Foliage and seeds of malvalean plants from the Eocene of Europe

 

Authors: Kvaček Z, Wilde V

Published in: Bulletin of Geosciences, volume 85, issue 1; pages: 163 - 182; Received 9 October 2009; Accepted in revised form 23 November 2009; Online 21 January 2010

Keywords: Malvaceae s.l., Eocene, leaves, epidermal anatomy, seeds, Europe,

full text (PDF, 4.04 MB)

Export to RIS

 

Abstract

New malvalean plants, based on foliage and seeds, are reported from the Eocene of Germany (Messel), the Czech Republic (Kučlín) and Hungary (Lábatlan). A new morphogenusByttneriopsis Kvaček & Wilde morphogen. nov. is provided for Eocene foliage with affinities to the Malvales Juss. fam. Malvaceae Juss. s.l. The representatives from Messel, based on leaf gross morphology and epidermal anatomy, include Byttneriopsis daphnogenes(Ettingshausen) Kvaček & Wilde comb. nov., Byttneriopsis steueri (Engelhardt) Kvaček & Wilde comb. nov. and Byttneriopsis spiegelii (Engelhardt) Kvaček & Wilde comb. nov. B. daphnogenes also occurs abundantly in Kučlín and Byttneriopsis steuerii in Lábatlan. Winged seeds similar to various Malvales, in particular to Pterospermum Schreb., co-occur at all three localities and are assigned to Saportaspermum Meyer & Manchester as a new morphospeciesSaportaspermum kovacsiae Kvaček & Wilde sp. nov.

References

Alverson, W.S., Karol, K.G., Baum, D.A., Chase, M.W., Swensen, S.M., McCourt, R. & Systma, K.J. 1998. Circumscription of the Malvales and relationships to other Rosidae: Evidence from rbcL sequence data. American Journal of Botany 85, 876-887.View article

Alverson, W.S., Whitlock, B.A., Nyffeler, R., Bayer, C. & Baum, D.A. 1999. Phylogeny of core Malvales: evidence from ndhF sequence data. American Journal of Botany 86, 1474-1486.View article

Andrews, H.N. 1970. Index of generic names of fossil plants 1820-1965. Geological Survey Bulletin 1300, 1-353.

von Balthazar, M., Schönenberger, J., Alverson, W.S., Janka, H., Bayer, C. & Baum, D.A. 2006. Structure and evolution of the androecium in the Malvatheca clade (Malvaceae s.l.) and implications for Malvaceae and Malvales. Plant Systematics and Evolution 260, 171-197.

Bayer, C., Fay, M.F., de Bruijn, A.Y., Savolainen, V., Morton, C.M., Kubitzki, K. & Chase, M.W. 1999. Support for an expanded family concept of Malvaceae within a recircumscribed order Malvales: A combined analysis of plastid atpB and rbcL DNA sequences. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 129, 267-303.

Bayer, C. & Kubitzki, K. 2003. Malvaceae, 225-311. In Kubitzki, K. & Bayer, C. (eds) The families and genera of vascular plants V. Flowering plants - Dicotyledons, Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Springer, Berlin.

Bůžek, Č. 1971. Tertiary flora from the northern part of the Pětipsy area (North-Bohemian basin). Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 36, 1-118.

Bůžek, Č.&Kvaček, Z. 1994. An Early Miocene Linden (Tilia) from North Bohemia and its possible relationship. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 1992(1-2), 97-102.

Bůžek, Č., Holý, F.&Kvaček, Z. 1976. Tertiary flora from the Volcanogenic Series at Markvartice and Veselíčko near Česká Kamenice (České Středohoří Mts.). Sborník geologických věd, Paleontologie P.18, 69-132.

Cheek, M. 2006. The validation of two new family names in Malvales: Durionaceae and Brownlowiaceae. Kew Bulletin 61, 443.

Chelius, C. 1886. Blatt Messel. 67 pp. Erlanger Geologische Karte Grossherzogthums Hesse 1 : 25000, first edition, Darmstadt.

Collinson, M.E. 1988. The special significance of the middle Eocene fruit and seed flora from Messel, West Germany. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 107, 187-197.

Collinson, M.E.,Manchester, S.R.,Wilde, V. & Hayes, P. 2010. Fruit and seed floras from exceptionally preserved biotas in the European Paleogene. Bulletin of Geosciences 85(1), 95-102.View article

Cronquist, A. 1988. The evolution and classification of flowering plants. Second edition. 555 pp. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

Engelhardt, H. 1922. Die alttertiäre Flora von Messel bei Darmstadt. Abhandlungen der Hessischen Geologischen Landesamt Darmstadt 7, 17-128.

Erdei, B. & Rákosi, L. 2009. The Middle Eocene flora of Csordakút (N Hungary). Geologica Carpathica 60(1), 43-57.View article

Ettingshausen, C. 1853. Die Tertiaerfloren der Oesterreichischen Monarchie. 2. Tertiäre Flora von Häring in Tirol. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Serie II, Abteilung 3(2), 1-118.

Ettingshausen, C. 1866. Die fossile Flora des Tertiärbeckens von Bilin I. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 28, 1-98.

Ettingshausen, C. 1868. Die fossile Flora des Tertiärbeckens von Bilin II. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 28, 191-242.

Ettingshausen, C. 1869. Die fossile Flora des Tertiärbeckens von Bilin III. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 29, 1-110.

Goth, K. 1990. Der Messeler Ölschiefer, ein Algenlaminit. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 131, 1-141.

Grote, P.J. & Dilcher, D.L. 1992. Fruits and seeds of tribe Gordonieae (Theaceae) from the Eocene of North America. American Journal of Botany 79, 744-753.View article

Hably, L. 1985. New data in the Eocene flora of Hungary. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 77, 25-33.

Hably, L., Erdei, B. & Kvaček, Z. 2001. 19th century’s palaeobotanical types and originals of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. 235 pp. Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest.

Hably, L., Kvaček, Z. & Manchester, S.R. 2000. Shared taxa of land plants in the Oligocene of Europe and North America in context of Holarctic phytogeography. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 44(1), 48-71.

Heer, O. 1856. Flora Tertiaria Helvetiae, II. 110 pp. J. Wurster et comp., Winterthur.

Heer, O. 1859. Flora Tertiaria Helvetiae, III. 378 pp. J. Wurster et comp., Winterthur.

Heywood, V.H., Brummitt, R.K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. 2007. Flowering plant families of the world. 424 pp. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Judd, W.S. & Manchester, S.R. 1997. Circumscription of Malvaceae (Malvales) as determined by a preliminary cladistic analysis of morphological, anatomical, palynological, and chemical characters. Brittonia 49, 384-405.View article

Knobloch, E. & Kvaček, Z. 1965. Byttneriophyllum tiliaefolium (Al. Braun) Knobloch et Kvaček in den tertiären Floren der Nordhalbkugel. Sborník geologických věd, Paleontologie P.5, 123-166.

Knobloch, E. & Kvaček, Z. 1976. Miozäne Blätterfloren vom Westrand der Böhmischen Masse. Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 42, 1-131.

Knobloch, E., Konzalová, M. & Kvaček, Z. 1996. Die obereozäne Flora der Staré Sedlo-Schichtenfolge in Böhmen (Mitteleuropa). Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického 49, 1-260.

Kovács, É. 1959. Note sur la flore Éocene de Lábatlan (Transdanubie du Nord). Annales Universitatis Scientiarum Budapestinensis de Rolando Eötvös Nominatae, Sectio Biologica 2, 135-140.

Kovács, É. 1961. Középsö-Eocén flóra Lábatlanrôl [Mitteleozäne Flora aus der Umgebung von Lábatlan]. Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése az 1957-8, 473-495. [in Hungarian]

Kovar-Eder, J., Kvaček, Z. & Ströbitzer-Hermann, M. 2004. The Miocene Flora of Parschlug (Styria, Austria) - revision and synthesis. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien, 105 A, 45-159.

Krassilov, V.A. 1979. Melovaya flora Skhalina [Cretaceous flora of the Skhalin Island]. Nauka, Moscow. [in Russian]

Krutzsch, W. 2004. Neue Untersuchungen über präquartären Malvaceen-Pollen aus den Unterfamilien der Tilioideae, Helicteroideae und Bombacoideae. Palaeontographica Abteilung B 267, 67-160.

Kryshtofovich, A.N.&Borsuk,M. 1939. Contribution to the Miocene flora from western Siberia. Problems of Palaeontology 6, 375-394.

Kvaček, Z. 2002. Late Eocene landscape, ecosystems and climate in northern Bohemia with particular reference to the locality Kučlín near Bílina. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey 77, 217-236.

Kvaček, Z. 2004. Early Miocene records of Craigia (Malvaceae s.l.) in the Most Basin, North Bohemia - whole plant approach. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 49, 161-171.

Kvaček, Z. 2006. Fossil fruits of Reevesia (Malvaceae, subfam. Helicteroideae) and associated plant organs (seeds, foliage) from the Lower Miocene of North Bohemia (Czech Republic). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte 2006, 431-448.

Kvaček, Z. 2008. The role of types in palaeobotanical nomenclature. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 64, 89-96.

Kvaček, Z. 2010. Forest flora and vegetation of the European early Palaeogene - a review. Bulletin of Geosciences 85(1), 3-16.

Kvaček, Z. & Walther, H. 2004. Oligocene flora of Bechlejovice at Děčín from the neovolcanic area of the České Středohoří Mountains, Czech Republic. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 60, 9-60.

Kvaček, Z., Manchester, S.R. & Akhmetiev, M.A. 2005. Review of the fossil history of Craigia (Malvaceae s.l.) in the Northern Hemisphere based on fruits and co-occurring foliage, 114-140. In Akhmetiev, M.A. & Herman, A.B. (eds) Transaction of the international palaeobotanical conference, Moscow, May 17-18, 2005. Modern problems of palaeofloristics, palaeophytogeography and phytostratigraphy. GEOS, Moscow.

Kvaček, Z., Teodoridis, V. & Gregor, H.-J. 2008. The Pliocene leaf flora of Auenheim, Northern Alsace (France). Documenta Naturae 155(10), 1-108.

Laurent, L. 1904-1905. Flore Pliocene des cinérites du Pasde- la-Mougudo et de Saint-Vincent-La Sabie (Cantal). Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Marseille, Geologie 9, 1-313.

Lenz, O.K.,Wilde, V. & Riegel,W. 2007. Recolonization of a Middle Eocene volcanic site: quantitative palynology of the initial phase of the maar lake of Messel (Germany). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 145, 217-242.View article

Mai, D.H. & Walther, H. 1991. Die oberoligozänen und miozänen Floren NW-Sachsens und des Bitterfelder Raumes. Abhandlungen des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden 38, 1-230.

Manchester, S.R. 1987. The fossil history of the Juglandaceae. Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 21, 1-137.

Manchester, S.R. 1989. Systematics and fossil history of the Ulmaceae. Systematic Association Special Volume 40B, 221-251.

Manchester, S.R. 1994. Inflorescence bracts of fossil and extant Tilia in North America, Europe and Asia: patterns of morphologic divergence and biographic history. American Journal of Botany 81, 1176-1185.View article

Manchester, S.R., Collinson, M.E. & Goth, K. 1994. Fruits of the Juglandaceae from the Eocene of Messel, Germany, and implications for Early Tertiary phytogeographic exchange between Europe and western North America. International Journal of Plant Sciences 155, 388-394.View article

Manchester, S.R., Chen Zhiduan & Zhou Zhekun 2006. Wood anatomy of Craigia (Malvales) from southeastern Yunnan, China. IAWA Journal 27(2), 129-136.

Manchester, S.R.,Wilde, V. & Collinson, M.E. 2007. Fossil cashew nuts from the Eocene of Europe: biogeographic links between Africa and South America. International Journal of Plant Sciences 168(8), 1199-1206.View article

Massalongo, A. 1854. Monografia delle Dombeyacee fossili. 25 pp. Verona.

Meyer, W. & Manchester, S.R. 1997. The Oligocene Bridge Creek flora of the John Day Formation, Oregon. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences 141, 1-195.

Mosbrugger, V. & Utescher, T. 1997. The coexistence approach - a method for quantitative reconstructions of Tertiary terrestrial palaeoclimate data using plant fossils. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 134, 61-86.View article

Saporta, G. 1889. Dernieres adjunctions a la flore fossile d’Aix-en-Provence. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique, Série 7, 7, 1-104.

Schaarschmidt, F. 1982. Präparation und Untersuchung der eozänen Pflanzenfossilien von Messel bei Darmstadt. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 56, 59-77.

Schaarschmidt, F. & Wilde, V. 1986. Palmenblüte und -blätter aus dem Eozän con Messel. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 86, 177-202.

Schimper, W.P. 1874. Traité de Paléontologie Végétale. 3. 896 pp. J.B. Bailliere et fils, Paris.

Sturm, M. 1971. Die eozäne Flora von Messel bei Darmstadt. I. Lauraceae. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B 134, 1-60.

Smith, S.Y., Collinson, M.E. & Rudall, P.J. 2008. Fossil Cyclanthus (Cyclanthaceae, Pandanales) from the Eocene of Germany. American Journal of Botany 95, 688-699.View article

Smith, S.Y., Collinson, M.E., Simpson, D.A., Rudall, P.J.,Marone, F. & Stampanoni,M. In press. Elucidating the affinities and habitat of ancient, widespread Cyperaceae: Volkeria messelensis gen. et sp. nov., a fossil mapanioid sedge from the Eocene of Europe. American Journal of Botany.

Soltis, D.E., Soltis, P.S., Endress, P.K. & Chase, M.W. 2005. Phylogeny and evolution of angiosperms. 370 pp. Smithsonian books, Washington.

Takhtajan, A. 1980. Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). Botanical Review 46, 225-359.View article

Takhtajan, A. 1997. Diversity and classification of flowering plants. 643 pp. Columbia University Press, New York.

Tanai, T. 1989. The revision of the so-called “Alangium” leaves from the Paleogene of Hokkaido, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Series C (Geology & Palaeontology) 15(4), 121-149.

Thorne, R.F. 1992. An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants. Aliso 13, 365-389.

Unger, F. 1850a. Genera et species plantarum fossilium. XL and 627 pp. W. Braunmüller, Vindobonae.

Unger, F. 1850b. Die fossile Flora von Sotzka. Separatum. Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 2, 127-197.

Unger, F. 1867. Die fossile Flora von Kumi auf der Insel Euboea. Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 27, 1-66.

Walther, H. & Kvaček, Z. 2007. Early Oligocene Flora of Seifhennersdorf (Saxony). Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B - historia naturalis 63, 85-174.

Wilde, V. 1989. Untersuchungen zur Systematik der Blattreste aus dem Mitteleozän der Grube Messel bei Darmstadt (Hessen, Bundesrepublik Deutschland). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 115, 1-215.

Wilde, V. 2004. Aktuelle Übersicht zur Flora aus dem mitteleozänen “Ölschiefer” der Grube Messel bei Darmstadt (Hessen, Deutschland). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 252, 109-114.

Wilde, V. 2005. The Green Eocene. The diverse flora of a paratropical climate. Vernissage UNESCO World Heritage Series 21(151), 14-19.

Wilde, V. & Frankenhäuser, H. 1999. Comptonia like leaves from the German Middle Eocene. Acta Palaeobotanica Supplementum 2, 447-463.

Wilde, V., Kvaček, Z. & Bogner, J. 2005. Fossil leaves of the Araceae from the Eocene of Europe. International Journal of Plant Sciences 166, 157-183.View article

Wilde, V. & Manchester, S.R. 2003. Cedrelospermum-fruits (Ulmaceae) and related leaves from the Middle Eocene of Messel (Hesse, Germany). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 241, 147-153.

Wilde, V. & Schaarschmidt, F. 1993. High resolution CLSM-studies of in-situ preserved pollen from the Messel oil shale. Scientific and Technical Information 10(6), 209-214.

Wolfe, J. 1977. Paleogene floras from the Gulf of Alaska region. US Geological Survey Professional Papers 997, 1-108.

Worberg, A., Alford, M.H., Quandt, D. & Borsch, T. 2009. Huerteales sister to Brassicales plus Malvales, and newly circumscribed to include Dipentodon, Gerrardina, Huertea, Perrottetia, and Tapiscia. Taxon 58, 468-478.

Worobiec, G. 2003. New fossil flora from the Neogene deposits in the Bełchatów lignite mine. Acta Palaeobotanica Supplement 3, 3-133