková, J. 2009b. Composition and structure of an in situ middle Westphalian peat-forming plant assemblage buried in volcanic ash, Radnice Basin (Czech Republic). Palaios 24, 726-746.View article

Phillips, T.L., Peppers, R.A. & DiMichele, W.A. 1985. Stratigraphic and interregional changes in Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation: environmental inferences. International Journal of Coal Geology 5, 43-109.View article

Phillips, T.L.&DiMichele, W.A. 1992. Comparative ecology and life-history biology of arborescent lycopsids in Late Carboniferous swamps of Euramerica. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79(3), 560-588.View article

Scott, D.H. 1920. Studies in Fossil Botany. I. (3rd edition). A. and C. Black, London.

Sternberg, C. von 1820-1838. Versuch einer geognostichbotanischen Darstellung der Flora der Vorwelt. Pt. 1: (1820), 24 pp. Pt. 2: (1821), 33 pp. Pt. 3: (1823), 39 pp. Pt. 4: (1825), 42 pp. Pt. 5 and 6: (1833), 80 pp. Pt. 7 and 8: (1838), 291 pp. Leipzig & Prague.

Thomas, B.A. 1966. The cuticle of Lepidodendroid stem. New Phytologist 65, 296-303.View article

Thomas, B.A. 1970. Epidermal studies in the interpretation of Lepidodendron species. Palaeontology 13(1), 145-173.

Thomas, B.A. & Watson, J. 1976. A rediscovered 114-foot Lepidodendron from Bolton, Lancashire. Geological Journal 11(1), 15-20.View article

Walton, J. 1935. Scottish Lower Carboniferous plants: the fossil hollow trees of Arran and their branches (Lepidophloios wunchianus Carruthers). Transactions of the Royal Society Edinburgh 58, 313-338.

Weiss, F.E. 1903. A biseriate halonial branch of Lepidophloios fuliginosus. Transactions of the Linnean Society, Botany, series 2, 6(1901-1905), 217-235.

Wnuk, C. 1985. The ontogeny and paleoecology of Lepidodendron rimosum and Lepidodendron bretonense trees from the Middle Pennsylvanian of the Bernice Basin (Sullivan County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.). Palaeontographica, Abteilung B 195, 153-181.View article

Wnuk, W. 1989. Ontogeny and paleoecology of the Middle Pennsylvanian arborescent lycopod Bothrodendron punctatum, Bothrodendraceae (western Middle Anthracite field, Shamokin quadrangle, Pennsylvania). American Journal of Botany 76(7), 966-980.View article