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Quaternary phenomena and sediments of the Mongolian Altai: area of districts MunkhKhairkhan, Manchan and Zereg


Pavel Havlíček, Jan Hošek, Pavel Čáp

Geoscience Research Reports 48, 2015 (GRR for 2014), pages 109–114

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Published online: 12 October 2015

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In the frame of the project of Czech International Development Cooperation Geological mapping and mineral prospecting at a scale of 1:50 000 in the selected part of Western Mongolia geological surveying continued last year in the districts of MunkhKhairkhan, Manchan and Zereg. Cenozoic (Quaternary and Neogene) sediments of this part of Mongolian Altai have a supra-regional importance from the viewpoint of paleogeography, stratigraphy and economic geology. In this respect fluvial sediments are the most significant. Relics of terraces have been found in the relative heights of 0(+5) m (Upper Pleistocene), +9 to +15 m, +18 to +20 m, +30 m, +40 to +50 m (Middle Pleistocene), 70 m and 100–150 m (Lower Pleistocene). Alluvial fans appear to have been deposited during two or three major stages, with significant erosion levels between them. Horizons of fluvial accumulation can also be observed in these sediments. Intermontane basins are filled with weathered crystalline rocks (“gruss”) and with loamy calcareous silt. Glacigenic sediments and glacial geomorphology (glacial valleys, moraines, drumlins, kettle lakes etc.) are typical of areas above 3 600 m a. s. l. Periglacial features such as palsas, polygonal soils, ice-wedges and others were found to be also abundant in the area studied. In the surroundings of springs some thick sequences of minero-organic sediments were identified. Red-brown Neogene (probably Miocene) calcareous sandy silts are rich in osteological remains. Due to high winds up to 2 m high aeolian sand dunes accumulated on the surface of Holocene floodplain and in intermontane basins.


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